|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
13:32-37 The resurrection of Christ was the great proof of his being the Son of God. It was not possible he should be held by death, because he was the Son of God, and therefore had life in himself, which he could not lay down but with a design to take it again. The sure mercies of David are that everlasting life, of which the resurrection was a sure pledge; and the blessings of redemption in Christ are a certain earnest, even in this world. David was a great blessing to the age wherein he lived. We were not born for ourselves, but there are those living around us, to whom we must study to be serviceable. Yet here is the difference; Christ was to serve all generations. May we look to Him who is declared to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead, that by faith in him we may walk with God, and serve our generation according to his will; and when death comes, may we fall asleep in him, with a joyful hope of a blessed resurrection.
Verse 33. - How that God for God, A.V. ("how that" being in ver. 32); our children for us their children, A.V. and T.R.; raised up for hath raised up... again, A.V.; as also it is for as it is also, A.V. Our children. The reading of the R.T. is not adopted by Meyer or Alford, and is scarcely an improvement upon the T.R. There can be no reasonable doubt that ἀναστήσας, raised up, means here, as in ver. 44, raised from the dead. Observe with what skill the apostle speaks of the resurrection of Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of God's promise to their fathers, which it was to be presumed they were anxiously expecting. The second psalm. Many manuscripts and editions have, "the first," because the first psalm was often reckoned not numerically but as an introduction to the whole book, so that the second psalm was numbered as the first. This is probably the reason why the eighteen psalms as reckoned by the Jews include Psalm 19, though Joshua ben Levi explains it by the rejection of the second psalm, on account, no doubt, of its testimony to Messiah as God's begotten Son. But the rabbins generally acknowledge the application of this psalm to Messiah (Lightfoot, 'Exercit. on the Acts'). Thou art my Son, etc. This application of the second psalm to the Resurrection is best explained by Romans 1:4. The reference in both passages to David is remarkable (vers. 22, 23). Christ, who was begotten of the Father before all worlds, was declared before men and angels to be the Son of God, when he was raised from the dead in the power of an endless life.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children,.... The natural descendants of them, as Paul and Barnabas, and the Jews in the synagogue, were:
in that he hath raised up Jesus again; which may not be understood of his resurrection from the dead, since the promise made, and now fulfilled, has not a single respect to that; but of his being raised up, and sent forth into the world, to be a Saviour and Redeemer, and to sit upon the throne of David, as in Acts 2:30 of which raising of him up to regal dignity, mention is made in Psalm 2:1, Psalm 6:1 which is produced as a testimony of it; and the rather this seems to be the sense, since the article of the resurrection of the dead is spoken of in the next verse, as distinct from this; and other passages of Scripture are produced, as speaking of it; though admitting that Christ's resurrection from the dead is here intended, as the Alexandrian copy reads, what follows is very applicable to it, without any detriment to the doctrine of Christ's eternal generation and sonship, as will be hereafter made to appear:
as it is written in the second psalm: Beza's most ancient copy, and other very ancient copies, read, "in the first psalm"; for the first and second psalms seem to have been reckoned by the ancient Jews but one psalm, or one section; for so they say (d).
""blessed is the man", &c. and "why do the Heathen rage", &c. , are one "parasha", or section: and they further observe (e), that "every section that was dear to David, he began it with "blessed", and ended it with "blessed"; he began with "blessed", as it is written, Psalm 1:1 "blessed is the man", &c. and he ended it with "blessed", as it is written, Psalm 2:12 "blessed are all they that put their "trust in him":'' though it is elsewhere said (f), "blessed is the man", &c. Psalm 1:1 "and why do the heathen rage", &c. Psalm 2:1 are two sections; and "to the chief musician on Muth Labben", Psalm 9:1) and "why standest thou afar off", &c. (Psalm 10:1-18) are two sections.''
And Kimchi calls (g) this psalm, as the generality of copies here do, saying,
"this psalm is , "the second psalm."''
And that this psalm belongs to the Messiah, is evident from the mention made of him in Psalm 2:2 from the mad counsel, and vain attempts of the kings of the earth against him, Psalm 2:1. God's decree and resolution to make and declare him King of Zion, notwithstanding all their efforts upon him, Psalm 2:4 from his asking and having the Gentiles, and uttermost parts of the earth for his inheritance, which is true of no other, Psalm 2:8 and especially from that reverence, worship, and adoration, which are to be given to him, and that trust and confidence to be placed in him, Psalm 2:10 which can by no means agree with David, nor with any mere creature whatever; and as for Psalm 2:7 which is here cited, what is said in that is inapplicable even to angels, Hebrews 1:5 and much more to David, or any mere man. The whole psalm was, by the ancient Jews, interpreted of the Messiah, as is confessed by some of their later doctors. R. David Kimchi says (h),
"there are that interpret it of Gog and Magog, and the Messiah, he is the King Messiah; and so the Rabbins of blessed memory interpret it.''
And Jarchi confesses the same, and is somewhat more open in giving his reason for interpreting it otherwise.
"Our Rabbins (says he) expound this affair concerning the King Messiah; but according to its literal sense, and for an answer to the heretics (or Christians), it is right to explain it concerning David himself.''
he clause, "and for an answer to the heretics", is left out in later editions, but was in the more ancient ones; it being so open and barefaced, that the Jews did not choose to let it stand. Aben Ezra is in a doubt whether to interpret the psalm of David, or of the Messiah; though he thinks the former is best; and particularly this seventh verse is, by several of their ancient writers, applied to the Messiah; in one of their writings, esteemed very ancient, are these words (i);
"from thence shall come forth, in that day, the Messiah of David; and this is the mystery of, "I will declare the decree, the Lord said unto me, thou art my Son", &c.''
And this is the sense of R. Ame (k), a famous ancient doctor of theirs: upon mention of those words in Jeremiah 31:22 "the Lord hath created a new thing", &c.
"says R. Hone, in the name of R. Ame, this is the King Messiah, as it is said, Psalm 2:7 "this day have I begotten thee".''
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
33. God hath fulfilled the same—"hath completely fulfilled."
in that he hath raised up Jesus again—literally, "raised up"; but the meaning is (notwithstanding the contrary opinion of many excellent interpreters) "from the dead"; as the context plainly shows.
as it is written in the second psalm—in many manuscripts "the first Psalm"; what we call the first being regarded by the ancient Jews as only an introduction to the Psalter, which was considered to begin with the second.
this day have I begotten thee—As the apostle in Ro 1:4 regards the resurrection of Christ merely as the manifestation of a prior Sonship, which he afterwards (Ac 8:32) represents as essential, it is plain that this is his meaning here. (Such declarative meaning of the verb "to be" is familiar to every reader of the Bible). See Joh 15:8, "So shall ye be," that is, be seen to be "My disciples." It is against the whole sense of the New Testament to ascribe the origin of Christ's Sonship to His resurrection.
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