ICC New Testament Commentary
Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.6:1-18. Three illustrations of the statement that “righteousness” is not to be like that of “the hypocrites.”
(L) 1. Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be seen of them: if ye do, ye have no reward from your Father who is in the heavens.]
δικαιοσύνην refers back to 5:20. “Righteousness” is to exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees in the sense illustrated in 5:21-48. It is also to differ in kind from that of the scribes and Pharisees in avoiding ostentation.—θεαθῆναι αὐτοῖς] For the construction, cf. 23:5, and see Blass, p. 113.
2-4. First illustration.
(L) 2. But when thou art doing alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be glorified by men. Verily I say to you, They have their reward already.]
σαλπίσῃς] Not to be taken literally, but as a metaphor for methods of attracting notice.—οἱ ὑποκριταί] i.e. the scribes and Pharisees; cf. 15:7, 22:18, 23:13, 14, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29.
ῥμαις] See Kennedy, Sources, p. 15.
ὅπως δοξασθῶσιν] Contrast Bab. Bathra 10b “They (idolators) only do alms to be exalted.”
ἀπέχουσι] For ἀπέχω and its use in receipts, see Deissm. Bible Studies, p. 229. It means here, “They have their reward now, and can expect none in future.”
(L) 3. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth.]—σοῦ δὲ ποιοῦντος] For the construction of the participle, see Blass, p. 252; Moulton, p. 74.
(L) 4. That thy alms may be (done) in secret: and thy Father who sees what is secret shall recompense thee openly.] Cf. Bab. Bathra 9b “He who does alms in secret is greater than Moses our teacher.”
ὁ βαλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ] Cf. Sotah 9a “She does it in secret; but the who sits in the secret place, the Most High, looks upon her.”
1. δικαιοσύνην] So א* et b B D S1; ἑλεημοσύνην, E K al; δόσιν אa; gift, S2. δικαιοσύνη is probably original, because v. 1 is a general introduction to the following section. The “righteousness” which is not to be ostentatiously paraded is illustrated under the three subdivisions of “alms” 2-4, “prayer” 5-6, “fasting” 16-18. δικαιοσύνην has, therefore, much the same sense as in 5:20, and means the religious life as expressed in the carring out of religious duties. The variant reading is due to the fact that the Hebrew and Aramaic צדקה, צקדא had acquired the sense of “alms,” and that ποιεῖν δικαιοσύνην might, therefore, have the meaning to do alms in any context where this meaning was required.—ἐλεημοσύνη] is the substitution of a more direct synonym for δικαιοσύνη understood (wrongly here) in the sense of “alms.”
4. ἁποδώσει σοι] Add ἐν τῷ φανερῷ, E K al S1 a b c f g1 h q. The agreement of the Old Syriac and the Old Latin proves the reading to be an ancient one. And such antithesis is in the style of Mt. Cf. Intro. p. xxxi. If it is genuine here, its occurrence, in some authorities, in vv. 6 and 18 is accounted for as an assimilation to this passage.
5-8. Second illustration.
(L) 5. And when ye pray, ye shall not be as the hypocrites: because they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the open places, that they may be seen of men. verily I say to you, That they have their reward already.] The whole verse is omitted by S1.
οὐκ ἔσεθε] For the fut. ind., cf. Blass, p. 209.
(L) 6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy chamber, and having shut thy door, pray to thy Father who is in secret; and thy Father who sees what is secret shall recompense thee.]
ταμεῖον] The word thus spelt occurs in the Papyri. See Deissm. Bible Studies, p. 182; Blass, p. 23; Ditt. Syll. 418, 10, 87; 892, 6.—ἀποδώσει] The verb seems less relevant here and in v. 18 than in v. 4, where it forms a contrast to “give alms.” Here the emphasis is not on the answering of prayer, but on the reward of avoidance of ostentation. Mt. adds other sayings which bear upon the same subject, vv. 7-15.
(L) 7. And when ye pray, do not speak idly, as do the heathen: for they think they shall be heard for their quantity of words.]
ἐθνικοί] See on 5:47.—βαττολογήσητε] The Sinaitic Syriac renders “do not be saying baṭṭâlâthâ,” i.e. idle things. The meaning of βαττολογεῖν is unknown. It may be an attempt to render אמר בטלתא. This and the following verse probably comes from the Logia, but did not stand there in the Sermon. It is directed against heathen, not against hypocrites = Pharisees.
(L) 8. Be not therefore like to them: for your Father knoweth what things ye need, before you ask Him.]
