Ephesians 2:19
Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
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(2 c.) Ephesians 2:19-22 sum up the two-fold idea of this chapter—union of the Gentiles, with God and with God’s chosen people—in the metaphor of the One Temple, of which Jesus Christ is the chief cornerstone, and which, both collectively and in the individuality of each part, grows into a habitation of God.

(19) Strangers and foreigners.—Here the word rendered “stranger” means properly an alien, or foreigner; while the word translated “foreigners” signifies the resident aliens of an ancient city, who were but half-aliens, having free intercourse with the citizens, although no rights of citizenship. The latter word is used literally in Acts 7:6; Acts 7:29 (there rendered “sojourner”), and often in the LXX. version; perhaps metaphorically in 1Peter 2:11. Such a sojourner, though in some sense less an absolute alien than the mere “stranger,” was one on whom by daily contrast the sense of being an alien, excluded from power and privilege, was more forcibly impressed.

Fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God.—In sense this double expression preserves the double idea running through the whole chapter. The phrase “fellowcitizens of the saints” is applied to the Gentiles, as now united with the Israel of God in one “commonwealth.” (See above, Ephesians 2:12.) “Members of the household of God” refers rather to the union with God, restored by the blood of Jesus Christ. (See Ephesians 2:13.) As to the metaphor, the word “stranger”—that is, alien—seems to be opposed to “fellowcitizen”; the word “foreigner”—that is, half-alien—to members of the household: for the resident aliens stood opposed to the “houses,” the families or clans, of the citizens—the unit in ancient law being always the family, and not the individual. The Gentiles were now brought into a “household,” and that household the household of God Himself.

Ephesians 2:19-22. Now, therefore — Being thus reconciled; ye — Believing Gentiles; are no more strangers and foreigners — If it be necessary to make any distinction as to the signification of these two words, in the former, (ζενοι,) the apostle may refer to persons of a different country; and in the latter, (παροικοι,) to those of a different family. The following clause evidently leads to this sense. But fellow-citizens with the saints — The Church of God is here spoken of under the emblem of a city, as it is also Isaiah 26:1-2; Isaiah 60:1, &c.; Isaiah 62:12; Php 3:20, (where the original expression signifies, our citizenship in heaven,) as also Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 21:10-27, and in many other places of the Old and New Testaments. Of this city, the believers at Ephesus are here represented as genuine citizens, entitled to all the glorious immunities and privileges of it; and of the household of God — Members of his family, his servants, yea, his sons and daughters. As if he had said, God not only stands related to you as a king to his people, or the chief magistrate of a city to the citizens; but as a father to his children, who are under his peculiar protection and care, have the nearest access to him, and most intimate communion with him. “Perhaps,” says Doddridge, “this latter clause, οικειοι του Θεου, domestics of God, may have some relation to that peculiar nearness to God in which the Jewish priests were, and refer to that great intimacy of unrestrained converse with God, to which we, as Christians, are admitted; in which respect our privileges seem to resemble, not only those of the people praying in the common court of Israel, but those of the priests, worshipping in the house itself. Nay, it is elsewhere added, by a figure, which seems beautifully to rise even on this, that we have confidence to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus.” And are built — Here the apostle alludes to a building, particularly to the temple at Jerusalem, to which he compares God’s visible church, as is evident from the subsequent verse; and he represents the believers at Ephesus as constituent parts of this building; upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets — the fundamental doctrines declared by them, on which the faith and hope of all true believers are built. God laid the foundation of his church by them. Thus the city of the living God, the new Jerusalem, which is the church of God, in its most perfect state in the world to come, is said (Revelation 21:14) to be built on the foundation of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. The Jewish prophets are also said, not improperly, to be the foundation of God’s church, because they bore testimony, though some of them in an obscure manner, to most of the doctrines of the gospel. Perhaps, however, as the prophets are here mentioned after the apostles, the Christian prophets may be meant; to whom, by a peculiar inspiration, the true meaning of the writings of Moses and the prophets was made known. Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone — Namely, of the foundation, holding the several parts of the building together, and supporting the chief weight of the edifice. It is true, this stone may be considered as placed either at the top or at the bottom of the building; but the latter seems here to be meant; because, in the following verse, the building is said to be fifty joined together by this stone, and to grow into a holy temple for the Lord. Elsewhere, Christ is termed the foundation itself, 1 Corinthians 3:11, where see the note. The Lord Jesus, however, is also the head of the corner — The top corner-stone; for so he terms himself Matthew 21:42. In — Or on; whom all the building — The whole fabric of the universal church, with all its members, and the doctrines which they believe, the precepts which they obey, and the promises which they embrace, and in which they confide; yea, with all the blessings enjoyed in time, and expected in eternity; fitly framed together — Harmoniously joined in its several parts, and compacted so as to add beauty, strength, and unity to the whole; groweth — Riseth up like a large pile of living materials, namely, by the continual accession of new converts, and the advancing graces of those already converted; unto a holy temple in the Lord — Fitly dedicated to the Lord Christ, as being raised and supported by him; a temple in which God displays his presence, yea, dwells, and is worshipped in spirit and in truth. What is the temple of Diana of the Ephesians, whom ye formerly worshipped, compared to this? See note on 1 Peter 2:4-5. In whom ye also — At Ephesus, believing in Christ, and placing your confidence in him as the foundation and high- priest of this temple; are builded together — With other believers, whether Jews or Gentiles; for a habitation of God — That God may dwell among you, as a holy and harmonious society, and in you as individuals, your bodies and souls being also his temples, (1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Corinthians 6:16,) through the Spirit — Of truth and grace, of power, purity, and consolation; of holiness and happiness, which God hath promised to all that believe in his Son, John 7:38-39; Acts 2:39.

