1 Corinthians 4:9
For I think that God has set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to men.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) For . . .—This introduces the reason why he may well express the devout wish which he has just uttered for the coming of the kingdom of his Lord. The imagery of this passage would be easily understood by the Corinthians, familiar as they were with the arena. The writer, in a few striking phrases, pictures himself and his apostolic brethren forming the “last and most worthless” band brought forth to struggle and die in the great arena, where the whole world, including men and angels, sit, spectators of the fight. There is, perhaps, a slight contrast intended here between the Corinthians sitting by criticising, and the Apostles engaging actually in the struggle against evil—a contrast which is brought out more strikingly in the brief and emphatic sentence forming 1Corinthians 4:10.

1 Corinthians 4:9. For God hath set forth us the apostles — And all faithful ministers; last, as it were appointed to death — He alludes to the Roman theatrical spectacles, in which those persons were brought forth last on the stage, either to fight with each other, or with wild beasts, who were devoted to death; so that if they escaped one day, they were brought out again and again, till they were killed. For, from a passage of Seneca’s Epistles, quoted by Whitby, it appears that in the morning those criminals, to whom they gave a chance of escaping with their lives, fought with the wild beasts armed. But in the afternoon the gladiators fought naked, and he who escaped was only reserved for slaughter to another day; so that they might well be called επιθανατιους, persons appointed to death. “By comparing the apostles to these devoted persons, Paul hath given us a strong and affecting picture of the dangers which the apostles encountered in the course of their ministry; dangers which at length proved fatal to most of them. Their labours and sufferings were greater than those of the ancient prophets.” A spectacle to the world, to angels, and to men — “By the angels, to whom the apostles were made a spectacle, some understand the evil angels, who may be supposed to delight in the blood of the martyrs. Others understand the good angels, to whom the faith and constancy of the apostles gave great joy. Probably both were intended. For it must have animated the apostles in combating with their persecutors, to think that they were disappointing the malice of evil spirits, while they were making the angels in heaven and good men on earth happy, by the faith, and patience, and fortitude, which they were exerting in so noble a cause.” — Macknight.4:7-13 We have no reason to be proud; all we have, or are, or do, that is good, is owing to the free and rich grace of God. A sinner snatched from destruction by sovereign grace alone, must be very absurd and inconsistent, if proud of the free gifts of God. St. Paul sets forth his own circumstances, ver. 9. Allusion is made to the cruel spectacles in the Roman games; where men were forced to cut one another to pieces, to divert the people; and where the victor did not escape with his life, though he should destroy his adversary, but was only kept for another combat, and must be killed at last. The thought that many eyes are upon believers, when struggling with difficulties or temptations, should encourage constancy and patience. We are weak, but ye are strong. All Christians are not alike exposed. Some suffer greater hardships than others. The apostle enters into particulars of their sufferings. And how glorious the charity and devotion that carried them through all these hardships! They suffered in their persons and characters as the worst and vilest of men; as the very dirt of the world, that was to be swept away: nay, as the offscouring of all things, the dross of all things. And every one who would be faithful in Christ Jesus, must be prepared for poverty and contempt. Whatever the disciples of Christ suffer from men, they must follow the example, and fulfil the will and precepts of their Lord. They must be content, with him and for him, to be despised and abused. It is much better to be rejected, despised, and ill used, as St. Paul was, than to have the good opinion and favour of the world. Though cast off by the world as vile, yet we may be precious to God, gathered up with his own hand, and placed upon his throne.For I think - It seems to me. Grotius thinks that this is to be taken ironically, as if he had said, "It seems then that God has designed that we, the apostles, should be subject to contempt and suffering; and be made poor and persecuted, while you are admitted to high honors and privileges." But probably this is to be taken as a serious declaration of Paul, designed to show their actual condition and trials, while others were permitted to live in enjoyment. Whatever might be their condition, Paul says that the condition of himself and his fellow-laborers was one of much contempt and suffering; and the inference seems to be, that they ought to doubt whether they were in a right state, or had any occasion for their self-congratulation, since they so little resembled those whom God had set forth.