οἶδε γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν] Cf. v. 32 = Luke 12:30.—αἰτῆσαι] D h have ἀνοῖξαι τὸ στόμα. For “before you ask Him,” cf. Isaiah 65:24.
9. The editor here adds, vv. 9-12, the Lord’s Prayer. This is found in Luke 11:1-4 in a different context and in a shorter form. Mt. probably drew it from the Logia. In the source from which Lk. drew it its Jewish and eschatological colouring had been partially obscured. The Jewish phrase “which art in heaven” had been omitted. The further omission of “Thy will be done as in heaven, so upon earth,” partially obscures the eschatological significance of the first three petitions as they stand in the first Gospel. The substitution of sins (ἁμαρτίας) for ὀφειλήματα avoids the Jewish metaphor implied in the latter word. Lastly, the omission of “but deliver us from evil” avoids an ambiguous phrase. See below.
(L) Thus therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in the heavens, Hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven so upon earth. Our daily bread give us to-day. And forgive us our debts, as we forgave our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil.]—οὕτως] i.e. “after this manner,” not “in these words.”—ὑμεῖς] in contrast to αὑτοῖς, v. 8.—πάτερ—ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς] See on 5:16. The first three petitions are eschatological in scope, and pray for the inauguration of the kingdom; cf. Introduction, p. lxix. For the aorist imperatives as appropriate in prayer, cf. Moulton, p. 173. When the kingdom has come, God’s name will be sanctified and His will will be realised.—ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομα σου] Cf. Isaiah 29:23 “They shall sanctify My name,” Ezekiel 36:23 “I will sanctify My great name.” The “name” of God is equivalent to His nature as revealed. In one respect His name is profaned when His people are ill-treated. The sin of the nation which brought about the captivity had caused a profanation of the Name, Isaiah 43:25, Isaiah 48:11, Ezekiel 36:20-23. By their restoration His name was to be sanctified. But this sanctification was only a foreshadowing of a still future consummation. Only when the “kingdom” came would God’s name be wholly sanctified in the final redemption of His people from reproach. Thus the petition, “Hallowed be Thy name,” carries with it the anticipation of the next clause. “Hallowed be Thy name.” Yes, but when can that be? Only when the kingdom is inaugurated. So “Thy kingdom come.” Cf. the collocation of the two clauses, “May His great name be sanctified,” and “May His sovereignty reign,” in the Jewish prayer cited below. Further, when His name has been sanctified in the redemption of His people and in the establishment of the kingdom, then, and then only, will it be true that God’s will is done. Hence the third petition forms the climax of the first two. D* a b c k omit ὡς before ἐν οὐρανῷ. With or without ὡς the sense is the same: “May Thy will be done” throughout the universe. The addition of ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ (τῆς) γῆς does not exclude the reference to the coming “kingdom,” since there is nothing in the Gospel which leads us to believe that the editor thought of that kingdom as purely heavenly or spiritual. True, the Son of Man is to come on the clouds of heaven, and the elect are to be gathered from the ends of the earth. But, on the other hand, the wicked are to be gathered out of the kingdom, and the just to shine forth in it (13:41-43). The phrase “heaven and earth shall pass away,” 24:35, need not be anything more than a rhetorical statement by contrast of the eternal validity of Christ’s words; cf. 5:18. Even if they are understood as a direct statement of a future passing away of the heaven and earth (cf. Isaiah 65:17, Isaiah 66:22), they must be interpreted in the light of the conception of the παλιγγενεσία of 19:28, in which the apostles are to judge the twelve tribes of Israel. The contrast heaven-earth is frequent in the later Jewish literature; cf. Berakh 29b “Do Thy will in heaven above, and give rest of spirit to them that fear Thee beneath”; 17a “May it be Thy will, O Lord our God, to establish peace in the upper family and in the lower family”; Joma 39a “If a man sanctifies himself below, they sanctify him above”; cf. Psalm 135:6.
The prayer passes from aspiration for the sanctification of God’s name by the inauguration of the “kingdom,” in which His will will be universally recognised and carried into effect, to three petitions which concern the daily life of those who are awaiting the “kingdom.” The first is for the satisfaction of bodily necessities.
