Hebrews 11:23
By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment.
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(23) Because they saw he was a proper child.—“Proper” has its now obsolete sense of handsome, comely, a meaning not uncommon in Shakespeare. The word used in the Greek translation of Exodus 2:2 is preserved both in Acts 7:20 (see the Note) and in this place. It would seem that the remarkable beauty of the infant was understood by his parents as a divine sign given for the guidance of their conduct. The next clause should probably be closely connected with this—“because they saw . . . and were not afraid of the king’s commandment” (Exodus 1:16). Their reliance on the protection of God enabled them to brave the anger of the king.

Hebrews 11:23. By faith Moses — As if he had said, The parents of Moses believing, when he was a child, that God would make use of him at a future period, for some extraordinary service to his people; hid him three months — In their own house, to preserve him from falling a sacrifice to the cruelty of Pharaoh. It appears by this, that both his parents were engaged in the work of concealing him, although his mother only is mentioned, Exodus 2:2; because they saw he was a proper child — Greek, ειδον αστειον το παιδιον, they saw the child beautiful; and doubtless through a divine presage of things to come, and not merely from his beauty, believed that God had designed him for some singular usefulness. And they were not afraid of the king’s commandment — Requiring all Israelitish parents, on pain of death, to give up their male children that they might be thrown into the river. Of Moses’s beauty, see note on Acts 7:20.

11:20-31 Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, concerning things to come. Things present are not the best things; no man knoweth love or hatred by having them or wanting them. Jacob lived by faith, and he died by faith, and in faith. Though the grace of faith is of use always through our whole lives, it is especially so when we come to die. Faith has a great work to do at last, to help the believer to die to the Lord, so as to honour him, by patience, hope, and joy. Joseph was tried by temptations to sin, by persecution for keeping his integrity; and he was tried by honours and power in the court of Pharaoh, yet his faith carried him through. It is a great mercy to be free from wicked laws and edicts; but when we are not so, we must use all lawful means for our security. In this faith of Moses' parents there was a mixture of unbelief, but God was pleased to overlook it. Faith gives strength against the sinful, slavish fear of men; it sets God before the soul, shows the vanity of the creature, and that all must give way to the will and power of God. The pleasures of sin are, and will be, but short; they must end either in speedy repentance or in speedy ruin. The pleasures of this world are for the most part the pleasures of sin; they are always so when we cannot enjoy them without deserting God and his people. Suffering is to be chosen rather than sin; there being more evil in the least sin, than there can be in the greatest suffering. God's people are, and always have been, a reproached people. Christ accounts himself reproached in their reproaches; and thus they become greater riches than the treasures of the richest empire in the world. Moses made his choice when ripe for judgment and enjoyment, able to know what he did, and why he did it. It is needful for persons to be seriously religious; to despise the world, when most capable of relishing and enjoying it. Believers may and ought to have respect to the recompence of reward. By faith we may be fully sure of God's providence, and of his gracious and powerful presence with us. Such a sight of God will enable believers to keep on to the end, whatever they may meet in the way. It is not owing to our own righteousness, or best performances, that we are saved from the wrath of God; but to the blood of Christ, and his imputed righteousness. True faith makes sin bitter to the soul, even while it receives the pardon and atonement. All our spiritual privileges on earth, should quicken us in our way to heaven. The Lord will make even Babylon fall before the faith of his people, and when he has some great thing to do for them, he raises up great and strong faith in them. A true believer is desirous, not only to be in covenant with God, but in communion with the people of God; and is willing to fare as they fare. By her works Rahab declared herself to be just. That she was not justified by her works appears plainly; because the work she did was faulty in the manner, and not perfectly good, therefore it could not be answerable to the perfect justice or righteousness of God.By faith Moses, when he was born - That is, by the faith of his parents. The faith of Moses himself is commended in the following verses. The statement of the apostle here is, that his parents were led to preserve his life by their confidence in God. They believed that he was destined to some great purpose, and that he would be spared, notwithstanding all the probabilities against it, and all the difficulties in the case.

Was hid three months of his parents - By his parents. In Exodus 2:2, it is said that it was done "by his mother." The truth doubtless was, that the mother was the agent in doing it - since the concealment, probably, could be better effected by one than where two were employed - but that the father also concurred in it is morally certain. The concealment was, at first, probably in their own house. The command seems to have been Exodus 1:22, that the child should be cast into the river as soon as born. This child was concealed in the hope that some way might be found out by which his life might be spared.

