Psalm 45:7
You love righteousness, and hate wickedness: therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) The oil of gladness.—Comp. “oil of joy,” Isaiah 61:3. Here too it may be merely employed as a figure of happiness, but the bath and, no doubt, subsequent anointing, formed part of the Oriental marriage proceedings. (See Arabian Nights, passim.)

Fellowsi.e., the paranymphs, or attendants on the bridegroom.

Psalm 45:7. Thou lovest righteousness, &c. — Thou not only doest that which is good, and avoidest that which is evil, which even bad princes and men may do, and often actually do for political and prudential reasons; but thou doest these things from a pure and internal principle, from a sincere and most fervent love of righteousness, and an implacable hatred of all wickedness. The Lord Jesus has made it appear, by the holiness of his life, the merit of his death, and the great design of his gospel, that he loves righteousness; for by his example, his satisfaction, his precepts, and the influences of his grace and Spirit, he has brought in an everlasting righteousness: and his hatred to wickedness is equally manifest, for never did God’s hatred to sin appear so fully as in the sufferings of Christ. Therefore God, thy God — According to thy human nature, John 20:17; though in respect of thy divine nature thou art his fellow, Zechariah 13:7, and one with him, John 10:30. Hath anointed thee — Because thou hast given so many and great proofs of thy love to righteousness, and of thy hatred to sin; and that not only by the constant course of thy life, but also, and especially, by thy death and passion, therefore God hath raised and exalted thee far above all men and angels, to a state of joy and endless glory at his right hand: which is fully expressed by the oil of gladness. For anointing doth not always signify the conferring of inward gifts and endowments, but sometimes only the designation or inauguration of a person to some high dignity or employment, as Ezekiel 28:14, and elsewhere. This seems to be the true sense of the clause, and is, for substance, the same thing which is expressed in other words, Php 2:8-10, namely, the glorious exaltation of Christ, in reward of his obedience unto death. It is true, however, that Christ, as man and Mediator, in order that he might govern his kingdom in that perfectly righteous manner here intended, was anointed by God with his Holy Spirit, in a peculiar manner; was endowed with gifts and graces above his fellows, above all those that ever were anointed, whether prophets, priests, or kings, whether men or angels; to the comfort and refreshment, not only of his own heart, but of the hearts of all his people. For it pleased the Father that in him, should all fulness dwell, and that out of his fulness his people should receive grace upon grace.45:6-9 The throne of this almighty King is established for ever. While the Holy Spirit leads Christ's people to look to his cross, he teaches them to see the evil of sin and the beauty of holiness; so that none of them can feel encouragement to continue in sin. The Mediator is God, else he had been neither able to do the Mediator's work, nor fit to wear the Mediator's crown. God the Father, as his God in respect to his human nature and mediatorial offices, has given to him the Holy Spirit without measure. Thus anointed to be a Prophet, Priest, and King, Christ has pre-eminence in the gladdening gifts and graces of the spirit, and from his fulness communicates them to his brethren in human nature. The Spirit is called the oil of gladness, because of the delight wherewith Christ was filled, in carrying on his undertakings. The salvation of sinners is the joy of angels, much more of the Son. And in proportion as we are conformed to his holy image, we may expect the gladdening gifts influences of the Comforter. The excellences of the Messiah, the suitableness of his offices, and the sufficiency of his grace, seem to be intended by the fragrance of his garments. The church formed of true believers, is here compared to the queen, whom, by an everlasting covenant, the Lord Jesus has betrothed to himself. This is the bride, the Lamb's wife, whose graces are compared to fine linen, for their purity; to gold, for their costliness: for as we owe our redemption, so we owe our adorning, to the precious blood of the Son of God.Thou lovest righteousness ... - See this verse explained in the notes at Hebrews 1:9, where it is applied to the Messiah. The word "God" is rendered in the margin "O God"; "O God, thy God, hath anointed thee," etc. According to this construction, the thought would be carried on which is suggested in Psalm 45:6, of a direct address to the Messiah as God. This construction is not necessary, but it is the most obvious one. The Messiah - the Lord Jesus - though he is described as God himself (John 1:1, et al.), yet addresses God as "his" God, John 20:17. As Mediator, as appearing in human form, as commissioned to perform the work of redemption, and to subdue the world to the divine authority, it was proper thus to address his Father as "his" God, and to, acknowledge Him as the source of all authority and law. 7. As in Ps 45:6 the divine nature is made prominent, here the moral qualities of the human are alleged as the reason or ground of the mediatorial exultation. Some render "O God, thy God," instead of

God, thy God—but the latter is sustained by the same form (Ps 50:7), and it was only of His human nature that the anointing could be predicated (compare Isa 61:3).

oil of gladness—or token of gladness, as used in feasts and other times of solemn joy (compare 1Ki 1:39, 40).

fellows—other kings.