11. Give us to-day our daily bread.]—σήμερον] Lk. has τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν and δίδου for δός.—ἐπιούσιος] The word is obscure. The Syriac versions S1 S2 have “continual bread,” but S3 “bread of our necessity.” Jerome says that the Gospel according to the Hebrews had “of the morrow,” and this would agree with the usual derivation of ἐπιούσιος from the participle ἐπιοῦσα Cf. the phrase ἡ ἐπιοῦσα (ἡμέρα) = “the morrow.” But this meaning does not harmonise readily with σήμερον in this verse, nor with 6:34 “Take no thought for the morrow,” and Greek phrases for “for the morrow” were ready to hand without coining a new adjective for the purpose. Jerome substituted supersubstantialem in Mt. For this and other renderings, see Chase, Texts and Studies, i. 3, pp. 42-53. It is difficult not to think that τὸν ἐπιουσίον rests upon misunderstanding (false transliteration?) of an original Aramaic phrase, or upon a Greek corruption. If Lk. did not borrow it from Mt., their agreement proves that the word must have become stereotyped in Greek versions of the prayer at a very early period. We should expect a phrase corresponding to the “my needful bread” of Proverbs 30:8; cf. Job 23:12.
The second is for the divine forgiveness of sin: “And remit to us our debts, as we also remitted to our debtors.” The conception of man’s indebtedness to God, and of his inability to pay the debt as constituting a state of sin which can only be removed by the divine remission of the debt and forgiveness of the sin, is illustrated in 18:21-35, where also the divine forgiveness is represented as conditional upon the forgiveness by men of their fellows. Cf. the saying of Rabbi Akiba in Aboth 30:20 “Everything is given on pledge, and the net is cast over all the living. The office is open; and the broker gives credit; and the ledger is open; and the hand writes; and whosoever will borrow comes and borrows; and the bailiffs go round continually day by day, and exact from a man whether he wills or not; and they have whereon to lean; and the judgement is a judgement of truth.” For the Aramaic חובא=debt or sin, cf. Targ. Isa 53:5Isa 53:5 = Heb. פשע.
The third petition is for deliverance from the evil that is in the world. The thought is that God allows men to be led into circumstances of moral danger and temptation. They are to pray that He will so overrule the circumstances of life that they may not come into positions of trial and difficulty, and that in any case He will deliver them from the snares of evil. The terms are left purposely ambiguous. ὁ πονηρός in 13:19, 28 means the Devil, who is the personification of evil. But here as in 5:37 it is better to assume a nominative τὸ πονηρόν, and to think of “the evil” as a wide generalisation of the evil element in life.
12. ἀφήκαμεν] א* B Z. ἀφίομεν, D al; ἀφίεμεν, א c G al; ἀφίωμεν, L “So that we also may,” S2. The right reading in Luke 11:4 is άφίομεν. The renderings of the Syriac versions are striking. In Mt. S1 is wanting. S2 has: “so that we also may.” In Lk. S1 has: “and we also ourselves forgive”; S2 “and we also will forgive.” The Acts of Thomas has: “that also we may forgive.” S3 has: “have forgiven” in both Gospels. In other words, the early Synac tradition understood the clause as a final one. But vv. 14 and 15 demand comparative sense. ἀφήκαμεν has the best attestation. The variants seem to be assimilations to Lk.
13. The doxology is omitted by א B D Z. Its insertion seems to be due to the liturgical use of the Lord’s Prayer, and the early forms of it vary. k has: “quoniam est tibi virtus in sæcula sæculorum”; S2 “Because Thine is the kingdom and the glory for ever and ever, Amen.” The Acts of Thomas omits it. The Didaché has: “For thine is the power and the glory for ever.”
With vv. 9-12 compare the ancient synagogal prayer known as the Kaddisch. I translate from Dalman’s Messianische Texte, appended to his Die Worte Jesu, Leipzig, 1898:
“May His great name be magnified and sanctified in the world which He has created according to His will. May His sovereignty reign” (or kingdom rule); or, “And may He cause His sovereignty to reign [and His redemption to shoot forth, and may He bring near His Messiah, and redeem His people] in your life and in your days, and in the life of all the house of Israel, speedily, and at a near time. And say ye Amen.”
(L) 14. For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.]
Similar words occur in Mark 11:25 “And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have anything against any one: that your Father who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.” Mt. has omitted them in the parallel to that passage, if indeed they stood in his copy of Mk. He inserts them here with the next verse from the Logia; cf. also 18:35.
(L) 15. But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
16-18. Third illustration.
(L) “And when ye fast, be not, as the hy pocrites, of a sad countenance; for they disfigure their faces that they may be seen to fast by men. Verily I say to you, That they have their reward already.]