2:19-22 The church is compared to a city, and every converted sinner is free of it. It is also compared to a house, and every converted sinner is one of the family; a servant, and a child in God's house. The church is also compared to a building, founded on the doctrine of Christ; delivered by the prophets of the Old Testament, and the apostles of the New. God dwells in all believers now; they become the temple of God through the working of the blessed Spirit. Let us then ask if our hopes are fixed on Christ, according to the doctrine of his word? Have we devoted ourselves as holy temples to God through him? Are we habitations of God by the Spirit, are we spiritually-minded, and do we bring forth the fruits of the Spirit? Let us take heed not to grieve the holy Comforter. Let us desire his gracious presence, and his influences upon our hearts. Let us seek to discharge the duties allotted to us, to the glory of God.Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners - You are reckoned with the people of God. You are entitled to their privileges, and are not to be regarded as outcasts and aliens. The meaning is, that they belonged to the same community - the same family - as the people of God. The word rendered "strangers" - ξένοι xenoi - means "foreigners in state," as opposed to citizens. The word rendered "foreigners" - πάροικοι paroikoi - means "guests in a private family," as opposed to the members of the family. "Rosenmuller." Strangers and such as proposed to reside for a short time in Athens, were permitted to reside in the city, and to pursue their business undisturbed, but they could perform no public duty; they had no voice in the public deliberations, and they had no part in the management of the state. They could only look on as spectators, without mingling in the scenes of state, or interfering in any way in the affairs of the government.

They were bound humbly to submit to all the enactments of the citizens, and observe all the laws and usages of the republic. It was not even allowed them to transact any business in their own name, but they were bound to choose from among the citizens one to whose care they committed themselves as a patron, and whose duty it was to guard them against all injustice and wrong Potter's Greek Ant. i. 55. Proselytes, who united themselves to the Jews, were also called in the Jewish writings, "strangers." All foreigners were regarded as "strangers," and Jews only were supposed to have near access to God. But now, says the apostle, this distinction is taken away, and the believing pagan, as well as the Jew, has the right of citizenship in the New Jerusalem, and one, as well as another, is a member of the family of God. "Burder," Ros. Alt. u. neu. Morgertland, in loc. The meaning here is, that they had not come to sojourn merely as guests or foreigners, but were a part of the family itself, and entitled to all the privileges and hopes which others had.

But fellow-citizens with the saints - Belonging to the same community with the people of God.

And of the household of God - Of the same family. Entitled to the same privileges, and regarded by him as his children; see Ephesians 3:15.

19. Now, therefore—rather, "So then" [Alford].

foreigners—rather, "sojourners"; opposed to "members of the household," as "strangers" is to "fellow citizens." Php 3:19, 20, "conversation," Greek, "citizenship."

but—The oldest manuscripts add, "are."

with the saints—"the commonwealth of (spiritual) Israel" (Eph 2:12).

of God—THE Father; as Jesus Christ appears in Eph 2:20, and THE Spirit in Eph 2:22.

Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners; such are they that may dwell in a city, but are not free of it. He means the same as Ephesians 3:12, they were not now aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, &c. But fellow citizens with the saints; members of the same spiritual society or corporation with other saints, patriarchs, prophets, &c. The church of God is compared to a city, of which every saint is a member or free-man, Philippians 3:20.

