Exodus 14:28
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
The water flowed back and covered the chariots and horsemen--the entire army of Pharaoh that had followed the Israelites into the sea. Not one of them survived.

New Living Translation
Then the waters returned and covered all the chariots and charioteers--the entire army of Pharaoh. Of all the Egyptians who had chased the Israelites into the sea, not a single one survived.

English Standard Version
The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen; of all the host of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea, not one of them remained.

New American Standard Bible
The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even Pharaoh's entire army that had gone into the sea after them; not even one of them remained.

King James Bible
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The waters came back and covered the chariots and horsemen, the entire army of Pharaoh, that had gone after them into the sea. None of them survived.

International Standard Version
The water returned, covering the chariots and the horsemen of Pharaoh's entire army that had pursued the Israelis into the sea. Not a single one of them remained.

NET Bible
The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea--not so much as one of them survived!

New Heart English Bible
The waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even all Pharaoh's army that went in after them into the sea. There remained not so much as one of them.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The water flowed back and covered Pharaoh's entire army, as well as the chariots and the cavalry that had followed Israel into the sea. Not one of them survived.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them.

New American Standard 1977
And the waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even Pharaoh’s entire army that had gone into the sea after them; not even one of them remained.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

King James 2000 Bible
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

American King James Version
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

American Standard Version
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen of all the army of Pharao, who had come into the sea after them, neither did there so much as one of them remain.

Darby Bible Translation
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen of all the host of Pharaoh that had come into the sea after them; there remained not even one of them.

English Revised Version
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

World English Bible
The waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even all Pharaoh's army that went in after them into the sea. There remained not so much as one of them.

Young's Literal Translation
and the waters turn back, and cover the chariots and the horsemen, even all the force of Pharaoh, who are coming in after them into the sea -- there hath not been left of them even one.
Study Bible
Parting the Red Sea
27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state at daybreak, while the Egyptians were fleeing right into it; then the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. 28The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even Pharaoh's entire army that had gone into the sea after them; not even one of them remained. 29But the sons of Israel walked on dry land through the midst of the sea, and the waters were like a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.…
Cross References
Exodus 15:10
"You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them; They sank like lead in the mighty waters.

Exodus 15:19
For the horses of Pharaoh with his chariots and his horsemen went into the sea, and the LORD brought back the waters of the sea on them, but the sons of Israel walked on dry land through the midst of the sea.

Deuteronomy 11:4
and what He did to Egypt's army, to its horses and its chariots, when He made the water of the Red Sea to engulf them while they were pursuing you, and the LORD completely destroyed them;

Judges 4:16
But Barak pursued the chariots and the army as far as Harosheth-hagoyim, and all the army of Sisera fell by the edge of the sword; not even one was left.

Psalm 78:53
He led them safely, so that they did not fear; But the sea engulfed their enemies.

Psalm 106:11
The waters covered their adversaries; Not one of them was left.
Treasury of Scripture

And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

the waters

Exodus 15:10 You did blow with your wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead …

Deuteronomy 11:4 And what he did to the army of Egypt, to their horses, and to their chariots…

Nehemiah 9:11 And you did divide the sea before them, so that they went through …

Psalm 78:53 And he led them on safely, so that they feared not: but the sea overwhelmed …

Habakkuk 3:8-10,13 Was the LORD displeased against the rivers? was your anger against …

Hebrews 11:29 By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the …

remained

Exodus 14:13 And Moses said to the people, Fear you not, stand still, and see …

2 Chronicles 20:24 And when Judah came toward the watch tower in the wilderness, they …

Psalm 106:9-11 He rebuked the Red sea also, and it was dried up: so he led them …

Psalm 136:15 But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea: for his mercy …

(28) The chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host . . . --This translation is misleading. The Heb. runs thus: "The chariots and the horsemen (who were) all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea." It is implied that his footmen did not enter the sea.

There remained not so much as one of them.--The armour of an Egyptian warrior would make it impossible for him to escape by swimming from such a catastrophe. All who were caught by the tide would certainly be drowned. The question whether the Pharaon was drowned or no cannot be ruled by the expression here used, nor by any parallel one in the Psalms (Psalm 78:53; Psalm 106:11); it depends on more general considerations. In the first place, is it likely that if the Pharaoh had been killed there would have been no explicit mention of it? Would the point have remained one open to question? Secondly, if the Pharaoh had been killed, would the Egyptian annals have retained no trace of it? Must we not have had some account of a great king cut off in the flower of his age, after a reign of two, or at the most three, years? (Comp. Exodus 2:23; Exodus 4:19, &c.) But Menephthah, to whom all the indications point, reigned at least eight years. The latter part of his reign was inglorious, and he left the empire a prey to pretenders; but he was not suddenly cut off after reigning a year or two. Thirdly, was an Egyptian king sure to lead an attack, and place himself in the position of most peril? This has been asserted, and it is so far true, that most Egyptian kings, according to the records which they have left of themselves, so acted. But it happens that Menephthah records it of himself that on one great occasion, at any rate, he kept himself out of danger. His country was invaded by a vast army of Libyans and others from the northwest in the fifth year of his reign; the assailants menaced his chief cities, and the peril was great. Menephthah collected all his forces to meet the danger, but declined to lead them out in person, pretending that one of the Egyptian gods, Phthah, had forbidden him to quit Memphis (Brugsch, History of Egypt, vol. ii., p. 119). It is thus quite probable that he would remain with the reserve of footmen when the chariots and horsemen entered the bed of the sea.