σκυθρωποί] in the N.T. only again Luke 24:17. In the LXX it occurs Genesis 40:7, Nehemiah 2:1, Ecclus 25:23, and Daniel 1:10.—ἀφανίζουσι]. Cf. Joel 2:20 καὶ ἀφανιῶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, where, however, the sense is different. ἀφανίζειν seems not to be used elsewhere in this sense of the face. Cf. the epithet הצבועין = “dyed,” applied to the Pharisees by King Jannai in B. Sotah 22b (Wünsche, 299). ἀφανίζειν may have been chosen here to rhyme with φανῶσι.
(L) 17-18. But thou, when thou art fasting, anoint thy head, and wash thy face; that thou be seen not by men to fast, but by thy Father who is in secret. And thy Father, who sees what is secret, shall recompense thee.]
ἀποδώσει] See on v. 6.
6:19-7:6. Three prohibitions.
(a) 6:19-34. Relation to wealth.
This section finds parallels in Luke 12:22-34, Luke 11:34-35, Luke 16:18. Mt. drew most of it from the Logia, but may have massed together sayings or groups of sayings which were there disconnected. V. 19 may have been attached to 16-18 because of the occurrence in both of the verb ἀφανίζειν.
(L) 19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where moth and rust mar, and where thieves break through and steal.] Luke 12:33 has: “Sell your goods and give alms. Make for yourselves purses that do not become old.”
(L) 20. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth mar, and where thieves do not break through nor steal.] Luke 12:33 has: “a treasure unfailing in the heavens, where thief approaches not, nor moth corrupts.” Cf. Test. Lev 13:5Lev 13:5 “Do righteousness, my sons, upon earth, that you may have treasure in heaven”;1 Buddhist and Christian Gospels, Edmunds, p. 83, “Let the wise man do righteousness; a treasure that others can share not, which no thief can steal; a treasure which passeth not away.”2
(L) 21. For where thy treasure is, there will be thy heart also.] Luke 12:34 has: “For where your treasure is, there also your heart will be.”
22. To obtain this heavenly treasure you must keep your inner eye healthy by almsgiving.
(L) The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore thy eye be sound (=liberal), thy whole body will be light.] Luke 11:34 has: “The lamp of the body is thine eye. Whenever thy eye is sound, then thy whole body is light.”
The idea here is the naïve one that the eye is the organ through which light has access to the whole body, and that there is a spiritual eye through which spiritual light enters and illuminates the whole personality. This spiritual eye must be kept sound, or else light cannot enter, and the inner man dwells in darkness. But how can it be kept sound? The contrast ἁπλοῦς—πονηρός suggests the answer, by liberality and almsgiving. Treasure is not to be hoarded, but to be given away. In Jewish idiom, “a good eye” is a metaphor for liberality, “an evil eye” for niggardliness. Cf. Deuteronomy 15:9 “Beware that … thine eye be evil against thy poor brother, and thou give him nought,” 28:54-56; Proverbs 23:6 “Eat not the bread of him that hath an evil eye,” because he is niggardly, and grudges what you eat, 28:22 “He that hath an evil eye hasteth after riches” by hoarding up wealth, 22:9 “He that hath a good eye (טוב עין) … giveth of his bread to the poor”; To 4:7 “Give alms of thy substance … and let not thine eye be evil”; Ecclus 14:10 “An evil eye is grudging of bread, and he is miserly at his table”; Aboth 5:15 “He who is willing to give, but not that others should give, his eye is evil towards the things of others,” i.e. he wishes to have a monopoly of liberality for himself; Shemoth R. 31 (Wünsche, 235).
We should therefore expect here, as a contrast to πονηρός, ἀγαθός rather than ἁπλοῦς. But (1) the phrase “a sound eye” may have had in the original saying a wider meaning than that of liberality, which is here imparted to it by the context. There is no such limitation in the passage as it stands in Lk. (2) ἁπλοῦς may have been chosen because it interprets ἀγαθός as = liberal; cf. Proverbs 11:25 ψυχὴ εὐλογουμένη πᾶσα ἁπλῆ, where ἀπλῆ after the preceding verse seems to mean liberal; Jam 1:5, where ἁπλῶς seems to mean “liberally,” and the use of ἁπλότης=liberality in 2 Corinthians 8:2, 2 Corinthians 9:11, Romans 12:8.
Cf. Test. Issach 3:4 “I slandered none, and I walked in singleness of eye.”
