Amos 5:22
Though you offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, I will not accept them: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
5:18-27 Woe unto those that desire the day of the Lord's judgments, that wish for times of war and confusion; as some who long for changes, hoping to rise upon the ruins of their country! but this should be so great a desolation, that nobody could gain by it. The day of the Lord will be a dark, dismal, gloomy day to all impenitent sinners. When God makes a day dark, all the world cannot make it light. Those who are not reformed by the judgments of God, will be pursued by them; if they escape one, another stands ready to seize them. A pretence of piety is double iniquity, and so it will be found. The people of Israel copied the crimes of their forefathers. The law of worshipping the Lord our God, is, Him only we must serve. Professors thrive so little, because they have little or no communion with God in their duties. They were led captive by Satan into idolatry, therefore God caused them to go into captivity among idolaters.Is the multitude - There was no deficiency in the amount of offerings. It was admitted that they complied in this respect with the requirements of the law; and that they offered an abundance of sacrifices, so numerous as to be called a multitude - רב rôb, a vast number. Hypocrites abound in outward religious observances just in proportion to their neglect of the spiritual requirements of God's word; compare Matthew 23:23.

Your sacrifices - זבחיכב zibechēykeb, from זבח zâbach, to slay; especially to slay for sacrifice. The word used here denotes any sacrifice which was made by blood; but is distinguished from the burnt-offering from the fat, that this was not entirely consumed. It is applied to the sin-offering, trespass-offering, thank-offering. The word also stands opposed to the offerings which were made without blood מנחה minchāh. Any offering that consisted in an animal that was slain came under this general denomination of sacrifice, Exodus 10:25; Leviticus 17:8; Numbers 15:5.

burnt-offerings - עלות 'olôth, from עלה ‛âlâh, to go up, ascend. It is applied to a sacrifice that was wholly consumed, or made to ascend on an altar. It corresponds to the Greek ὁλόκαυστον holokauston, that which is entirely consumed. Such offerings abounded among the Hebrews. The burnt-offering was wholly consumed on the altar, excepting the skin and the blood. The blood was sprinkled round the altar, and the other parts of the animal which was slain, were laid upon the altar and entirely burned; see Leviticus 1. This was commonly a voluntary offering; and this shows their zeal to comply with the external forms of religion.

I am full - שׂבעתי s'âba‛etı̂y, I am satiated. The word is usually applied to food and drink, denoting satisfaction, or satiety. It is used here with great force, denoting that their offerings had been so numerous and so incessant, that God was satiated with them. It means that he was weary, tired, disgusted with them. Thus, in Job 7:4 : 'I am full - שׂבעתי s'âba‛etı̂y - of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.' Proverbs 25:17 :

Withdraw thy foot from thy neighbor's house,

Lest he be weary (Hebrew full) of thee, and hate thee.

Fat ... - They were required to offer, not the lame, or the diseased Deuteronomy 15:21; Deuteronomy 17:1; Leviticus 23:12; Malachi 1:7-8; and God admits here that they had externally complied with this requirement. The fat was burned on the altar.

I delight not - That is; I delight; not in them when offered without the heart; or I delight not in them in comparison with works of righteousness; see Amos 5:21-24; Psalm 4:9-13; Psalm 51:16-19.

Amos 5:21I hate, I despise your feasts - Israel clave to its heart's sin, the worship of the true God, under the idol-form of the calf; else, it would fain be conscientious and scrupulous. It had its "feasts" of solemn "joy" and the "restraint" of its "solemn assemblies" , which all were constrained to keep, abstaining from all servile work. They offered "whole burnt offerings," the token of self-sacrifice, in which the sacrificer retained nothing to himself, but gave the whole freely to God. They offered also "peace offerings," as tokens of the willing thankfulness of souls at peace with God. What they offered, was the best of its kind, "fatted beasts." Hymns of praise, full-toned chorus, instrumental music! What was missing, Israel thought, to secure them the favor of God? Love and obedience. "If ye love Me, keep My commandments." And so those things, whereby they hoped to propitiate God, were the object of His displeasure. "I hate, I despise, I will not accept" with good pleasure; "I will not regard," look toward, "I will not hear, will not smell." The words, "I will not smell," reminded them of that threat in the law" Leviticus 26:31, "I will make your cities waste and bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors." In so many ways does God declare that He would not accept or endure, what they all the while were building upon, as grounds of their acceptance. And yet so secure were they, that the only sacrifice which they did not offer, was the sin or trespass offering. Worshiping "nature," not a holy, Personal, God, they had no sense of unholiness, for which to plead the Atoning Sacrifice to come. Truly each Day of Judgment unveils much self-deceit. How much more the Last!

