1 Corinthians 15:27
For he has put all things under his feet. But when he said all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(27) For he hath put all things under his feet.1Corinthians 15:26 is a parenthesis, and the “for” with which this verse commences goes back to 1Corinthians 15:25. The connection is, Christ must reign until he has put all enemies under his feet. Christ must triumph, for according to the statement in Psalm 8:6 (see also Psalm 110:1), God hath put all things under man, and in a higher sense under the Son of Man. (For a similar application of Old Testament statement regarding man to Christ as the Son of Man, see Matthew 21:16; Hebrews 2:7.) But when God says that all things are put under Him, He evidently is excepted who did put all things under Him. This leads up logically to the complete triumph of God the Father, expressed in the following verse, which is an expansion of 1Corinthians 15:24, on which see Note there.

15:20-34 All that are by faith united to Christ, are by his resurrection assured of their own. As through the sin of the first Adam, all men became mortal, because all had from him the same sinful nature, so, through the resurrection of Christ, shall all who are made to partake of the Spirit, and the spiritual nature, revive, and live for ever. There will be an order in the resurrection. Christ himself has been the first-fruits; at his coming, his redeemed people will be raised before others; at the last the wicked will rise also. Then will be the end of this present state of things. Would we triumph in that solemn and important season, we must now submit to his rule, accept his salvation, and live to his glory. Then shall we rejoice in the completion of his undertaking, that God may receive the whole glory of our salvation, that we may for ever serve him, and enjoy his favour. What shall those do, who are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? Perhaps baptism is used here in a figure, for afflictions, sufferings, and martyrdom, as Mt 20:22,23. What is, or will become of those who have suffered many and great injuries, and have even lost their lives, for this doctrine of the resurrection, if the dead rise not at all? Whatever the meaning may be, doubtless the apostle's argument was understood by the Corinthians. And it is as plain to us that Christianity would be a foolish profession, if it proposed advantage to themselves by their faithfulness to God; and to have our fruit to holiness, that our end may be everlasting life. But we must not live like beasts, as we do not die like them. It must be ignorance of God that leads any to disbelieve the resurrection and future life. Those who own a God and a providence, and observe how unequal things are in the present life, how frequently the best men fare worst, cannot doubt as to an after-state, where every thing will be set to rights. Let us not be joined with ungodly men; but warn all around us, especially children and young persons, to shun them as a pestilence. Let us awake to righteousness, and not sin.For he hath put - God has put by promise, purpose, or decree.

All things under his feet - He has made all things subject to him; or has appointed him to be head over all things; compare Matthew 28:18; John 17:2; Ephesians 1:20-22. It is evident that Paul here refers to some promise or prediction respecting the Messiah, though he does not expressly quote any passage, or make it certain to what he refers. The "words" "hath put all things under his feet" are found in Psalm 8:6, as applicable to "man," and as designed to show the dignity and dominion of man. Whether the psalm has any reference to the Messiah, has been made a question. Those who are disposed to see an examination of this question, may find it in Stuart on the Hebrews, on Hebrews 2:6-8; and in Excurses ix. of the same work, pp. 568-570. Ed. 1833. In the passage before us, it is not "necessary" to suppose that Paul meant to say that the psalm had a particular reference to the Messiah. All that is implied is, that it was the intention of God to subdue all things to him; this was the general strain of the prophecies in regard to him; this was the purpose of God; and this idea is accurately expressed in the words of the psalm; or these words will convey the "general sense" of the prophetic writings in regard to the Messiah. It may be true, also, that although the passage in Psalm 8:1-9 has no immediate and direct reference to the Messiah, yet it includes him as one who possessed human nature.

The psalm may be understood as affirming that all things were subjected to "human nature;" that is, human nature had dominion and control over all. But this was more particularly and eminently true of the Messiah than of any other man. In all other cases, great as was the dignity of man, yet his control over "all things" was limited and partial. In the Messiah it was to be complete and entire. His dominion, therefore, was a complete fulfillment, that is, "filling up" (πλήρωμα plērōma) of the words in the psalm. Under him alone was there to be an entire accomplishment of what is there said; and as that psalm was to be fulfilled, as it was to be true that it might be said of man that all things were subject to him, it was to be fulfilled mainly in the person of the Messiah, whose human nature was to be exalted above all things; compare Hebrews 2:6-9

But when he saith - When God says, or when it is said; when that promise is made respecting the Messiah.