(L) 6:23. But if thine eye be evil (niggardly), thy whole body is dark. If therefore the light which is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness t] Luke 11:34-35 has: “But if it be evil, then thy body is dark. Take heed, therefore ! Perhaps the light which is in thee is darkness.”
The meaning is, “If thine eye be evil, i.e. if you are miserly and grudging, keeping your wealth for yourself, then spiritual light cannot penetrate unto you; and such light as you have becomes ever darker, till it ceases to be light, and becomes darkness.”
24. Moreover, you cannot have both the treasure upon earth and the treasure in heaven.
(L) No one can serve two masters. For either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will cleave to the one and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and Mammon.] So Luke 16:13 with οἰκείης after οὐδείς. Lk. has the saying in quite a different context. Mt. probably drew it from the Logia, where it need not have stood in this connection.
δυσί] See Blass, p. 35. For ὁ εἶς—ὁ ἕτερος, cf. Blass, p. 144.—μαμμωνᾶς] is derived by Dalm. Gram.2 p. 170, Anm. 1, from מַאְמוֹן = “deposited.” ממון and ממונא occur in the Talmuds, see Levy, and in the Targums.
25-33 occur in Luke 12:22-31. Mt. probably drew them from the Logia.
(L) 25. Therefore I say to you, Be not careful for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor for your body, what ye shall put on.] So Lk. omitting the first ὑμῶν and ἢ τί πίητε.
Is not the life more than food, and the body than raiment ?] Lk. has: “For the life,” etc.
The connection seems to be: “Because you cannot lay up treasure on earth and in heaven, therefore give up all thought of earthly treasure, and even of the necessities of life, which God will provide for you.”
The διὰ τοῦτο occurs also in Lk. in quite a different context. Here the connection seems loose. After v. 24 we should expect: “Therefore serve God and renounce wealth,” or words to that effect. The διὰ τοῦτο seems to refer back to some assurance of the providential care of God for those who trust in Him. Mt may have transferred it to this place from some context in the Logia where the διὰ τοῦτο would be more applicable.
The thought of the last clause seems to be that God, who has given the life and the body, will also provide the lesser gifts of food and raiment.
(L) 26. Look at the birds of heaven, that they sow not, nor harvest, nor gather into granaries. And your heavenly Father feeds them. Are ye not of more value than they ?] Lk. has: “Consider the ravens, that they sow not nor harvest, who have neither chamber nor granary, and God feeds them; of how much more value are ye than the birds!”
Cf. Job 12:7-9, and New Sayings of Jesus, Il. 9-14. “Jesus saith, (ye ask who are those) that draw us (to the kingdom if) the kingdom is in heaven? The fowls of the air, and all beasts that are under the earth, or upon the earth, and the fishes of the sea.” Son 5:11Son 5:11Son 5:11 τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ τοὺς ἰχθύας σὺ τρέφεις
(L) 27. And which of you by being careful can add to his stature one cubit?] So Lk. omitting ἕνα. Lk. adds: “If therefore ye are able (to do) not even the least, why are ye careful about the rest?” The saying is a difficult one. πῆχυς is a measure of space, not of time. ἡλικία can mean either age, duration of life, or stature. In Mt the latter seems more appropriate. V. 25 lays down the double precept, Take anxious thought neither for the nourishment of the life, nor for the clothing of the body. V. 26 illustrates the former precept, Take no anxious thought for the nourishment of the life. God nourishes the birds of heaven. Much more will He care for you. Vv. 27-30 seem to illustrate the second precept about the body. You cannot increase your bodily stature, and are not so foolish as to spend thought on trying to do so. Why then be anxious about the clothing of the body? God who clothes the flowers will clothe you. The structure of the passage may be illustrated as follows:
General proposition. Take no thought either (a) for the nourishment of your life; nor (b) for the clothing of your body (v. 25).
For (a) God will provide nourishment (v. 26).
(b) (1) You cannot increase the height of your body. Why then trouble about its clothing? (v. 27). (2) God will clothe you (vv. 28-30). It will be seen that there is nothing in (a) corresponding to b 1, and the argument from the impossibility of adding to the height of the body to avoidance of care about its clothing seems so forced that many commentators prefer to render ἡλικία by length of life. For πῆχυς in reference to time, cf. Psalm 39:5 “Behold thou hast made mine age as handbreadths”; and see Zahn, in loc. V. 27 must then be connected with v. 26 thus:
General proposition. Take no thought for life or body (v. 25).