22. meat offerings—flour, &c. Unbloody offerings.

peace offerings—offerings for obtaining from God peace and prosperity. Hebrew, "thank offerings."

Though ye, that have departed from my temple, law, and institutions, you of the ten tribes, offer me burnt-offerings; which was wholly burnt on the altar; no part due to any but God; of this these hypocrites had a high esteem, Micah 6:6, because they accounted it an entire gift to God.

And your meat-offerings; to your burnt-offering add the other, your meat-offering also, as Leviticus 2:1,2 Num 6:17. See Joel 1:13 2:14.

I will not accept them; it may be a meiosis, I will hate them, as Amos 5:21.

Neither will I regard the peace-offerings; your thank-offerings too, of which Leviticus 6:12 7:15, your praises for your prosperity, are no better pleasing neither.

Of your fat beasts: in these peace-offerings, though you bring the best, the fattest, yet you bring nothing but a beast, for you leave your hearts with your sins; and you have no warrant from God to do this, nay, you are prohibited, for you are to offer only at Jerusalem, and at the temple. Though ye offer me burnt offerings, and your meat offerings, I will not accept them,.... The daily burnt offerings, morning and night, and others which were wholly the Lord's; and the "minchah", or bread offering, which went along with them; in which they thought to do God service, and to merit his favour; but instead of that they were unacceptable to him, being neither offered up in a proper place, if in a right manner according to the law of Moses; however, not in the faith of the great sacrifice, Christ; nor attended with repentance towards God:

neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts; even though their peace offerings were of the best of the herd. Aben Ezra says the creature here meant is the same which in the Ishmaelitish or Arabic language is called "giamus", a creature bigger than an ox, and like one, which is called a buffle or buffalo. And so Ben Melech says it means one of the kinds of the larger cattle; for not a lamb, a ram, or a sheep, is meant, as the word is sometimes rendered by the Septuagint, but a creature like an ox; not larger, or the wild ox, as the above Hebrew writers, but smaller; with which agrees the description Bellonius (n) gives of the Syrian "bubalus" or "buffalo", which he calls a small ox, full bodied, little, smooth, sleek, fat, and well made; and is no doubt the same the Arabs call "almari", from its smoothness.

(n) Apud Bochart. Hierozoic. p. 1. l. 2. c. 28. col. 283.

Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, {l} I will not accept them: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.

(l) Because you have corrupted my true service, and remain obstinate in your vices; Isa 1:11, Jer 6:10.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
22. The commonest and most popular kinds of sacrifice are particularized as rejected by Jehovah. The burnt- and peace-offerings are often mentioned in the historical books, and were frequently sacrificed together (Exodus 20:24; Exodus 32:6; Jdg 20:26; Jdg 21:4; 1 Samuel 10:8; 1 Samuel 13:9; 2 Samuel 6:17; 2 Samuel 24:25; 1 Kings 3:15; cf. Isaiah 1:11, where ‘the fat of fed beasts’ is an allusion to the peace-offering). The peace-offering, being the sacrifice most commonly offered, is also often called ‘sacrifice’ (lit. slaughtering) simply: Exodus 18:12; Deuteronomy 12:6; 1 Samuel 6:15 al.).

meat offerings] meal-offerings, or cereal offerings. The word ‘meat’ has altered its meaning since the time when the A.V. was made, and is now restricted to flesh: so that the rendering ‘meat offering’ for offerings consisting exclusively of either parched corn or various preparations of flour (see Leviticus 2) has become altogether misleading. The Heb. word minḥah means properly a present or gift, especially one offered to a king or noble, to do him homage or secure his favour (Genesis 32:13; Genesis 43:11; 1 Samuel 10:27), and euphemistically for tribute, 2 Samuel 8:2; 2 Samuel 8:6 &c.: hence it is used sometimes in a general sense of gifts offered in sacrifice to God (Genesis 4:3-5; Numbers 16:15; 1 Samuel 2:17; 1 Samuel 2:29; 1 Samuel 26:19); in the priestly sections of the Pent., on the other hand, it is used exclusively in the narrower and technical sense of a ‘meal-offering.’ It seems therefore that the custom must have gradually grown up of designating animal sacrifices by their special names (burnt-offering, peace-offering &c.), while minḥah was more and more restricted to vegetable offerings alone. This double application of the term sometimes makes it uncertain whether ‘offering’ in general, or ‘meal-offering’ in particular, is denoted by it. Where, however, as here, it stands beside the names of two other species of sacrifice, it has the presumption of being used to denote a special kind likewise (cf. Joshua 22:23; Jdg 13:23; 1 Kings 8:64).