It is manifest - It must be so; it must be so understood and interpreted.

That he is excepted ... - That God is excepted; that it cannot mean that the appointing power is to be subject to him. Paul may have made this remark for several reasons. Perhaps:

(1) To avoid the possibility of cavil, or misconstruction of the phrase, "all things," as if it meant that God would be included, and would be subdued to him; as among the pagan, Jupiter is fabled to have expelled his father Saturn from his throne and from heaven.

(2) it might be to prevent the supposition, from what Paul had said of the extent of the Son's dominion, that he was in any respect superior to the Father. It is implied by this exception here, that when the necessity for the special mediatorial kingdom of the Son should cease, there would be a resuming of the authority and dominion of the Father, in the manner in which it subsisted before the incarnation.

(3) the expression may also be regarded as intensive or emphatic; as denoting, in the most absolute sense, that there was nothing in the universe, but God, which was not subject to him. God was the only exception; and his dominion, therefore, was absolute over all other beings and things.

27. all things—including death (compare Eph 1:22; Php 3:21; Heb 2:8; 1Pe 3:22). It is said, "hath put," for what God has said is the same as if it were already done, so sure is it. Paul here quotes Ps 8:6 in proof of his previous declaration, "For (it is written), 'He hath put all things under His feet.'"

under his feet—as His footstool (Ps 110:1). In perfect and lasting subjection.

when he—namely, God, who by His Spirit inspired the Psalmist.

The apostle referreth to Psalm 8:6, where the psalmist adoreth God for the privileges given man in his creation; amongst which this is one, that God had put all things under his feet: the psalmist afterward expounds that universal particle, Psalm 8:7,8, by all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and the fish of the sea. But that that psalm, or some passages at least in it, are to be understood of Christ, appeareth from Hebrews 2:6-8, where the penman applieth it to him, as doth the apostle here; under whose feet all things are put in a much larger sense, and therefore the apostle expounds the affirmative, Hebrews 2:8, by a negative, he left nothing that is not put under him. But lest men of perverse minds should conclude, that then the Father also is put under Christ, the apostle addeth, that when he saith, he hath put all things under his feet, the Father himself, who is the person that put all things under him, is not to be included. For he hath put all things under his feet,.... This is a reason proving that all enemies, and death itself, shall be put under the feet of Christ, and is taken out of Psalm 8:6 which is spoken of one that is styled man, and the son of man; and is to be understood not of Adam in a state of innocence; for the word there used signifies a frail mortal man, which he then was not, nor could he be called the son of man; and though the earth was subdued and subject to him, and he had dominion over the fish of the sea, the fowls of the air, and every living thing that moveth on the earth, yet all creatures were not subject to him in this large sense, in which it is here and elsewhere explained by the apostle; and much less of man in his fallen state, who instead of having all things under his feet, is become like the beasts that perish; many of them: are unsubdued to him, and he is even in fear of them, and he himself is subject to corruption and vanity: but of the man Christ Jesus, who took and bore all the sinless infirmities of human nature; is often called the son of man; of whom God was mindful, and whom lie visited in his state of humiliation, at the time of his death, resurrection, and exaltation; who was made through sufferings of death a little lower, or a little while lower than the angels, but now crowned with glory and honour; in whose days God ordained strength and praise out of the mouths of babes and sucklings, to the confusion of his enemies; and has put all things under his feet, which may elude all things animate and inanimate, the whole creation and universe of things, the world and its fulness, the earth and all that is therein, the beasts of the forest, and the cattle of a thousand hills; he is heir of the world, and has a right to it, and to dispose of it, not merely as the Creator, but as Mediator; it is put in subjection to him to make use of, and what is in it to subserve his mediatorial kingdom and his glory; when his ends are answered by it, the earth and all that is therein shall be burnt up, and a new earth arise out of it, in which Christ and his people will dwell: the air and all that is therein are under him; the fowls of it are at his dispose; he it was that rained feathered fowls as the sand of the sea, about the camp of the Israelites in the wilderness, and commanded the ravens to feed Elijah in distress; and who holds the winds in his fist, lets them loose, calls them in, and commands them at pleasure; as he also does the sea, and the boisterous waves of it, and has dominion over the fishes in it; one of those supplied him with money, to pay his tribute; and multitudes of them, more than once, were gathered together, and taken up by his order and direction; and at the last day, the sea at his command will give up the dead that are in it; yea, this may extend to all rational creatures, angels and men, friends or foes: good angels, principalities and powers, are subject to him, as appears by their attendance on him: at his incarnation, ascension, and second coming; by their ministration to him in the wilderness, and in the garden; by their employment under him, for the good of the heirs of salvation; by their dependence on him, as their Creator and head, and by their adoration of him as their Lord and God. Evil angels, the devils, are also put under his feet, as is evident from his overcoming Satan, and baffling all his temptations; by his dispossessing the devils out of the bodies of men, and giving his disciples also power over them; by his spoiling them at death, and triumphing over them in his ascension; by delivering his people out of their hands, and power, in conversion; and by his binding of Satan during the thousand years, and by casting him and his angels into everlasting fire prepared for them. Elect men are made subject to him, by the power of his grace upon them; and yet their subjection to him, to his Gospel ordinances, and the sceptre of his kingdom; is voluntary and from their hearts; it proceeds from a principle of love to him; and is universal, being a regard unto, and a compliance with all his precepts; and evil men are also under his dominion and control; he rules them with a rod of iron; he disappoints their counsels, restrains their wrath, overrules their evil designs and actions against his people for good; and will one day gather them all before him, pass the righteous sentence on them, and send them into everlasting punishment. Moreover, this may reach to everything that is for the glory of Christ as Mediator, and for the good of his church, and to every enemy of his or theirs, as the world, sin, Satan, and the last enemy, death; to prove the subjection of all which to Christ, this testimony is produced: and respects Christ as Mediator, and the Father's delivering all things into his hands, and giving him all power in heaven and in earth, and rule over all creatures and things;