Because they saw he was a proper child - A fair, or beautiful child - ἀστεῖον asteion. The word properly means "pertaining to a city" - (from ἄστυ astu, a city); then urbane, polished, elegant; then fair, beautiful. In Acts 7:20, it is said that he was "fair to God," (Margin,); that is, exceedingly fair, or very handsome. His extraordinary beauty seems to have been the reason which particularly influenced his parents to attempt to preserve him. It is not impossible that they supposed that his uncommon beauty indicated that he was destined to some important service in life, and that they were on that account the more anxious to save him.

And they were not afraid of the king's commandment - Requiring that all male children should be given up to be thrown into the Nile. That is, they were not so alarmed, or did not so dread the king, as to be induced to comply with the command. The strength of the faith of the parents of Moses, appears:

(1) because the command of Pharaoh to destroy all the male children was positive, but they had so much confidence in God as to disregard it.

(2) because there was a strong improbability that their child could be saved. They themselves found it impossible to conceal him longer than three months, and when it was discovered, there was every probability that the law would be enforced and that the child would be put to death. Perhaps there was reason also to apprehend that the parents would be punished for disregarding the authority of the king.

(3) because they probably believed that their child was destined to some important work. They thus committed him to God instead of complying with the command of an earthly monarch, and against strong probabilities in the ease, they believed that it was possible that in some way he might be preserved alive. The remarkable result showed that their faith was not unfounded.

23. parents—So the Septuagint has the plural, namely, Amram and Jochebed (Nu 26:59); but in Ex 2:2, the mother alone is mentioned; but doubtless Amram sanctioned all she did, and secrecy. being their object, he did not appear prominent in what was done.

a proper child—Greek, "a comely child." Ac 7:20, "exceeding fair," Greek, "fair to God." The "faith" of his parents in saving the child must have had some divine revelation to rest on (probably at the time of his birth), which marked their "exceeding fair" babe as one whom God designed to do a great work by. His beauty was probably "the sign" appointed by God to assure their faith.

the king's commandment—to slay all the males (Ex 1:22).

By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents: the parents of Moses were as eminent in this faith as their progenitors; for by it Amram and Jochebed, both of them of the tribe of Levi, Exodus 6:20, (paterwn) here put by a metaphrase for goneiv, and though in the history ascribed to the mother only, yet it was by the father’s direction, as Exodus 2:2; compare Acts 7:20), hid Moses, born under the bloody edict of a tyrant for drowning all the Hebrew males in the Nile. He was born three years after Aaron, and sixty-five after Joseph’s death. They kept him three months from the destroyers, and they adventured the penalties threatened by the edict, Exodus 2:2,3; faith overcoming their fears and difficulties about it, and, in all probabililly, ordered their fitting the ark, and disposal of it for his preservation, with the other acts attending it.

Because they saw he was a proper child: the reason of faith’s work was their seeing of him to be asteion, fair, beautiful, proper; and this not in himself only, but, as Stephen interprets it, asteion tw yew, fair to God, Acts 7:20. Some glorious aspect was by God put upon him as a signal of some great person, and of great use in God’s design to his church; some extraordinary stamp of God on his countenance, which faith could discern there, and so influence them to conceal and preserve him.

And they were not afraid of the king’s commandment; faith made them fearless; for they were not afraid that the king’s edict should frustrate God’s purpose concerning the child, or keep him from its service to the church, wherein God would employ him, and of which he had given them a signal in that lustre cast on his person; and therefore they used means to preserve him, even when they exposed him, and which had a suitable success, Exodus 2:3-10.

By faith Moses, when he was born,.... Which is to be understood, not of the faith of Moses, but of the faith of his parents, at the time of his birth; which was when Pharaoh had published an edict, ordering every male child to be cast into the river; but instead of obeying this order, Moses was hid three months of his parents; that is, in his father's house, as it is said in Acts 7:20 and is here expressed in the Ethiopic version. According to the Targumist (k), his mother went with him but six months, at the end of which he was born, and that she hid him three months, which made up the nine, the time in which a woman usually goes with child; and after that she could conceal him no longer: the hiding of him is here ascribed to both his parents, though in Exodus 2:2 it is represented as the act of his mother; which, no doubt, was done, with the knowledge, advice, and consent of his father; and the Septuagint there renders it, "they hid him"; though the order of the history makes it necessary that it should be read in the singular. Parents ought to take care of their children; and persons may lawfully hide themselves, or others, from the cruelty of tyrants, and that as long as they can, for their safety; and this was so far from being wrong in the parents of Moses, that it is commended, as an instance of faith: they believed the promise in general, that God would deliver the people of Israel; they believed this to be about the time of their deliverance, and had some intimation, that this child in particular would be the deliverer, because they saw he was a proper child; not only of a goodly and beautiful countenance, but that he was peculiarly grateful and acceptable to God; they perceived something remarkable in him, which to them was a token that he would be the deliverer of God's people, and therefore they hid him; See Gill on Acts 7:20.