Hath set forth - Has "showed" us; or placed us in public view.

The apostles last - Margin, or, "the last apostles" τοὺς ἀποστόλους ἐσχάτους tous apostolous eschatous. Grotius supposes that this means in the lowest condition; the humblest state; a condition like that of beasts. So Tertullian renders it. And this interpretation is the correct one if the passage be ironical. But Paul may mean to refer to the custom of bringing forth those in the amphitheater at the conclusion of the spectacles who were to fight with other men, and who had no chance of escape. These inhuman games abounded everywhere; and an allusion to them would be well understood, and is indeed often made by Paul; compare 1 Corinthians 9:26; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7; see Seneca Epis. chapter 7. This interpretation receives support from the words which are used here, "God hath exhibited," "spectacle," or "theater," which are all applicable to such an exhibition. Calvin, Locke, and others, however, suppose that Paul refers to the fact that he was the last of the apostles; but this interpretation does not suit the connection of the passage.

As it were - (ὡς hōs). Intimating the certainty of death.

Appointed unto death - ἐπιθανατίους epithanatious. Devoted to death. The word occurs no where else in the New Testament. It denotes the certainty of death, or the fact of being destined to death; and implies that such were their continued conflicts, trials, persecutions, that it was morally certain that they would terminate in their death, and only when they died, as the last gladiators on the stage were destined to contend until they should die. This is a very strong expression; and denotes the continuance, the constancy, and the intensity of their sufferings in the cause of Christ.

We are made a spectacle - Margin, "theater" θέατρον theatron. The theater, or amphitheater of the ancients was composed of an arena, or level floor, on which the combatants fought, and which was surrounded by circular seats rising above one another to a great height, and capable of containing many thousands of spectators. Paul represents himself as on this arena or stage, contending with foes, and destined to death. Around him and above him are an immense host of human beings and angels, looking on at the conflict, and awaiting the issue. He is not alone or unobserved. He is made public; and the universe gazes on the struggle. Angels and human beings denote the universe, as gazing upon the conflicts and struggles of the apostles. It is a vain inquiry here, whether he means good or bad angels. The expression means that he was public in his trials, and that this was exhibited to the universe. The whole verse is designed to convey the idea that God had, for wise purposes, appointed them in the sight of the universe, to pains, and trials, and persecutions, and poverty, and want, which would terminate only in their death; see Hebrews 12:1, etc. What these trials were he specifies in the following verses.

9. For—assigning the reason for desiring that the "reign" of himself and his fellow apostles with the Corinthians were come; namely, the present afflictions of the former.

I think—The Corinthians (1Co 3:18) "seemed" to (literally, as here, "thought") themselves "wise in this world." Paul, in contrast, "thinks" that God has sent forth him and his fellow ministers "last," that is, the lowest in this world. The apostles fared worse than even the prophets, who, though sometimes afflicted, were often honored (2Ki 1:10; 5:9; 8:9, 12).

set forth—as a spectacle or gazing-stock.

us the apostles—Paul includes Apollos with the apostles, in the broader sense of the word; so Ro 16:7; 2Co 8:23 (Greek for "messengers," apostles).

as it were appointed to death—as criminals condemned to die.

made a spectacle—literally, "a theatrical spectacle." So the Greek in Heb 10:33, "made a gazing-stock by reproaches and afflictions." Criminals "condemned to die," in Paul's time, were exhibited as a gazing-stock to amuse the populace in the amphitheater. They were "set forth last" in the show, to fight with wild beasts. This explains the imagery of Paul here. (Compare Tertullian [On Modesty, 14]).