but when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him; that is, when David, or the Holy Spirit by him, said the above words, in Psalm 8:6 nothing is more clear and evident, than that God the Father, who made all things subject to Christ as Mediator, is himself not subjected to him; since his power as such must be greater than his: this exception is made to secure the government, power, and honour of the Father; for though he has made his firstborn higher than the kings of the earth, yet not higher than himself; and though he has set him his King over his holy hill of Zion, yet not over himself; and though it is his will that all men should honour the Son, as they honour the Father, yet not above him, or more than he; nor has he quitted the government, either in the world or in the church, by subjecting all things to Christ: and this exception is also made to confirm the universal power and empire of Christ, for an exception to a general rule does but the more establish it; and since the Father is only excepted, it is a clear case, that he has left nothing that is not put under him; see Hebrews 2:8 but it must be observed, that though the Holy Spirit is not mentioned, yet he is equally excepted; since he is the one God with the Father, and was jointly concerned in the mission, unction, and installation of Christ, as Mediator; nor can he be reckoned among the all things put in subjection to Christ, for they regard only creatures, and many of these enemies, with neither of which the Spirit of God can be numbered; and though the gifts and graces of the Spirit are put into Christ's hands, and are at his dispose, yet the person of the Spirit can never be thought to be put under his feet.

For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Corinthians 15:27. Πάντα γὰραὐτοῦ] Proof that death also must be done away. This enemy cannot remain in subsistence, for otherwise God would not have all things, etc. The point of the proof lies in πάντα, as in Hebrews 2:8.

The words are those of Psalm 8:7, which, as familiar to the reader (comp. on Romans 9:7; Galatians 3:11), Paul makes his own, and in which he, laying out of account their historical sense, which refers to the rule of man over the earth, recognises, as is clear from ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ κ.τ.λ., a typical declaration of God, which has its antitypical fulfilment in the completed rule of the Messiah (the δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος, 1 Corinthians 15:47). Comp. Ephesians 1:22; Hebrews 2:8.

The subject of ὑπέταξε (which expresses the subjection ordained by God in the word of God) is God, as was obvious of itself to the reader from the familiar passage of the psalm. If God has in that passage of Psalms 8 subjected all to the might of Christ, then death also must be subdued by Him; otherwise it is plain that one power would be excepted from that divine subjection of all things to Christ, and the πάντα would not be warrante.

ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ κ.τ.λ.] δέ leading on, namely, to the confirmation of the giving over of the kingdom to God, for which proof is still to be adduced: “but, when He shall have said that the whole is subjected, then without doubt He will be excepted from this state of subjection, who has subjected the whole to Him.” The subject of εἴπῃ is not ἡ γραφή (de Wette, al.), but neither is it Christ (Hofmann), but the same as with ὑπέταξεν, therefore God, whose word that passage of the psalm adduced is not as regards its historical connection, but is so simply as a word of Scripture. Comp. on 1 Corinthians 6:16. The aorist εἴπῃ is to be taken regularly, not, with Luther and the majority of interpreters: when He says, but, like 1 Corinthians 15:24; 1 Corinthians 15:28, as futurum exactum: dixerit (Irenaeus, Hilary). So, too, Hofmann rightly.[55] Comp. Luke 6:26. Plato, Parm. p. 143 C; Ion. p. 535 B; also ἐὰν εἴπῃ, 1 Corinthians 10:28, 1 Corinthians 12:15. The point of time of the quando, ὅταν, is that at which the now still unexecuted ΠΆΝΤΑ ὙΠΈΤΑΞΕΝ shall be executed and completed; hence, also, not again the aorist, but the perfect ὑποτέτακται. The progress of the thought is therefore: “But when God, who in Psalm 8:7 has ordained the ὙΠΌΤΑΞΙς, shall have once uttered the declaration, that it be accomplished—this ὑπόταξις.” This form of presenting it was laid to the apostle’s hand by the fact that he had just expressed himself in the words of a saying of Scripture (a saying of God). In Hebrews 1:6 also the aorist is not to be understood as a present, but (πάλιν) as a futurum exactum. See Lünemann in loc.

δῆλον ὅτι] Adverbial, in the sense of manifestly, assuredly; therefore: it (namely, the πάντα ὑποτέτακται) will clearly take place with the exception of Him, who, etc. See regarding this use of δῆλον ὅτι, which has to be analysed by means of supplying the preceding predicate, Matthiae, p. 1494; Sturz, Lex. Xen. I. p. 661 f.; Buttmann, ad Plat. Crit. p. 53 A (p. 106). According to Hofmann, δῆλον ὅτι is meant as, namely, as it is used likewise in Greek writers, and especially often in grammarians (not Galatians 3:11); from δῆλον to ΠΆΝΤΑ is only an explanation interposed, after which the former ὍΤΑΝ ΔῈ ΕἼΠῌ Κ.Τ.Λ. is shortly resumed by ὍΤΑΝ ΔῈ ὙΠΟΤΑΓῇ Κ.Τ.Λ., 1 Corinthians 15:28. See regarding ΔΈ after parentheses or interruptions, Hartung, Partik. I. p. 172 f. But, in the first place, δῆλον ὅτι κ.τ.λ. is a very essential point, no mere parenthetic thought in the course of the argument; and, secondly, the resumption after so short and plain an intercalation would be alike uncalled for, and, through the change in the mode of expression (not again with ΕἼΠῌ), obscur.

ἘΚΤῸς ΤΟῦ ὙΠΟΤΆΞ.] i.e. with the exception of God; but Paul designates God as the subjecting subject: “quo clarius in oculos incurreret, rem loqui ipsam,” van Hengel.