Thou dost not only do that which is good, and avoid that which is evil; which even bad princes and men may do, and sometimes actually do, for politic or prudential reasons; but thou dost this sincerely, and from an inward principle, even from a true love to God, and goodness, and from an implacable hatred against all wickedness. Therefore; so this particle is commonly used. And so it denoteth, either,

1. The reward of Christ’s righteous administration of his kingdom. So the sense is, Because thou hast given so many and great proofs of thy love to righteousness, and of thy hatred of sin, and that not only by the constant course of thy life, but also by thy death and passion, therefore God hath raised and exalted thee far above all men and angels, to a state of joy and endless glory at his right hand; which is fitly expressed by the

oil of gladness. For anointing doth not always signify the conferring of inward gifts or endowments, but sometimes only notes the designation or inauguration of a person to some high dignity or employment, as Ezekiel 28:14, and elsewhere. Or,

2. The final cause or end of Christ’s unction. So the sense is, To that end, i.e. that thou mightest love righteousness, and hate wickedness, and govern thyself and thy kingdom accordingly, God hath anointed thee, &c., i.e. hath endowed thee with all the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, Acts 10:38, in an eminent and peculiar manner, to the comfort and refreshment of thine own and all thy people’s hearts; and hath solemnly called thee to be the Priest and Prophet and King of all his people. But the former sense seems to be the truest, and is for substance the same thing which is said in other words, Philippians 2:8-10.

God, thy God, according to thy human nature, John 20:17, though in respect of thy Divine nature thou art his fellow, Zechariah 13:7, and his equal, Phil. it. 6, and one with him, John 10:30. The oil of gladness; so called here, as also Isaiah 61:3; partly because it not only makes the countenance fresh and pleasant, Psalm 104:15, but also rejoiceth the heart, Proverbs 27:9; and partly because it was a token of gladness, and used in feasts and other solemn occasions of rejoicing; of which see Psalm 23:5 Daniel 10:3 Amos 6:6.

Above thy fellows, i.e. above all them who partake with thee in this unction; either,

1. Above all that ever were anointed for priests, or prophets, or kings. Or,

2. Above all believers, who also have received this same unction, 1Jo 2:20,27, and are made priests and kings unto God, Revelation 1:6. Thou lovest righteousness,.... Either righteous persons, whom his countenance beholds, on whom his eyes are, and from whom they are never withdrawn, and with whom he is exceedingly delighted: or righteous things; a righteous administration of government; faithfulness and integrity in whatsoever he is intrusted with, or appointed to by his father; all righteous actions which the law requires, as appeared in the whole course of his life; and by working out a righteousness for his people, and by encouraging them in works of righteousness; and as also will appear by judging the world in righteousness at the last day, and by giving the crown of righteousness to his righteous ones;

and hatest wickedness; which was manifest not only by his inveighing against it and dehorting from it, and by his severity exercised towards delinquents; but by suffering for it, and abolishing it, and by chastising his own people on account of it;

therefore God, thy God; or "because (g) God", thy God; who is the God of Christ, as Christ is man; who prepared and formed his human nature, supported it in suffering, and glorified it, and to whom Christ prayed, and whom he believed in, loved, and obeyed as such:

hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows; who though he is called God, Psalm 45:6, and is truly so, yet was not anointed as such, but as man and Mediator, to the office of Prophet, Priest, and King; and not with material oil, but with the Holy Ghost, his gifts and graces; see Acts 10:38; called "the oil of gladness", in allusion to the use of oil at feasts and weddings, for the delight and refreshment of guests, and particularly of the oil of lilies, "olcum susinum", so some (h) translate it; well known to the Hebrews, who inhabited Syria and Palestine, where red lilies grew, of which this was made, and had in great esteem; and because of its effects in the human nature of Christ, filling it with alacrity and cheerfulness to go through the work he came about. This unction rotors to the time of his conception and birth, and also to the time of his baptism; and the phrase, "above thy fellows", denotes the abundance of the Spirit's grace, his having it without measure, and in a transcendent manner to any of the sons of men, even his own people; for these, and not angels, nor the princes of the earth, are meant, neither of which are his fellows; but the saints, who are of the same nature with him, of the same family he is the head of, of the same dignity through him, being made kings and priests by him, partakers of the same Spirit and grace; and will be companions with him, and sit on the same throne with him to all eternity. The Targum, in the king of Spain's Bible, begins the verse thus;

"But thou, O King Messiah, because thou lovest, &c.''

(g) "propterea quod", Tigurine version, Vatablus, Piscator, Gejerus; "quia", Rivet. Noldius, p. 727, No. 1730. (h) Vid. Schacchi Elaeochrism, l. 1. c. 27. & 28.

Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath {f} anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

(f) Has established your kingdom as the figure of Christ, which is the peace and joy of the Church.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
7. Thou lovest &c.] Or, as R.V., Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness. “I have loved justice and hated iniquity, and therefore I die in exile” were the last memorable words of Gregory VII. Milman, Hist. of Lat. Christianity, iv. 138.

therefore] The willing conformity of the king to the will of God is rewarded with special tokens of His favour.