Verse 28. - The chariots and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh. Rather "The chariots, and the chariot men of all the host of Pharaoh." So Knobel correctly. Kalisch thinks - "We are not permitted to suppose that only the Egyptian chariots pursued the Israelites into the sea, while the infantry remained behind, so that the former alone were devoured by the waves." But even he admits that "both in this and in the following chapter, and in most other parts generally, the destruction of the chariots (chariot force?) and its warriors is chiefly alluded to, so that this particular stress would perhaps justify that conclusion." What is clear is, that no force but the chariot force is said to have entered the bed of the sea in pursuit of Israel. There remained not so much as one of them. On the proper understanding of this statement, see the introductory paragraph to the chapter. And the waters returned,.... To their place, and so in the above tradition related by Diodorus Siculus, it is said that the sea returning with a mighty force was restored to its place again; See Gill on Exodus 14:22.

and covered the chariots and the horsemen; the wall they made being much higher than a man on horseback, when they fell down, covered even those who had the advantage of horses and chariots; and much more must the infantry be covered by them, who may be meant in the next clause:

and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; the foot, that went into the sea after the chariots and horsemen, or the whole army, including the cavalry and infantry, which went into the sea after the children of Israel. Who this Pharaoh was is not agreed; according to Berosus (x) his name was Cenchres, or Chenchres, whom Acherres succeeded; according to Bishop Usher (y) it was Amenophis; but our English poet (z) calls him Busiris; though Strabo (a) says there was no king or governor of that name. Diodorus Siculus (b) indeed speaks of two so called; yet he elsewhere (c) says, not that there was any king of the name, only the sepulchre of Osiris was so called:

there remained not so much as one of them; wherefore it must be a falsehood which is related by some, that Pharaoh himself was preserved, and afterwards reigned in Nineveh (d), since not one was saved; see Psalm 106:11 and so Artapanus (e) the Heathen says, they all perished, and among these are said (f) to be Jannes and Jambres, the magicians of Egypt mentioned in 2 Timothy 3:8 but this is contradicted by those (g) who ascribe the making of the golden calf to them.

(x) Antiqu. l. 5. fol. 88. 2. & 90. 2.((y) Annal. Vet. Test. p. 19. (z) "-------whose waves o'erthrew Busiris, and his Memphian chivalry." Milton's Paradise Lost, B. 1. v. 306, 307. (a) Geograph. l. 17. p. 552. (b) Bibliothec. l. 1. p. 42. (c) Bibliothec. l. 1. p. 79. (d) Dibre Hayamim, fol. 13. 2.((e) Ut supra. (Apud Euseb. Praepar. Evangel. l. 9. c. 27. p. 436.) (f) Midrash in Exodus 15.10. & Arab. MS. apud Gregory's Notes & Observ. p. 6. (g) Shalshalet, fol. 7. 1.28. there remained not so much as one of them—It is surprising that, with such a declaration, some intelligent writers can maintain there is no evidence of the destruction of Pharaoh himself (Ps 106:11).14:21-31 The dividing the Red sea was the terror of the Canaanites, Jos 2:9; the praise and triumph of the Israelites, Ps 114:3; 106:9; 136:13. It was a type of baptism, 1Co 10:1,2. Israel's passage through it was typical of the conversion of souls, Isa 11:15; and the Egyptians being drowned in it was typical of the final ruin of all unrepenting sinners. God showed his almighty power, by opening a passage through the waters, some miles over. God can bring his people through the greatest difficulties, and force a way where he does not find it. It was an instance of his wonderful favour to his Israel. They went through the sea, they walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea. This was done, in order to encourage God's people in all ages to trust him in the greatest straits. What cannot he do who did this? What will not he do for those that fear and love him, who did this for these murmuring, unbelieving Israelites? Then followed the just and righteous wrath of God upon his and his people's enemies. The ruin of sinners is brought on by their own rage and presumption. They might have let Israel alone, and would not; now they would flee from the face of Israel, and cannot. Men will not be convinced, till it is too late, that those who meddle with God's people, meddle to their own hurt. Moses was ordered to stretch out his hand over the sea; the waters returned, and overwhelmed all the host of the Egyptians. Pharaoh and his servants, who had hardened one another in sin, now fell together, not one escaped. The Israelites saw the Egyptians dead upon the sands. The sight very much affected them. While men see God's works, and feel the benefit, they fear him and trust in him. How well were it for us, if we were always in as good a frame as sometimes! Behold the end to which a Christian may look forward. His enemies rage, and are mighty; but while he holds fast by God, he shall pass the waves in safety guarded by that very power of his Saviour, which shall come down on every spiritual foe. The enemies of his soul whom he hath seen to-day, he shall see no more for ever.
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