[55] Who, however, with his reference of εἴπῃ to Christ as its subject gains the conception: “As Christ at the end of His obedience on earth said: τετέλεσται, so shall He at the end of His reign within the world say: πάντα ὑποτέτακται.” But with what difficulty could a reader light upon the analogy of that τετέλεσται! How naturally, on the contrary, would he be led to think of the subject of ὑπέταξεν, consequently God, as the speaker also in εἵπῃ! This applies also in opposition to Luthardt, l.c. p. 131.1 Corinthians 15:27-28 are a supplement to 1 Corinthians 15:20-26. They reaffirm, in new words of Scripture, the unlimited dominion assigned to Christ (1 Corinthians 15:25-27 a), in order to reassert more impressively the truth that only through His absolute victory can the kingdom of God be consummated (24a, 28b). The opening γὰρ adduces, by way of comment, a prophecy parl[2387] to that cited in 1 Corinthians 15:25 and specifically applied in 1 Corinthians 15:26. Psalms 8 promised to man complete rule over his domain (cf. Hebrews 2:5 ff.); as man Christ here stands forth the countertype of Adam (1 Corinthians 15:21 f.) who forfeited our estate, winning for Himself and His own the deliverance from death (Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:14 f.) which seals His conquest and sets “all things under His feet”. But (δὲδέ) this subjection of all things to Christ is no infringement of God’s sovereignty nor alienation of His rights; on the contrary, it is the means to their perfect realisation. Such is the purport of the two ὅταν sentences, the second of which repeats in another way, after the interposed δῆλον ὅτι clause, what the first has announced, τότε αὐτὸς ὁ υἱὸς furnishing their common apodosis (cf. 54); so Hf[2388], R.V. marg., after the Vg[2389] and Lat. interpreters. The two vv. then read as follows: “For ‘all things did He put in subjection under His feet’. But when He hath said, ‘All things are brought to subjection’ (manifestly, with the exception of Him that put all things in subjection to Him)—yea, when all things have become subject to Him, then shall (also) the Son Himself become subject to Him that made subject to Him all things, to the end that God may be all in all”.—God is the tacit subject of ὑπέταξεν, as supplied by the familiar Ps. and brought out by the ptps. in 1 Corinthians 15:27 b, 28b; but Christ is subject to εἴπῃ—not God speaking in Scr., or at the end of the world (so Mr[2390], Ed[2391], El[2392], etc.), nor ἡ γραφή (D.W[2393], and others), nor propheta (Bg[2394]). “All things are subdued!” is the joyful announcement by the Son that the grand promise recorded in the 8th Psalm is fulfilled; “the ὑπέταξεν of God affirms the purpose, the ὑποτέτακται of Christ attests its accomplishment” (Hf[2395], Hn[2396]). Thus ὅταν εἴπῃ is simultaneous with ὅταν καταργήσῃ (1 Corinthians 15:24) and ὅταν θῇ ὑπὸ τ. πόδας (1 Corinthians 15:25): Christ proclaims the victory at last achieved; He reports that, with the abolition of death, His commission is ended and the travail of His soul satisfied. For anticipatory sayings of His, giving an earnest of this crowning word, see Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:18, John 3:35.—ὅταν ὑποταγῇ κ.τ.λ. (1 Corinthians 15:28) reassumes objectively, as matter of fact, what was given subjectively in ὅταν εἴπῃ κ.τ.λ. as the verdict of Christ upon His own finished work. Those who read δῆλον ὅτι κ.τ.λ. as a principal sentence, the apodosis to the first ὅταν clause (A.V., Mr[2397], El[2398], etc.), borrow from the protasis πάντα ὑποτέτακται—more strictly ὑποτετάξεται or (by zeugma) ἔσται, after the virtually fut[2399] εἴπῃ (cf. 28b, 54b); this, however, makes a halting sentence: “But when He [God] says, ‘All things have been made subject,’ it is evident [that this will be, or that all things will be subjected] with the exception of Him, etc.”—an affirmation of quite subsidiary importance, on which the writer has no need to dwell. The non-inclusion of God in the category of “things subjected” is rather a self-evident assumption made by the way, and serving to prepare for and throw into relief the real apodosis, “then shall the Son Himself also become subject, etc.,” to which both the ὅταν clauses press forward. The advl[2400] use of δῆλον ὅτι (perhaps better written δηλονότι = δηλαδή), signifying manifestly or to wit (sine dubio, Vg[2401]), is familiar in Attic Gr[2402]; no other certain instance occurs in the N.T. The remark that He who gave dominion is not Himself under it, reserves behind the Messianic reign the absolute supremacy of God, to which Christ will conform at the plenitude of His kingship.—τὰ πάντα (equivalent to “the universe”) gathers into a totality the πάντα otherwise separate and diverse: cf. Colossians 1:17, τὰ πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκεν.—ὑποταγήσεται (mid[2403] in force, like the 2nd aor[2404] pass[2405] in Romans 10:3, in consistency with the initiative ascribed to Christ throughout) has often been explained away, to avoid Arian or Sabellian inferences from the text; it affirms no other subjection of the Son than is involved in Sonship (see note on 24). This implies no inferiority of nature, no extrusion from power, but the free submission of love (αὐτὸς ὁ υἱός, “the Son of His own accord will subject Himself”—not in addition to, but in distinction from the πάντα), which is the essence of the filial spirit that actuated Christ from first to last (cf. John 8:29; John 12:27, etc.). Whatsoever glory He gains is devoted to the glory and power of the Father (John 17:2, etc.), who glorifies Him in turn (John 17:5; Php 2:9 ff.). ὑποταγήσεται speaks the closing word of Christ’s mission, as Ἰδοὺ ἥκω τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου was its opening word (Hebrews 10:7).—It is hard to say whether ζνα ᾖ ὁ Θεὸς κ.τ.λ. is dependent on ὁ υἱὸς ὑποταγήσεται (so most commentt.) or on τ. ὑποτάξαντι (so Hf[2406], and some others). This solemn conclusion most fitly attaches to the princ. vb[2407]; it expresses the loyal purpose of the Son in His self-subjection, whose submission exhibits the unity of the Godhead (cf. John 10:30-36; John 17:23), and constitutes itself the focus and uniting bond of a universe in which God’s will is everywhere regnant and His being everywhere immanent.—πᾶσιν neuter, like πάντα.

