Revelation 18:6
Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
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(6) Reward her even as she rewarded . . .—The same voice which bids the people of God come forth, summons the agents of vengeance. Revelation 17:16 tells whence these may arise. Read, Give back to her, as she herself also gave back (the word “you” should be omitted; it is not the saints, or those who have suffered from her, that are called to repay her), and double (the) double according to her works; in the cup in which she mingled, mingle for her double. Many Old Testament parallels will suggest themselves (Jeremiah 51:18; Psalm 79:12; Psalm 137:8; and Isaiah 40:2). The “double” must not be taken to mean double her sins; her sins are themselves called double, and her judgment is according to her sins. She is double-stained in wickedness, and “the law of retribution fiercely works “in her. The cup of her luxuriousness becomes the cup of vengeance. (Comp. Revelation 14:8; Revelation 17:4; and Revelation 18:3.) The flowery path “has led to the broad gate and the great fire.”

18:1-8 The downfal and destruction of the mystical Babylon are determined in the counsels of God. Another angel comes from heaven. This seems to be Christ himself, coming to destroy his enemies, and to shed abroad the light of his gospel through all nations. The wickedness of this Babylon was very great; she had forsaken the true God, and set up idols, and had drawn all sorts of men into spiritual adultery, and by her wealth and luxury kept them in her interest. The spiritual merchandise, by which multitudes have wickedly lived in wealth, by the sins and follies of mankind, seems principally intended. Fair warning is given to all that expect mercy from God, that they should not only come out of this Babylon, but assist in her destruction. God may have a people even in Babylon. But God's people shall be called out of Babylon, and called effectually, while those that partake with wicked men in their sins, must receive of their plagues.Reward her even as she rewarded you - It is not said to whom this command is addressed, but it would seem to be to those who had been persecuted and wronged. Applied to mystical Babylon - papal Rome - it would seem to be a call on the nations that had been so long under her sway, and among whom, from time to time, so much blood had been shed by her, to arise now in their might, and to inflict deserved vengeance. See the notes on Revelation 17:16-17.

And double unto her double according to her works - That is, bring upon her double the amount of calamity which she has brought upon others; take ample vengeance upon her. Compare for similar language, Isaiah 40:2, "She hath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins." "For your shame ye shall have double," Isaiah 61:7.

In the cup which she hath filled - To bring wrath on others. See the notes at Revelation 14:8.

Fill to her double - Let her drink abundantly of the wine of the wrath of God - double what she has dealt out to others. That is, either let the quantity administered to her be doubled, or let the ingredients in the cup be doubled in intensity.

6. Addressed to the executioners of God's wrath.

Reward—Greek, "repay."

she rewarded—English Version reading adds "you" with none of the oldest manuscripts. But A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit it. She had not rewarded or repaid the world power for some injury which the world power had inflicted on her; but she had given the world power that which was its due, namely, spiritual delusions, because it did not like to retain God in its knowledge; the unfaithful Church's principle was, "Populus vult decipi, et decipiatur." "The people like to be deceived, and let them be deceived."

double—of sorrow. Contrast with this the double of joy which Jerusalem shall receive for her past suffering (Isa 61:7; Zec 9:12); even as she has received double punishment for her sins (Isa 40:2).

unto her—So Syriac, Coptic, and Andreas. A, B, and C omit it.

in the cup—(Re 18:3; Re 14:8; 17:4).

filled—literally "mixed."

fill to her double—of the Lord's cup of wrath.

This verse soundeth in mine ears, as if God had reserved he ruin of the papacy to be effected by some protestant hands, some of those whom they had persecuted; if not some of their persons, yet some of the same faith.