fat beasts] or fatlings, 2 Samuel 6:13, 1 Kings 1:9; 1 Kings 1:19; 1 Kings 1:25, and (in the same connexion) Isaiah 1:11 (where, on account of the word fat, with which it is joined, it is in the English version rendered fed beasts). In the ‘peace-offering’ the fat parts were those which were specially set apart to be “burnt” (הקטיר), i.e. consumed in sweet smoke (cf. on Amos 4:5), upon the altar (Leviticus 3:3-5; Leviticus 3:9-11; Leviticus 3:14-16).Verse 22. - They maintained the formal ritual of the Mosaic worship in their idolatry. The various offerings are here enumerated. Burnt offerings; ὁλοκαυτώματα (Exodus 29:38, 42; Numbers 28:9-11). Meat offerings; θυσίας (Septuagint); munera (Vulgate); Exodus 29:40, 41; Leviticus 2:1. Peace offerings of your fat beasts; σωτηρίους ἐπιφανείας, "your grand peace offerings" (Septuagint); vota pinguium vestrorum (Vulgate); Leviticus 3:1, etc. In order that Judah may discern in this unparalleled calamity a judgment of God, and the warning voice of God calling to repentance, the prophet first of all summons the wine-bibbers to sober themselves, and observe the visitation of God. Joel 1:5. "Awake, ye drunken ones, and weep! and howl, all ye drinkers of wine! at the new wine; for it is cut off from your mouth. Joel 1:6. For a people has come up over my land, a strong one, and innumerable: its teeth are lion's teeth, and it has the bite of a lioness. Joel 1:7. It has made my vine a wilderness, and my fig-tree into sticks. Peeling, it has peeled it off, and cast it away: its shoots have grown white." הקיץ to awake out of the reeling of intoxication, as in Proverbs 23:35. They are to howl for the new wine, the fresh sweet juice of the grape, because with the destruction of the vines it is taken away and destroyed from their mouth. Joel 1:6 and Joel 1:7 announce through whom. In the expression gōi ‛âlâh (a people has come up) the locusts are represented as a warlike people, because they devastate the land like a hostile army. Gōi furnishes no support to the allegorical view. In Proverbs 30:25-26, not only are the ants described as a people (‛âm), but the locusts also; although it is said of them that they have no king. And ‛âm is synonymous with gōi, which has indeed very frequently the idea of that which is hostile, and even here is used in this sense; though it by no means signifies a heathen nation, but occurs in Zephaniah 2:9 by the side of ‛âm, as an epithet applied to the people of Jehovah (i.e., Israel: see also Genesis 12:2). The weapons of this army consist in its teeth, its "bite," which grinds in pieces as effectually as the teeth of the lion or the bite of the lioness (מתלּעות; see at Job 29:17). The suffix attached to ארצי does not refer to Jehovah, but to the prophet, who speaks in the name of the people, so that it is the land of the people of God. And this also applies to the suffixes in גּפני and תּאנתי in Joel 1:7. In the description of the devastation caused by the army of locusts, the vine and fig-tree are mentioned as the noblest productions of the land, which the Lord has given to His people for their inheritance (see at Hosea 2:14). לקצפה, εἰς κλασμόν, literally, for crushing. The suffix in chăsâphâh refers, no doubt, simply to the vine as the principal object, the fig-tree being mentioned casually in connection with it. Châsaph, to strip, might be understood as referring simply to the leaves of the vine (cf. Psalm 29:9); but what follows shows that the gnawing or eating away of the bark is also included. Hishlı̄kh, to throw away not merely what is uneatable, "that which is not green and contains no sap" (Hitzig), but the vine itself, which the locusts have broken when eating off its leaves and bark. The branches of the vine have become white through the eating off of the bark (sârı̄gı̄m, Genesis 40:10).

(Note: H. Ludolf, in his Histor. Aethiop. i. c. 13, 16, speaking of the locusts, says: "Neither herbs, nor shrubs, nor trees remain unhurt. Whatever is either grassy or covered with leaves, is injured, as if it had been burnt with fire. Even the bark of trees is nibbled with their teeth, so that the injury is not confined to one year alone.")

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