the world—to the whole world, including "both angels and men"; "the whole family in heaven and earth" (Eph 3:15). As Jesus was "seen of angels" (1Ti 3:16), so His followers are a spectacle to the holy angels who take a deep interest in all the progressive steps of redemption (Eph 3:10; 1Pe 1:12). Paul tacitly implies that though "last" and lowest in the world's judgment, Christ's servants are deemed by angels a spectacle worthy of their most intense regard [Chrysostom]. However, since "the world" is a comprehensive expression, and is applied in this Epistle to the evil especially (1Co 1:27, 28), and since the spectators (in the image drawn from the amphitheater) gaze at the show with savage delight, rather than with sympathy for the sufferers, I think bad angels are included, besides good angels. Estius makes the bad alone to be meant. But the generality of the term "angels," and its frequent use in a good sense, as well as Eph 3:10; 1Pe 1:12, incline me to include good as well as bad angels, though, for the reasons stated above, the bad may be principally meant.

For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death; the lot of us who are the apostles of Christ is not so externally happy, but a lot of poverty and misery, as if we were the worst of men, men appointed to death.

For we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men; to be a mere sight or gazingstock to the world, angels, or men. Some think that the apostle here hath a reference to the barbarous practice of the Romans, who first exposed and carried about for a sight those persons that were condemned to fight with wild beasts, that by them they might be torn in pieces. You are happy men, saith the apostle, if you can own Christ, and profess Christianity, and yet be in such credit and favour with the world, so full, and so rich, and so like princes: we are those whom God hath honoured to be his apostles and the first ministers of the gospel; our lot and portion is far otherwise. For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last,.... Meaning either in time, in respect to the prophets and patriarchs under the former dispensation; and to the apostles, who were sent forth by Christ when on earth; when he, and Barnabas, and others, had received their mission since his ascension; or in state and condition, who though they were set in the first place in the church, yet were the least in the esteem of men; and were treated as the most mean, vile, and abject of creatures; were set or showed forth to public view, and made a gazing stock by reproaches and afflictions. And

as it were appointed to death; were continually exposed unto it; were in death oft, always carrying about with them the dying of the Lord Jesus; and were all the day long killed for his sake; all which the apostle not only thought, but believed, were not casual things, fortuitous events, but the determinations and appointments of God; and were brought about in his wise providence to answer some valuable ends, which made him the more easy under them, and reconciled unto them.

For we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men. The word translated "spectacle" signifies a "theatre"; and the allusion is to the Roman theatres, in which various exercises were performed, for the gratification of the numerous spectators, who were placed around in a proper distance to behold; and not so much to the gladiators who fought, in such places, for the diversion of the multitude, as to those unhappy persons who were cast to the wild beasts, let loose upon them to devour them; which horrid barbarities were beheld by the surrounding company with great pleasure and satisfaction; and such a spectacle were the apostles in their sufferings and persecutions to the "whole" world, distinguished into "angels" and "men". By "angels" may be meant the devils, who stirred up the princes of this world against the apostles, to persecute and afflict them; than which nothing was a greater pleasure to these envious and malicious spirits: though good angels may be also included, as witnesses of the faith, courage, and constancy of the saints, and as comforters of them in all their tribulations; but evil angels seem chiefly designed: and by "men" are meant wicked men, who are as much pleased to behold the barbarities and butcheries committed upon the people of God, as the Romans in their theatres were to see the tragical scenes that were acted there.

For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a {g} spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

(g) He that thinks that Paul and the pope are alike, who lyingly boasts that he is his successor, let him compare the delicacies of the popish court with Paul's state as we see it here.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Corinthians 4:9. Γάρ] giving the ground of the foregoing wish: For the position of us apostles is to my mind such, that to us the συμβασ. would even be a thing very desirable! It is precisely the reverse of that!

In δοκῶ we have a palpable point in the statement. Comp on 1 Corinthians 7:40. Without ὅτι following, see in Kühner, a[665] Xen. Anab. v. 7. 13.

ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀπ.] does not refer simply to Paul (Calvin and others, including Schrader and Olshausen), which is forbidden by τοὺς ἀπ., but to the apostles generally. The designation τοὺς ἀποστ. is added by way of contrast to their position, in which they, instead of being at all privileged as apostles, were ἔσχατοι. Observe further, how in this passage, on to 1 Corinthians 4:13, Paul paints his picture of the apostles in colours drawn from his own personal experience.

ἐσχάτους] Predicate: as homines infimae sortis. Comp Mark 9:35; Alciphr. iii. 43; Dio Cassius, xlii. 5; Dem. 346, pen. It is joined with ἀποστ. by Erasmus, Castalio, Beza, and others, including Semler and Pott: “Deus nos, qui postremi apostoli facti fuimus, tamquam ἐπιθαν. oculis alior. sistit” (Pott). But in that case we should require to have τοὺς ἀπ. τοὺς ἐσχ., or at least τοὺς ἐσχ. ἀπ., because ἐσχ. would necessarily be the emphatic word; and at any rate, looked at generally, this would give us an inappropriate and unhistorical contrast between the experiences of the later apostles and those of the first.

ἀπέδειξεν] not: fecit, reddidit, but: He has set us forth, presented us as last, caused us to appear as such before the eyes of the world (see the following θέατρον κ.τ.λ[667]). Comp 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Plat. Conv. p. 179 C; Dem. 687. 11; Xen. Oec. v. 10; Wyttenbach, a[669] Plat. Phaed. p. 72 C.

Ὡς ἘΠΙΘΑΝΑΤ.] as men condemned to death, so that we appear as such. How true in view of their constant exposure to deadly perils! Comp 1 Corinthians 15:30 f.; 2 Corinthians 11:23 ff. Tertullian’s rendering (de pudie. 14): “veluti bestiarios,” although adopted by Beza, Calvin, Grotius, Cornelius a Lapide, Michaelis, Schrader, and others, is an arbitrary limitation of the meaning. The correct explanation is given by Chrysostom and Theophylact. Comp Dion. Hal. vii. 35.

ὍΤΙ ΘΈΑΤΡΟΝ ἘΓΕΝ. Κ.Τ.Λ[672]] serves to make good the statement from δοκῶ to ἐπιθαν.; hence it is a mistake to write , τι and connect it with θέατρ., as Hofmann conjectures should be done (“which spectacle we have in truth become to the world”). The meaning is: seeing that we have become a spectacle, etc. Θέατρον is here like θέα or θέαμα, as Aesch. Dial. Socr. iii. 20; Ach. Tat. I. p. 55. Comp θεατρίζεσθαι, Hebrews 10:33; ἐκθεατρίζεσθαι, Polyb. iii. 91. 10, v. 15. 2.

καὶ ἀγγ. κ. ἀνθρ.] specializes the τῷ κόσμῳ: to the whole world, both angels and men. The inhabitants of heaven and of earth gaze upon our hardships and persecutions as on a spectacle.

The word ἄγγελοι in the N. T., standing absolutely, is never used of the good and bad angels taken together (this against Zeger, Bengel, Olshausen, al[674]), nor of the bad alone (this against Vatablus, Estius, Calovius, Wolf, and others, including Flatt and Neander), but always only of the angels κατʼ ἐξοχήν, i.e. of the good angels (comp on Romans 8:38). Where it refers to the bad angels, it always has some addition defining it so (Matthew 25:41; 2 Corinthians 12:7; 2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6). Hahn’s objection is a trifling one (Theol. d. N. T. I. p. 261): that the angelic world generally is meant; comp also Hofmann. Yes, but the evil angels are no longer therein; see on Ephesians 2:2. Some have thought that we must bring in the bad angels, because θέατρον involves the idea: a subject of mirth and mockery. But this is purely arbitrary. The particular interest felt by the spectators in the drama of the apostolic fortunes might be very various, and even opposite in its nature; it is not here taken into consideration at all. Theodoret says well: πᾶσιν εἰς θεωρίαν πρόκειται τὰ ἡμέτερα· ἄγγελοι μὲν γὰρ τὴν ἡμετέραν ἀνδρίαν θαυμάζουσι, τῶν δὲ ἀνθρώπων οἱ μὲν ἐφήδονται τοῖς ἡμετέροις παθήμασιν, οἱ δὲ συναλγοῦσι μὲν, ἐπαμῦναι δὲ οὐκ ἰσχύουσιν. The way in which the angels come in here, therefore, must not be regarded as simply proverbial and figurative (Baur).