Reward her even as she rewarded you,.... This is spoken to the people of God, who are before called out of Babylon; and the chief of them are the seven angels with the seven last plagues of the wrath of God, and the same with the ten kings that will burn the whore with fire; these are called upon to take vengeance, by way of retaliation, for what she had done to them, in allusion to what is said of old Babylon, Jeremiah 1:15 and must be understood not of what she will have done to them personally, but to their predecessors in the faith of Christ in former ages; that as she had hated them, and made war with them, so now they should hate her, and make war with her; and as she had stripped them naked of their clothes, and spoiled them of their worldly goods and substance, so now they should strip her naked of her harlot's attire, of her gold, silver, and precious stones, and make her and her territories desolate; and as she has burnt many of the precious saints in the flames, as here in England, and elsewhere, so now they shall utterly burn her with fire; and as she has shed the blood of the righteous, and drank it, and been drunk with it, they shall give her blood to drink; and as she hath killed multitudes with the sword, so now shall they kill her and her children; see Revelation 13:12 nor is this contrary to the doctrine of Christ and his apostles, and the spirit of Christianity, which will not admit of revenge, Matthew 5:38 Romans 12:17 since this will not be private, but public revenge, inflicted by Christian princes and magistrates, who are ministers of God, and revengers to execute wrath on them that do evil:

and double unto her double according to her works: the meaning is not to inflict upon her a punishment doubly greater than her sins, for this would be contrary to the justice of God; nor does ever God punish men in this life more, but less, than their iniquities deserve; nor can any temporal punishment be doubly greater than sin, which deserves eternal death; and with this she will be punished hereafter, and therefore will not have her full punishment now, and much less a greater than her sins required; to which may be added, that this will be according to her works, her wicked works, and therefore will not exceed the demerit of her sins: but the sense is, that if it was possible to be done, they should use her with double severity to that she had used them with; seeing her sins deserved a severer treatment than even they had had from her; the phrase signifies an abundant and utter destruction, a punishment which was suitable and sufficient; see Isaiah 40:2 and it suggests that they should not spare her, nor pity her, but use her with the greatest severity imaginable, it being not possible to exceed her due deserts, or what her works required:

in the cup which he hath filled, fill to her double: not in the cup of her abominations, her errors, idolatries, and wickedness; but in the cup of afflictions and trouble, which she wrung out to the people of God, in that give her double portion: the sense is the same as before.

{7} Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.

(7) The provocation of the godly, and the commandment of executing the judgment of God, stand on three causes which are here expressed: the unjust wickedness of the whore of Babylon, in this verse, her cursed pride opposing itself against God, which is the fountain of all evil actions, Re 18:7 and her most just damnation by the sentence of God, Re 18:8.

Revelation 18:6-8. Now the one speaking in God’s name[3939] turns to those who are to execute his judgment of wrath upon the great city: ἀποδότε αὐτῇ, κ.τ.λ. She is to be rewarded,[3940] and that, too, doubly;[3941] i.e., she is to suffer for her sins, now the corresponding, entirely complete punishment; and just as she had glorified herself, and lived in arrogant wantonness, so is there now much pain and sorrow to be given her.[3942] The determination of the degree (Revelation 18:7), ὅσα

τοσοῦτον,[3943] which expresses the idea of strict justice, throws the true light upon the more rhetorical presentation in διπλώσατε, διπλᾶ, διπλοῦν. Even at the beginning (ἀπόδοτε, κ.τ.λ.), the equality of guilt and punishment was designated;[3944] the very expression ἈΠΈΔΩΚΕΝ is explained by the fact that it is to correspond to the ἈΠΌΔΟΤΕ ΑὐΤῇ.

The transformation of proud security into the deepest sorrow represented in striking antithesis (Revelation 18:7 a) is further intensified by what succeeds in Revelation 18:7 b and Revelation 18:8. As the foundation of the ὅσα ἑδόξασεν, the arrogant speech which the woman carries in her heart, is stated: she boasts, because of her sovereignty over the world,[3945] that “she is enthroned as a queen,[3946] not as a widow,” but, as a prolific mother, she is the mistress of many cities[3947] and nations,[3948] and is confident that she “shall never see sorrow,” i.e., learn to know it by experience,[3949] especially by the death of her children.[3950] But in sharp contrast with this confident pride is opposed the threatening occasioned by it:[3951] on “one day”[3952] shall her plagues come, and that, too, not only “death,” which makes her a widow, but also “mourning,” which she thought that she would never experience, and hunger, instead of her inordinate luxury.