God, thy God] The rendering, O God, thy God is unquestionably wrong. God, thy God in the Elohistic Psalms is the equivalent of Jehovah thy God elsewhere. Cp. Psalm 43:4; Psalm 50:7.

hath anointed thee &c.] The reference is not to anointing as the symbol of consecration to the office of king, but to the use of oil on occasions of festivity (Psalm 23:5; Psalm 104:15). Thus ‘the oil of gladness’ is contrasted with mourning (Isaiah 61:3 : cp. 2 Samuel 12:20; 2 Samuel 14:2). The rejoicings of the marriage festival are meant. Cp. Song of Solomon 3:11.

thy fellows] Other kings, to none of whom has equal happiness been granted. Cp. Psalm 89:27 b.Verse 7. - Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness, therefore, etc. God will only commit rule and authority over his Church to one who will rule justly - one who loves righteousness and hates iniquity. Messiah is alone perfect in righteousness, and therefore entitled to rule. Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Some moderns translate, "Therefore, O God, thy God hath anointed thee," etc.; but the rendering of the Authorized Version is maintained by Dr. Kay, Professor Alexander, and our Revisers. The anointing intended is that outpouring of glory and blessedness on Messiah which followed upon his voluntary humiliation and suffering (comp. Philippians 2:9; Hebrews 2:9). (Heb.: 45:2-3) The verb רחשׁ, as מרחשׁת shows, signifies originally to bubble up, boil, and is used in the dialects generally of excited motion and lively excitement; it is construed with the accusative after the manner of verbs denoting fulness, like the synonymous נבע, Psalm 119:171 (cf. Talmudic לשׁונך תרחישׁ רננות, let thy tongue overflow with songs of praise). Whatever the heart is full of, with that the mouth overflows; the heart of the poet gushes over with a "good word." דּבר is a matter that finds utterance and is put into the form of words; and טּוב describes it as good with the collateral idea of that which is cheerful, pleasing, and rich in promise (Isaiah 52:7; Zechariah 1:13). The fact that out of the fulness and oppression of his heart so good a word springs forth, arises from the subject in which now his whole powers of mind are absorbed: I am saying or thinking (אני pausal form by Dechמ, in order that the introductory formula may not be mistaken), i.e., my purpose is: מעשׁי למלך, my works or creations (not sing., but plur., just as also מקני in Exodus 17:3; Numbers 20:19, where the connection leads one to expect the plural) shall be dedicated to the king; or even: the thought completely fills me, quite carries me away, that they concern or have reference to the king. In the former case למלך dispenses with the article because it is used after the manner of a proper name (as in Psalm 21:2; Psalm 72:1); in the latter, because the person retires before the office of dignity belonging to it: and this we, in common with Hitzig, prefer on account of the self-conscious and reflecting אמר אני by which it is introduced. He says to himself that it is a king to whom his song refers; and this lofty theme makes his tongue so eloquent and fluent that it is like the style of a γραμματεὺς ὀξύγραφος. Thus it is correctly rendered by the lxx; whereas סופר מהיר as an epithet applied to Ezra (Ezra 7:6) does not denote a rapid writer, but a learned or skilled scribe. Rapidly, like the style of an agile writer, does the tongue of the poet move; and it is obliged to move thus rapidly because of the thoughts and words that flow forth to it out of his heart. The chief thing that inspires him is the beauty of the king. The form יפיפית, which certainly ought to have a passive sense (Aquila κάλλει ἐκαλλίωθης), cannot be explained as formed by reduplication of the first two radicals of the verb יפה (יפי); for there are no examples to be found in support of quinqueliterals thus derived. What seems to favour this derivation is this, that the legitimately formed Pealal יפיפה (cf. the adjective יפהפי equals יפיפי, Jeremiah 46:20) is made passive by a change of vowels in a manner that is altogether peculiar, but still explicable in connection with this verb, which is a twofold weak verb. The meaning is: Thou art beyond compare beautifully fashioned, or endowed with beauty beyond the children of men. The lips are specially singled out from among all the features of beauty in him. Over his lips is poured forth, viz., from above, חן (gracefulness of benevolence), inasmuch as, even without his speaking, the form of his lips and each of their movements awakens love and trust; it is evident, however, that from such lips, full of χάρις, there must proceed also λόγοι τῆς χάριτος (Luke 4:22; Ecclesiastes 10:12). In this beauty of the king and this charm of his lips the psalmist sees a manifestation of the everlasting blessing of God, that is perceptible to the senses. It is not to be rendered: because Elohim hath blessed thee for ever. The assertion that על־כּן is used in some passages for על־כּן אשׁר cannot be proved (vid., on Psalm 42:7). But the meaning of the psalmist is, moreover, not that the king, because he is so fair and has such gracious lips, is blessed of God. If this were the idea, then the noble moral qualities of which the beauty of this king is the transparent form, ought to be more definitely expressed. Thus personally conceived, as it is here, beauty itself is a blessing, not a ground for blessing. The fact of the matter is this, beauty is denoted by על־כן as a reason for the blessing being known or recognised, not as a reason why the king should be blessed. From his outward appearance it is at once manifest that the king is one who is blessed by God, and that blessed for ever. The psalmist could not but know that "grace is deceitful and beauty vain" (Proverbs 31:30), therefore the beauty of this king was in his eyes more than mere earthly beauty; it appears to him in the light of a celestial transfiguration, and for this very reason as an imperishable gift, in which there becomes manifest an unlimited endless blessing.
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