For (a) God will nourish your life. And you cannot add to its length (vv. 26-27).
(b) God will clothe you (vv. 28-30).
The difficulty of the verse is increased by Lk.’s addition, for ἐλάχιστον seems to refer to the “adding to one’s age or stature,” and τῶν λοιπῶν to nourishment and clothing; and it is not easy to see how the former, whether ἡλικία be translated age or stature, can be said to be “least” as compared with the two latter.
(L) 28. And for raiment, why are ye careful? Study the flowers of the field, how they grow; they toil not, they spin not.) Lk. has: “If therefore ye cannot even (do) the least, why are ye careful about the rest? Consider (κατανοήσατε) the flowers, how they grow.
They toil not, nor spin.”—καταμάθετε] see Moulton, p. 117, who suggests “understand, take in this fact about.”
(L) 29. And I say to you, That not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed as one of these.] So Lk., omitting ὃτι.
(L) 30. And if the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, God so dresses, will He not much more (clothe) you, O ye of little faith ?] Lk. has: “And if in the field the grass which is to-day, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, God so dresses, how much more (will He clothe) you, O ye of little faith!”—ὀλιγόπιστοι] The object of the πίστις here is God, and faith is confidence, assurance, trust in His power and willingness to care for the bodily needs of those who trust in Him. See on 8:26, 14:31, 16:8. The word does not occur in Mk., once in Luke 12:28.
(L) 31. Be not therefore careful, saying, What shall we eat ? or what shall we drink? or wherewith shall we be clothed?] Lk. has: “And ye do not seek what ye shall eat, and what ye shall drink, and be not of doubtful mind(?).”
(L) 32. For all these things the Gentiles seek after. For your heavenly Father knoweth that you need all these things.] Lk. has: “For all these things the Gentiles of the world seek after. But your Father knoweth that ye need these things.”
(L) 33. But seek first His kingdom and righteousness; and all these things shall be added to you.] Lk. has: “But seek His kingdom, and these things shall be added to you.
(L) 34. Be not therefore careful against the morrow; for the morrow will be careful of its own (affairs). Sufficient for the day is its evil.]
Cf. Sanhedrin 100b “Trouble thyself not about the trouble of the morrow, for thou knowest not what a day brings forth. Perhaps on the morrow thou wilt not exist, and so wilt have troubled about that which does not exist for thee.”
ἀρκετός] a late and rare word; cf. Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 257: “Outside the N.T. only authenticated hitherto in Chrysippus (in Athen. iii. 79, p. 113b); is also found in the Fayûm Papyri, BU 531, ii. 24 (second cent. a.d.) and 33. 5 (second to third cent. a.d.).” Add Jos. Wars, iii. 130: ἀρκετὴν δύναμιν.
33. τἠν βασιλείαν] Add τοῦ θεοῦ, E al S2 latt. k has τοῦ θεοθ for αὐτοῦ after δικαιοσύνην. B transposes βασιλείαν and δικαιοσύνην. The explanatory τοῦ θεοῦ is quite needless after ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν of the previous verse. The transposition of B, which is hardly likely to be genuine, is perhaps due to observance of the fact that δικαιοσύνη is said to be a requisite for admission into the kingdom, 5:20, and should therefore come first.
34. μεριμνήσει ἑαντῆς] the harsh construction is due to translation from Aramaic. See Wellhausen, in loc. E K al have τὰ ἑαυτῆς to ease the Greek.
L the Matthæan Logia.
S Syriac version: Sinaitic MS.
E editorial passages.
al i.e. with other uncial MSS.
S Syriac version: Curetonian.
Ditt. Dittenberger Sylloge.
O quotations from the Old Testament borrowed from a collection of Messianic prophecies. See pp.61 f.
S Syriac version: Peshitta.
B. Babylonian Talmud.
1 See Charles, Hibbert Journal, April 1905, p. 563.
2 Mr. W. T. Lendrum (Class. Rev. July 1906, 307) quotes the following parallel from Pindar, Frag. 22:
Διὸς παῖ ὸ χρυσός.
κεῖνον οὑ σῆς οὐδὲ λὶς δάπτει.
Ps.-Sol. The Psalms of Solomon.
BU Aegyptische Urkunden aus den Koenig lichen Museum zu Berlin, 1892 ff.
latt. Manuscripts of the Old Latin Version.
Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:
That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.
And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.
But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking.
Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him.
After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you:
But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face;
That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.
Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:
But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal:
For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.
But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?
Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin:
And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?
(For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.
But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.
Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.