καὶ ἐν πυρὶ κατακ. Cf. Revelation 17:16.

ὅτι ἱσχυρὸς, κ.τ.λ. The pledge for the infallible execution of the threat; cf. Revelation 1:8.[3953]

ὁ κρίνας αὐτήν. Incorrectly interpreted by the poor var., κρίνων. For the judgment is already fulfilled to such an extent that in the threat just expressed, the punishment on the part of the judge is already determined.

[3939] Cf. the final formula, Revelation 18:8.

[3940] Cf. Revelation 16:5 sqq., Revelation 14:8 sqq., Revelation 11:18.

[3941] Cf. Isaiah 40:2.

[3942] Cf. Amos 8:10.

[3943] On the form of the expression, cf. Romans 6:10; Galatians 2:20.

[3944] ὡς καὶ αὐτὴ ἁπέδ. Cf. Revelation 14:10.

[3945] Cf. Revelation 17:18.

[3946] Cf. Isaiah 47:7.

[3947] Cf. Revelation 17:5.

[3948] Cf. Isaiah 17:8.

[3949] John 8:51 sqq.

[3950] πένθος, lamentation for the dead. Cf. Genesis 27:41; Genesis 1:10 sqq.; Amos 8:10. Ew. ii.

[3951] διὰ τοῦτο, like the ancient prophetical לָכֵן e.g., Micah 2:2; Micah 3:6; Amos 3:11; Amos 5:13; Amos 5:16.

[3952] Cf. Isaiah 47:9.

[3953] Amos 4:13; Amos 5:27.

Revelation 18:6. The foes of Rome (unless ἀπόδοτε κ.τ.λ., is a rhetorical apostrophe) are invited to serve her with the retribution promised to the first Babylon (see reff.).—διπλώσατε, cf. Oxyrh. Pap. iii. 5206. Ἐν τῷ ποτηρίῳ, κ.τ.λ. Cf. Apoc. Bar. xiii. 8 (to Romans), “Ye who have drunk the strained wine, drink ye also of its dregs, the judgment of the Lofty One who has no respect of persons”.

6. rewarded you] “You” should be omitted: a better translation would be, Render to her as she herself rendered. The thought is founded on Psalm 137:8; Jeremiah 50:15; Jeremiah 50:29, and the expression on the former passage.

double unto her] See Jeremiah 16:18; where however the vengeance is on jerusalem.

hath filled fill] Lit. mixed mix: cf. Revelation 14:10.

Revelation 18:6. Ἀπόδοτε, reward) The saints will reward in a manner which is holy, and in accordance with their character, rather than violent.

Verse 6. - Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. "You" is omitted in all the best manuscripts. The second "unto her," though supported by P, Syriac, Coptic, is omitted in א, A, B, C, etc.: Render to her as she also rendered, and double the doubled things according to her works, etc. The description of God's judgment is still founded on the denunciations against Babylon in Jeremiah (see Jeremiah 1:5-29; 51:24; 16:18; cf. also Isaiah 61:7; Zechariah 9:12; and the legal retribution ordered in Exodus 22:4-7). The cup which she hath filled is that containing "the wine of her fornication (cf. ver. 3); she is now to receive a double measure of the cup of God's wrath (cf. ver. 3). Revelation 18:6Double (διπλώσατε)

Only here in the New Testament. Compare Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 16:18; Zechariah 9:12. The Levitical law insisted on the double recompense. See Exodus 22:4, Exodus 22:7, Exodus 22:9.

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