[2387] parallel.

[2388] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[2389] Latin Vulgate Translation.

[2390] Meyer’s Critical and Exegetical Commentary (Eng. Trans.).

[2391] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians.2

[2392] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

[2393].W. De Wette’s Handbuch z. N. T.

[2394]
Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

[2395]
J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[2396] C. F. G. Heinrici’s Erklärung der Korintherbriefe (1880), or 1 Korinther in Meyer’s krit.-exegetisches Kommentar (1896).

[2397] Meyer’s Critical and Exegetical Commentary (Eng. Trans.).

[2398] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

[2399] future tense.

[2400]dvl. adverbial

[2401] Latin Vulgate Translation.

[2402] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2403]
middle voice.

[2404] aorist tense.

[2405] passive voice.

[2406] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[2407] verb27. For he hath put all things under his feet] Here the meaning clearly is (see Psalm 8:6, and the rest of this verse) that the Father hath put all things under the feet of the Son. “All things are put under His feet,” says Cyril of Alexandria, “because He made all things.” St John 1:3; John 1:10; Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 1:1.

it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him] This passage ought to be compared with the analogous one in Hebrews 2:7-9. Each of these supplies what is wanting in the other. In the one we have the Son, the manifestation of the Father’s glory and love, bringing everything in this lower world, which the Father has put under Him, into the most complete subjection to, and the most entire union with, His Heavenly Father. In the other we see the Eternal Father, while permitting, for His own wise purposes, the humiliation and suffering of Christ, doing so in order that all things should finally be put in subjection to ‘His Beloved Son, in Whom He was well pleased.’1 Corinthians 15:27. Πάντα γὰρ, for all things) not even excepting death. The Psalm [8:] might seem by this syllable, כל, all things, merely to indicate animals and stars, which it expressly names; but the apostle teaches us, that it has a much more extended application. Good things are made subject to Him in a most joyous condition; bad things in a most sorrowful one: for these latter are destroyed, and are made His footstool.—ὑπέταξεν, subjected) viz. God even the Father; comp. at ὑποταγῆν, Ephesians 1:22; Php 3:21; Hebrews 2:8; 1 Peter 3:22. He will subject all things, in His own time; He has already subjected them, because He hath said it.—ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ) not only enemies, but also all other things are put under His feet, Ephesians 1:22. This phrase is a synecdoche; all things are made subject to Him: and those things, which oppose themselves to Him, and do not wish to be subject, are altogether thrust down under His feet, as a footstool. There is a clear distinction between the expressions being put under His feet and being given into His hands. The former however need not be understood in so harsh a sense as the expression might seem to imply: otherwise, there would be no room for the exception of Him, who subjected them.—εἴπῃ, saith) viz. the prophet, Hebrews 2:6.—δῆλον, manifest) For the Father is not subject to the Son; but (δὲ, 1 Corinthians 15:28) the Son is subject to the Father. The apostle with great power and wisdom points out the sum [the main issue] of all things, from the Psalm.Verse 27. - But when he saith. The "he" refers to God. This indirect method of quotation is common in the rabbis. The reference is to Psalm 8:7 (LXX.), and the words, spoken of man in general, are here Messianically transferred to the federal Head of humanity, the ideal and perfect God Man, Jesus Christ. (For the fuller explanation of the matter, see Hebrews 2:5-10.) He is excepted, which did put all things under him. So our Lord says, "All things are delivered unto me of my Father" (Matthew 11:7). The universal dominion of Christ is also insisted on in Ephesians 1:20-22; 1 Peter 3:22. When He saith (ὅταν εἴπη)

God, speaking through the Psalmist (Psalm 8:6). Some, however, give a future force to the verb, and render but when He shall have said; i.e., when, at the end, God shall have said, "All things are put under Him. The subjection is accomplished." See Rev., margin.

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