And of the household of God: the church is here compared to a house, as 1 Timothy 3:15. They are said to be of the household that belong to it, but especially the children. Among men, servants are counted domestics; but with God, none but his children.

Now therefore ye are no more strangers..... Alluding to the name "a stranger", by which the Jews called the Gentiles; meaning that they were not now strangers to God, to the grace of God, the love of God, and communion with him, nor to the throne of his grace; nor to Christ, to his person, his work and office, to his righteousness, to his voice, and to believing in him; nor to the Holy Spirit, as an enlightener, a comforter, the spirit of adoption, and as a seal and earnest of future glory; nor to their own hearts, the corruption and deceitfulness of them; nor to the devices of Satan; nor to the covenant of grace, its blessings and promises:

and foreigners: in the commonwealth of Israel, in the church of God;

but fellow citizens with the saints: the city they belong to is either the church below, which is the city of God, of his building, and where he dwells, of which Christ is the foundation, which is strongly fortified with the walls and bulwarks of salvation, is delightfully situated by the river of divine love, and is endowed with various privileges; or heaven above, which is a city of God's preparing and building also, and where he has his residence, and which is the habitation of angels and saints; of this city in either sense saints are citizens; such who are saints by separation, who are set apart by the Father's grace, and by imputation, or through Christ's being made sanctification to them, and by the regenerating grace of the blessed Spirit; and these, as they have a right to a name and a place in the church on earth, have also their citizenship in heaven; and which they have not by birth, nor by purchase, but by the free grace of God, which gives them both a right and a meetness; and believing Gentiles are upon equal foot of grace and privilege with believing Jews:

and of the household of God: and which is sometimes called the household of faith, the church of God consisting of believers, the family in heaven and in earth named of Christ; in which family or household God is the Father, Christ is the firstborn, ministers are stewards; and here are saints of various growth and size, some fathers, some young men, some children: and to this family all believers belong, whether Gentiles or Jews; and which they come into, not by birth, nor by merit, but by adopting grace; and happy are they that belong to this city and house! they are freed from all servitude and bondage; they can never be arrested, or come into condemnation; they have liberty of access to God, and share in the fulness of grace in Christ; they are well taken care of; they are richly clothed, and have plenty of provisions; and will never be turned out, and are heirs of a never fading inheritance.

{14} Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;

(14) The conclusion: the Gentiles are taken into the fellowship of salvation, and he describes the excellency of the Church, calling it the city and house of God.

Ephesians 2:19. Ἄρα οὖν] draws the inference from Ephesians 2:14-18; and this inference is the same in its tenor with what was said at Ephesians 2:13, but is carried out in more detail; for this is just what was to be proved Ephesians 2:14 ff. (quod erat demonstrandum).

ξένοι] i.e. such as are not included as belonging to the theocracy, but are related towards it as strangers, who belong to another state; the opposite is συμπολῖται τῶν ἁγίων. Comp. Ephesians 2:12. The same is indicated by πάροικοι: inquilini,[157] i.e. those who, coming from elsewhere, sojourn in a land or city without having the right of citizenship (Acts 7:6; Acts 7:29; 1 Peter 2:11). See, in general, Wetstein, ad Luc. xxiv. 18; Gesen. Thes. s.v. תוֹשָׁב. It is the same as is expressed in classic Greek by μέτοικοι (Wolf, prol. Dem. Lept. p. Ixvi. ff.; Hermann, Staatsalterth. § 115), in contradistinction to the πολίτης or ἈΣΤΌς (Plat. Pol. viii. p. 563 A, al.). The Gentiles are in the commonwealth of God only inguilini, sojourners, not citizens; they have no πολιτεία therein; although they are ruled by God (Romans 3:29) and included in the Messianic promise (Romans 4:12 f.), they are so in the second place (Romans 1:16), and without participating in the time-hallowed peculiar prerogatives of the Israelites (Romans 3:1; Romans 9:4 ff.). The referring of πάροικοι to the conception of a household (persons pertaining to the house, members of the family) is not to be made good by linguistic usage (not even by Leviticus 22:10), and is not demanded by the antithesis of ΟἸΚΕῖΟΙ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῦ (in opposition to Bengel, Koppe, Flatt, Meier, Harless, Olshausen, Schenkel), inasmuch as ΟἸΚΕῖΟΙ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῦ sustains a climactic relation to the preceding συμπολ. τῶν ἁγίων, and the two together form the contrast to ΞΈΝΟΙ and πάροικοι. The reference to the proselytes (Anselm, Whitby, Cornelius a Lapide, Calixtus, Baumgarten) is quite at variance with the context (Ephesians 2:11-13).