And they were not afraid of the king's commandment; nor did they observe it, for it was contrary to nature, and to the laws of God, and to the promise of God's multiplying of that people, and to their hopes of deliverance: there is a great deal of courage and boldness in faith; and though faith may be weakened, it cannot be lost; and a weak faith is taken notice of, as here; for though they feared not at first, they seem to be afraid afterwards; but when God designs to work deliverance, nothing shall prevent.

(k) Jonathan ben Uzziel in Exod. ii. 2.

{11} By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not {o} afraid of the king's commandment.

(11) Moses.

Hebrews 11:23 he points to the faith manifested by the relatives of Moses at the time of his birth. Comp. Exodus 2:2. The special beauty of the new-born child awakened in them the belief[110] that God had chosen him for great things and would be able to preserve his life, and in this belief they hid the child in opposition to the commandment of the Egyptian king.

ὙΠῸ ΤῶΝ ΠΑΤΈΡΩΝ] i.e. by his parents. For this elsewhere unusual employment of πατέρες, Wetstein aptly directs the reader to Parthenius, Erot. 10 : Κυάνιππος εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν Λευκώνης ἐλθών, παρὰ τῶν πατέρων αἰτησάμενος αὐτὴν ἠγάγετο γυναῖκα, as well as to the Latin patres, Stat. Theb. vi. 464: Incertique patrum thalami. Bengel understands πατέρες of the still living ancestors of Moses (“a patribus, id est a patre [Amram] et ab avo … paterno, qui erat Kahath”), and he is followed by Chr. Fr. Schmid, Böhme (yet with wavering), and others; while Stein, who expressly rejects both explanations, wonderfully supposes “the mother,” together with “a few concurring friends, who as it were took the place of parents,” to be intended. In the Hebrew, Exodus 2:2, the ΚΡΎΠΤΕΙΝ is predicated only of the mother; the LXX., however, with whom the author agrees, have: ἸΔΌΝΤΕς ΔῈ ΑὐΤῸ ἈΣΤΕῖΟΝ, ἘΣΚΈΠΑΣΑΝ ΑὐΤῸ ΜῆΝΑς ΤΡΕῖς

] fair and graceful in form. Theophylact: ὡραῖον, τῇ ὄψει χαρίεν. In the Hebrew stands טוֹב.

ΚΑῚ ΟὐΚ ἘΦΟΒΉΘΗΣΑΝ ΤῸ ΔΙΆΤΑΓΜΑ ΤΟῦ ΒΑΣΙΛΈΩς] might, on account of the plural ΟὐΚ ἘΦΟΒΉΘΗΣΑΝ, be considered, together with ΕἾΔΟΝ, in opposition to the passive ἙΚΡΎΒΗ, as still dependent upon ΔΙΌΤΙ. But more logically exact is the taking of the words, as also is mostly done, as a parallel to ἘΚΡΎΒΗ). For much more natural does it appear that the author wished to represent that ΚΡΎΠΤΕΙΝ as an act from the accomplishment of which fear did not deter, than that he should think of fearlessness as the motive cause of that action.

ΤῸ ΔΙΆΤΑΓΜΑ ΤΟῦ ΒΑΣΙΛΈΩς] the command of Pharaoh, to drown all new-born male children of the Israelites. Comp. Exodus 1:22.

[110] Kurtz is in a position to add further particulars on this point, inasmuch as he supposes the “presupposition” is to be derived from the state of things narrated, “that a special divine admonition spoke to the parents out of the eyes of the child.”

Hebrews 11:23-29 the author passes over from the patriarchs to Moses, dwelling upon a series of facts in the history of the latter which bear a typical character. First—

Hebrews 11:23-31. The writer passes from the patriarchal age to the times of Moses and the Judges.

