|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
80:8-16 The church is represented as a vine and a vineyard. The root of this vine is Christ, the branches are believers. The church is like a vine, needing support, but spreading and fruitful. If a vine do not bring forth fruit, no tree is so worthless. And are not we planted as in a well-cultivated garden, with every means of being fruitful in works of righteousness? But the useless leaves of profession, and the empty boughs of notions and forms, abound far more than real piety. It was wasted and ruined. There was a good reason for this change in God's way toward them. And it is well or ill with us, according as we are under God's smiles or frowns. When we consider the state of the purest part of the visible church, we cannot wonder that it is visited with sharp corrections. They request that God would help the vine. Lord, it is formed by thyself, and for thyself, therefore it may, with humble confidence, be committed to thyself.
Verse 16. - It is burned with fire, it is cut down. The flames of war have begun to consume it - it is no longer a vine, but mere fuel (comp. Isaiah 33:12), ready to be burned. They perish at the rebuke of thy countenance. Here the metaphor is dropped. The climax has been reached, and the matter is too serious for rhetorical treatment. The nation typified by the vine, the Israel of God, is perishing - perishing "at the rebuke of God's countenance" - because his favour is withdrawn from them. Unless God steps in to save, destruction is certain.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
It is burnt with fire, it is cut down,.... That is, the vine of Israel, and the branch before spoken of, alluding to a vine, and its branches; which, when become unprofitable, are cut down or cut off, and cast into the fire; see John 15:6, so Jerusalem and the temple were burnt with fire by Nebuchadnezzar, and afterwards by Vespasian:
they perish at the rebuke of thy countenance; that is, the Israelites, signified by the vine, whose destruction was owing to the wrath of God upon them for their sins; he frowned upon them, and rebuked them in his hot displeasure, and to that their ruin was owing; others were only instruments in his hands. Some understand this as a wish or imprecation, let them that cut down the vine, and burn it with fire, perish at the rebuke of thy countenance; see Psalm 68:1, so the Targum.
Wesley's Notes on the Bible
80:16 They - Thy people, signified by the vine. So now he passes from the metaphor to the thing designed by it.
Psalm 80:16 Parallel Commentaries
Bible Hub: Online Parallel Bible