ἈΛΛʼ ἘΣΤΈ] emphatic repetition of the verb after ἈΛΛΆ. Comp. Romans 8:15; 1 Corinthians 2:8; Hebrews 12:18 ff.

ΣΥΜΠΟΛῖΤΑΙ] belongs to the inferior Greek; Lucian, Soloec. 5; Ael. V. H. iii. 44; Joseph. Antt. xix. 2. 2. See Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 172.

ΤῶΝ ἉΓΊΩΝ] i.e. of those who constitute the people of God. These were formerly the Jews (Ephesians 2:12), into whose place, however, the Christians have entered as the ἸΣΡΑῊΛ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῦ (Galatians 6:16), as the true descendants of Abraham (Romans 4:10 ff.) and God’s people (Romans 9:5 ff.), acquired as His property by the work of Christ (see on Ephesians 1:14). The Ephesians have thus, by becoming Christians, attained to the fellow-citizenship with the saints,—which saints the Christians were,—so that τῶν ἁγίων does not embrace either the Jews (Vorstius, Hammond, Bengel, Morus) or the patriarchs (Chrysostom, Theodoret, Oecumenius, and others; Theodoret: ἁγίους ἐνταῦθα οὐ μόνον τοὺς τῆς χάριτος, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἐν νόμῳ καὶ τοὺς πρὸ νόμου λέγει), with whom even the angels have been associated (Calvin, Flatt).

ΟἸΚΕῖΟΙ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῦ] members of God’s household. The theocracy is thought of as a family, dwelling in a house, of which God is the ΟἸΚΟΔΕΣΠΌΤΗς. 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:2; Hebrews 3:5-6; Hebrews 10:21; 1 Peter 4:17. Comp. בית יהוה, Numbers 12:7; Hosea 8:1. Harless: belonging to the house of God, as the building-stones of the house, in which God dwells. But thus the following figure is anticipated, and that in a way contrary to the meaning of οἰκεῖος; and an incongruous contrast is afforded to the πάροικοι.

[157] Among Greek writers πάροικος has not this signification, but is equivalent to neighbour; it has it, however, in the LXX. (Exodus 12:45; Leviticus 25:6-23). Comp. παροικία, Acts 13:17, and in the LXX.; Clem. Cor. Ephesians 2:5.

Ephesians 2:19. ἄρα οὖν οὐκέτι ἐστὲ ξένοι καὶ πάροικο: So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners. At this point Paul brings to their conclusion the statements made in Ephesians 2:14-18, and draws from them the natural, comforting inference. The conclusive ἄρα is one of Paul’s favourable particles. In his writings and in the NT generally it is sometimes placed second in the sentence, and sometimes (contrary to classical use) first. The combination ἄρα οὖν is peculiar to Paul, and takes the first place in the sentence. In this form it has less of the ratiocinative force and more of the collective; cf. Buttm., Gram. of N. T. Greek, p. 371; Blass, Gram. of N. T. Greek, p. 273. ξένοι καὶ πάροικοι, a comprehensive expression, including “all who, whether by natural and territorial demarcation, or by the absence of civic privileges, were not citizens” (Ell.). The term πάροικος in ordinary Greek means a neighbour. In the LXX it represents תּוֹשָׁב (nine times) or גֵּר (eleven times). Here it stands for the classical μέτοικος, which never occurs in the NT, is found only once in the LXX (Jeremiah 20:3) and means one who comes from one country or city and settles in another, but does not rank as a πολίτης or ἀστός having the right of citizenship (cf. Acts 7:6; Acts 7:29; 1 Peter 2:11). There is no reference to proselytes in particular (Baumg.).—ἀλλὰ συμπολῖται τῶν ἁγίων: but fellow-citizens with the saints. Most critical editors (LTTrWHRV) insert ἐστέ after ἀλλά, on the authority of [174] [175] [176] [177] [178], etc. The form συνπολῖται is preferred by Tisch., WH, Ell., Alf., etc. The word belongs mostly to late Greek. The ἁγίων is not to be restricted to Jews, the patriarchs, or OT believers, but is a comprehensive name for Christians, the whole community of believers in Christ without distinction of Jew and Gentile. The Jewish people were once “the saints” of God, and Gentiles stood outside having no part in their πολιτεία. Now all Gentile believers, like these Ephesians, form part of that greater “Israel of God (Galatians 6:16) which consists of all Christians, and share in all the rights of such.—καὶ οἰκεῖοι τοῦ Θεοῦ: and of the household of God. So in Galatians 6:10, πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους τῆς πίστεως. In Greek writers of the later period οἰκεῖος is used frequently with the gens, of abstract nouns (οἰκεῖοι φιλοσοφίας, ὀλιγαρχίας, etc.) in the general sense of one closely connected with philosophy, etc., but without any specific reference either to the house of God, or to the οἰκεῖοι as forming one family. With the present case, however, it is different. The phrase οἰκεῖοι Θεοῦ naturally suggests the idea of members of God’s household or family (Mey.); cf. 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:2; Hebrews 3:5-6; Hebrews 10:21; 1 Peter 4:17.