First the faith of the parents of Moses (τῶν πατέρων αὐτοῦ, in Stephanus’ Thesaur, several examples are given of the use of πατέρες for “father and mother,” parents; and consider Ephesians 6:4 and Colossians 3:21) is celebrated. This faith was shown in their concealing Moses for three months after his birth and thus evading the law that male children were to be killed, called in Wis 11:7 νηπιοκτόνον διάταγμα. They did not fear this commandment of the king. It did not weigh against the child’s beauty which betokened that he was destined for something great. Their faith consisted in their confidence that God had in store for so handsome a child an exceptional career and would save him to fulfil his destiny. In Acts 7:20 Stephen calls him ἀστεῖος τῷ f1θεῷ, extraordinarily beautiful (cf. Jonah 3:3) or as Philo, De Mos., p. 82, ὄψιν ἀστειοτέραν ἢ κατʼ ἰδιώτην, indicating that he had a corresponding destiny. Moses himself when he had grown up (μέγας γενόμενος, as in Exodus 2:11 paraphrased by Stephen (Acts 7:23) ὡς δὲ ἐπληροῦτο αὐτῷ τεσσαρακονταετὴς χρόνος.) refused to be called a son of a daughter of Pharaoh. The significance and source of this refusal lay in his preferring to suffer ill-usage with God’s people rather than to have a short-lived enjoyment of sin. συνκακ., the simple verb in Hebrews 11:37, also Hebrews 13:3; the compound here only. τῷ λαῷ τοῦ θεοῦ, it was because they were God’s people, not solely because they were of his blood, that Moses threw in his lot with them. It was this which illustrated his faith. He believed that God would fulfil His promise to His people, little likelihood as at present there seemed to be of any great future for his race. On the other hand there was the ἁμαρτίας ἀπόλαυσις, the enjoyment which was within his reach if only he committed the sin of denying his people and renouncing their future as promised by God. For “the enjoyment to be reaped from sin” does not refer to the pleasure of gratifying sensual appetite and so forth, but to the satisfaction of a high ambition and the gratification of his finer tastes which he might have had by remaining in the Egyptian court. Very similarly Philo interprets the action of Moses, who, he says, “esteemed the good things of those who had adopted him, although more splendid for a season, to be in reality spurious, but those of his natural parents, although for a little while less conspicuous, to be true and genuine” (De Mose, p. 86). That which influenced Moses to make this choice was his estimate of the comparative value of the outcome of suffering with God’s people and of the happiness offered in Egypt. μείζονα πλοῦτονεἰς τὴν μισθαποδοσίαν, “since he considered the reproach of the Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt; for he steadily kept in view the reward”. The reproach or obloquy and disgrace, which Moses experienced is called “the reproach of the Christ” because it was on account of his belief in God’s saving purpose that he suffered. The expression is interpreted by our Lord’s statement that Abraham saw his day. It does not imply that Moses believed that a personal Christ was to come, but only that God would fulfil that promise which in point of fact was fulfilled in the coming of Christ. The writer uses the expression rather with a view to his readers who were shrinking from the reproach of Christ (Hebrews 13:13), than from the point of view of Moses. Several interpreters (Delitzsch, etc.) suppose that in virtue of the mystical union Christ suffered in his people. But, as Davidson says, “this mystical union cannot be shown to be an idea belonging to the Epistle, nor is this sense pertinent to the connection.” (So Weiss, “die vorstellung liegt unserem Briefe fern”.) Weiss’ own interpretation is ingenious: “The O.T. church was created by the pre-existent Messiah to be the people who were destined to introduce through Him perfect salvation; therefore each maltreatment of this people was contempt of Him as unable to avenge and deliver His people”. To say that it means merely “the same reproach that Christ bore” scarcely satisfies the expression. The “treasures of Egypt” must be supposed to include all that had been accumulated during centuries of civilisation. ἀπέβλεπεν, he habitually kept in view the reward. Cf. Xen., Hist., vi. 1, 8 ἡ σὴ πατρὶς εἰς σὲ ἀποβλέπει, also Psalm 11:4, Philo, De Opif., p. 4. κατέλιπεν Αἴγυπτον, “he forsook Egypt,” and fled to Midian. That this flight and not the Exodus is meant appears from the connection of the clause both with what precedes and with what follows. It exhibits the result of his choice (Hebrews 11:26), and it alludes to what preceded the Passover (Hebrews 11:28). The word ἐκαρτέρησεν, denoting long continued endurance also suits better this reference. The only difficulty in the way of accepting this interpretation is found in the words μὴ φοβηθεὶς τὸν θυμὸν τοῦ βασιλέως, because, according to Exodus 2:15, the motive of his flight was fear of the king. ἐφοβήθη δὲ Μωυσῆς. But what is in the writer’s mind is not Pharaoh’s wrath as cause but as consequence of Moses’ abandonment of Egypt. His flight showed that he had finally renounced life at court, and in thus indicating by this decisive action that he was an Israelite, and meant to share with his people, he braved the king’s wrath. This he was strengthened to do because he saw an invisible monarch greater than Pharaoh. Vaughan seems the only interpreter who has precisely hit the writer’s meaning: “the two fears are different, the one is the fear arising from the discovery of his slaying the Egyptian, the other is the fear of Pharaoh’s anger on discovering his flight. He feared and therefore fled: he feared not, and therefore fled.” Having fled and so cutting himself off from all immediate opportunity of helping his people, ἐκαρτέρησεν, “he steadfastly bided his time,” because he saw the Invisible, being thus an eminent illustration of faith as ἔλεγχος οὐ βλεπομένων. The aorist gathers the forty years in Midian into one exhibition of wonderful perseverance in faith. It was the upper form of the school which disciplined Moses and wrought him to the mould of a hero. Another point in his career at which faith manifested itself was the Exodus, πεποίηκεν τὸ πάσχα, “he hath celebrated the Passover”. Alford says the perfect is used on account of the Passover being “a still enduring Feast”. But it is Moses’ celebration of it that the perfect represents as enduring. The classical treatment of the question, Has ποιεῖν a sacrificial meaning in the N.T.? will be found in Prof. T. K. Abbott’s Essays. ποιεῖν is regularly used of “keeping” a feast; and this is a classical usage as well. Cf. Exodus 12:48; Exodus 23:16; Exodus 34:22; 2 Chronicles 35:17-19. τὸ πάσχα originally the paschal lamb, Exodus 12:21, καὶ θύσατε τὸ πάσχα, Mark 14:12 τὸ πάσχα ἔθυον, hence the feast of Passover as in Luke 22:1. It is written φασέκ throughout 2 Chronicles 30, 35, also in Jeremiah 38:8. καὶ τὴν πρόσχυσιν τοῦ αἵματος, “and the affusion of the blood” the sprinkling of the blood on the door posts as commanded in Exodus 12:7; Exodus 12:22, the object being that the destroyers of the first-borns might not touch them. As θιγγάνω is followed by a genitive in Hebrews 12:20 it is probable that the writer here also meant it to govern αὐτῶν while πρωτότοκα follows ὀλοθρεύων. So R.V. ὁ ὀλοθρεύων is taken from Exodus 12:23. πρωτότοκα, first-borns of man and also of beasts, Exodus 12:12. αὐτῶν is naturally referred to “the people of God,” Hebrews 11:25. It was a noteworthy faith which enabled Moses confidently to promise the people protection from the general destruction. On their part also there was the manifestation of a strong faith. διέβησαν τὴν ἐρυθρὰν θάλασσαν … “they passed through the Red sea as if on dry land”. The nominative must be taken out of αὐτῶν. διέβησαν, the usual term for crossing a river or a space. The Red sea is in Hebrew “the Sea of [red] weeds”. διὰ ξηρᾶς γῆς as in Exodus 14:29 ἐπορεύθησαν διὰ ξηρᾶς ἐν μέσῳ τῆς θαλάσσης, also Exodus 15:19; and cf. the various impressions in the Psalms which celebrate the great deliverance. The greatness of the people’s faith is accentuated by the fate of the Egyptians, whose attempt to follow was audacity and presumption not faith. ἧς πεῖραν λαβόντες … “of which [i.e., of the sea] making trial the Egyptians were swallowed up,” Exodus 15:4 κατεπόθησαν ἐν ἐρυθρᾷ θαλάσσῃ. Another instance of the faith of the people and its effects is found in the fall of the walls of Jericho. The greatness of the faith may be measured by the difficulty we now have in believing that the walls fell without the application of any visible force. God’s promise was, πεσεῖται αὐτόματα τὰ τείχη, and believing this promise the people compassed the city seven days. The greatness of their faith was further exhibited in their continuing to compass the city day after day, for in the promise (Joshua 6:1-5) no mention is made of any delay in its fulfilment and the natural inference would be that the walls would fall on the first day. That none should have felt foolish marching day after day round the solid walls is beyond nature, κυκλωθέντα, see Joshua 6:6; Joshua 6:14 and for ἐπὶ ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας, Joshua 6:14. “When applied to time, ἐπί denotes the period over which something extends, as Luke 4:25, ἐπὶ ἔτη τρία, during three years” (Winer, p. 508). The fall of Jericho and the extermination of its inhabitants suggest the escape of Rahab. ἡ πόρνη, in its strict meaning (“ista meretrix” (Origen), “fornicaria” (Irenaeus), is introduced to emphasise the power of faith; she did not perish along with the disobedient (Hebrews 3:18); ἀπειθήσασιν, they knew that the Lord had given the land to Israel (Joshua 2:9-10) but did not submit themselves to the acknowledged purpose of Jehovah. Rahab acted upon her belief in this purpose and instead of delivering up the spies as enemies of her country “received them with peace,” that is, as friends, risking her life because of her faith.