[174] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[175] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[176] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[177] Codex Ephraemi (sæc. v.), the Paris palimpsest, edited by Tischendorf in 1843.

[178] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

19. Now therefore ye] He now turns direct to the Gentile believers, and rejoicingly recounts to them the actual grandeur of their privileges in grace.

no more] as you once were. See on Ephesians 2:12 above. The finished work of Christ, realized by accepting faith, has entirely broken for them the old régime.

strangers] “to the covenants of the Promise;” Ephesians 2:12.

foreigners] In secular matters, the word would mean a resident alien, a non-naturalized foreigner; liable to legal removal at any moment, e.g. on outbreak of war. If such a word were true of Gentile Christians, they would be merely tolerated sojourners, as it were, in the “city” of Messianic light and mercy, without any claim to abide. The glorious contrary was the case. “If they were Christ’s, they were Abraham’s seed, and heirs [of the Gospel Canaan] according to Promise” (Galatians 3:29).

but] Insert, with MSS., ye are, after this word; an additional emphasis of assertion.

fellowcitizens] Cp. Galatians 4:26; Php 3:20 (Greek); Hebrews 11:10; Hebrews 11:16; Revelation 3:12, &c.

the saints] “Not angels, nor Jews, nor Christians then alive merely, but the saints of God in the widest sense—all members of the mystical body of Christ” (Alford). See further on the word, note on Ephesians 1:1.

of the household] Members of the family, kinsfolk. So the word always means in N. T. (Galatians 6:10; 1 Timothy 5:8; here;) and LXX. The idea is not of domestic service, but of the “child at home.” In the deepest sense the Gentile believer, once “far off” in both position and condition, is now at home with his Living Father in Christ.

Ephesians 2:19. Οὐκέτι, no longer) Antithetic to their former state.—ξένοι, strangers) Its opposite is citizens, a metaphor derived from a city or state.—πάροικοι, foreigners [‘inquilini,’ sojourners in the city, from a foreign state]) Its opposite is, domestics [home-born members of the household]: the metaphor is taken from a house.—τῶν ἁγίων, of the saints) [the holy commonwealth] of Israel, Ephesians 2:12; comp. Ephesians 3:18.—τοῦ Θεοῦ, of God) Again the Holy Trinity is indicated, Ephesians 2:19 [God], 20 [Jesus Christ], 22 [the Spirit].

Verse 19. - So then ye are no more strangers and foreigners. "Sojourners" is nearer πάροικοι than "foreigners;" it denotes persons dwelling in a place, but without citizen rights and privileges; but as such persons are usually foreigners, it is immaterial which term is used. But ye are fellow-citizens with the saints. The saints are the chosen ones of all time (comp. Hebrews 12:22, "But ye are come unto Mount Zion," etc.). "Their names are engraven on the same civic roll with all whom ' the Lord shall count when be reckoneth up the people." It is as if they who had dwelt in the waste and howling wilderness, scattered defenseless and in melancholy isolation, had been transplanted, not only into Palestine, but had been appointed to domiciles on Mount Zion, and were located in the metropolis, not to admire its architecture, or gaze upon its battlements, or envy the tribes who had come up to worship in the city which is compact together; but to claim its municipal immunities, experience its protection, obey its laws, live and love in its happy society, and hold communion with its glorious Founder and Guardian" (Eadie). And (members) of the household of God. A nearer relation to God and a higher privilege is denoted here. You are not guests or occasional visitors, but permanent dwellers in the house and members of the family. Compare the Queen of Sheba's words to Solomon (1 Kings 10:8). Ephesians 2:19Foreigners (πάροικοι)

See on Luke 24:18. Rev., better, sojourners. Without rights of citizenship.

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