23. Moses … was hid] The “faith” is of course that of his parents, Amram and Jochebed.

of his parents] This is implied in the LXX. of Exodus 2:2, but the Hebrew only says that his mother concealed him.

a proper child] In Acts 7:20 he is called “fair to God.” In his marvellous beauty (see Philo, Vit. Mos.) they saw a promise of some future blessing, and braved the peril involved in breaking the king’s decree.

the king’s commandment] To drown all male children (Exodus 1:22; Exodus 2:2).

Hebrews 11:23. Πίστει, by faith) It is not the faith of Moses that is referred to in this verse, but that of his parents; as in Hebrews 11:30 it is not the faith of the citizens of Jericho, but that of the Israelites.—πατέρων, of his fathers) In Exodus 2:2, the LXX. relate the fact as follows: and seeing that he was a goodly (ἀστεῖον) child, they [not she, as in the Hebrew] hid him three months; and when they could no longer hide him, the mother took to him an ark or wicker-basket. In the Hebrew, the whole is ascribed to the mother; by the apostle, to the fathers. By the term, fathers, the Syrians understand father and mother; but we can scarcely prove that this was the case among the Hebrews and Greeks. Chrys. on this passage remarks, ἄρχεται ἀπὸ τῶν γονέων τοῦ Μωϋσέως, ἀσήμων τινῶν ΑΝΔΡΩΝ: he begins with the parents (γονεῖς) of Moses, some undistinguished MEN. Hesychius explains πατέρες as πλούσιοι ἢ πρόγονοι, wealthy [men of note], or ancestors. So πατέρες, Hebrews 1:1, Hebrews 3:9, Hebrews 8:9; Ephesians 6:4, note. The LXX. never use γονεῖς for אבות, nor will it be found in the New Testament that πατέρας can be appropriately substituted for the word γονεῖς, which so often occurs. Moses was concealed by his fathers, that is, by his father (Amram) and by his grandfather, not the maternal grandfather, who was Levi himself, but by the paternal grandfather, who was (Kohath) Kahath. Therefore Kahath (Kohath) was alive when Moses was born. We find great advantage in the right explanation of this passage with respect to sacred chronology. See Ord. Temp., p. 68 [Ed. ii. p. 58].—εἶδον, they saw) with a kind of presage of great events.—ἀστεῖον, beautiful) Acts 7:20, note.—οὐκ ἐφοβήθησαν, they were not afraid) The mental feeling is put for the effect, Hebrews 11:27, note.

Verse 23. - By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw that he was a proper (ἀστεῖον, the word used of the child in Exodus 2:2, there translated "goodly," and in Acts 7:20, "fair") child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment. Here the usual following of the LXX. again appears in the hiding being attributed to both parents (this is certainly the meaning of πατέρων, not - as some interpret because of the masculine form - father and grandfather). In the Hebrew it is the mother only that is spoken of as hiding him; whereas in the LXX. the verbs are in the plural, ἰδόντες δὲ, etc., though with no expressed nominative. It is not necessary to understand a special faith in the fulfillment of the promises through the child thus hidden to be implied, though it may be so intended. But the mere fearlessness in obeying the dictates of heart and conscience in the face of danger, and the mere reliance on Providence, thus displayed, expressed faith. Hebrews 11:23Of his parents (ὑπὸ τῶν πατέρων αὐτοῦ)

Lit. by his fathers. Comp. Exodus 2:2. Πατέρες fathers, according to a late Greek usage, is employed like γονεῖς parents. Similarly the Lat. patres and soceri, including both parents, or father and mother in law.

Proper (ἀστεῖον)

Only here and Acts 7:20, on which see note. Rend. "comely."

Commandment (διάταγμα)

N.T.o. Rend. "mandate."

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