[665] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[667] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[669] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[672] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[674] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.1 Corinthians 4:9 gives reason in Paul’s sorrowful state for the wish that has escaped him. δοκῶ γὰρ ὁ Θεὸς κ.τ.λ. (ὅτι vanting after δοκῶ, as in 1 Corinthians 7:40; so in Eng.): “For, methinks, God has inhibited (spectandos proposuit, Bz[718]) us, the apostles, last”—at the end of the show, in the meanest place (for the use of ἔσχατος, cf. Mark 9:35; for the sentiment, 1 Corinthians 15:19 below)—“as (men) doomed to death”. One imagines a grand procession, on some day of public festival; in its rear march the criminals on their way to the arena, where the populace will be regaled with their sufferings. Paul’s experience in Ephesus suggests the picture (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:32); that of 2 Corinthians 2:14 is not dissimilar. “The app.” (cf. 1 Corinthians 9:1, 1 Corinthians 15:5 ff.), not P. alone, are set in this disgrace: Acts 1-12. illustrates what is said; possibly recent (unrecorded) sufferings of prominent missionaries gave added point to the comparison. Ἀπο-δείκνυμι (to show—off) takes its disparaging sense from the connexion, like δειγματίζω in Colossians 2:15. ἐπιθανατίους (later Gr[719]) = ἐπὶ τ. θάνατον ὄντας.—ὅτι θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν τῷ κόσμῳ does not give the reason for the above ἀπόδειξις, but re-affirms the fact with a view to bring forward the spectators; this clause apposed to the foregoing, in which ὅτι was implicit: “Methinks God has set forth us the app. last, as sentenced to death,—that we have been made a spectacle to the world,” etc. Hf[720] would read , τι θέατρον, “which spectacle,” etc.—a tempting constr[721], suiting the lively style of the passage; but ὅστις occurs as adj[722] nowhere in the N.T. (unless, possibly, in Hebrews 9:9), and rarely at all in Gr[723] θέατρον “may mean the place, spectators, actors, or spectacle: the last meaning is the one used here, and the rarest” (Lt[724]). “To the world:” so Peter, e.g., at Jerus., Paul in the great Gentile capitals. “Both to angels and men” extends the ring to include those invisible watchers—“καί singles them out for special attention” (Lt[725])—of whose presence the Ap. was aware (see 1 Corinthians 11:10, and other parts.); angels, as such, in contrast with men,—not the good or bad angels specifically (cf. note on 1 Corinthians 6:3). Ephesians 3:10 f. intimates that the heavenly Intelligences learn while they watch.

[718] Beza’s Nov. Testamentum: Interpretatio et Annotationes (Cantab., 1642).

[719] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[720]
J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[721] construction.

[722] adjective.

[723] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[724]
J. B. Lightfoot’s (posthumous) Notes on Epp. of St. Paul (1895).

[725] J. B. Lightfoot’s (posthumous) Notes on Epp. of St. Paul (1895).9. For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were approved to death] So the original version of 1611. Our modern Bibles read appointed with Tyndale and Cranmer. Cf. ch. 1 Corinthians 15:31; Psalm 44:22; Romans 8:36; 2 Corinthians 4:11. It is possible that we have here, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:17, an expression of that expectation of Christ’s speedy coming which we know was general among the Christians of the Apostolic age. We know (Mark 13:32) that the Apostle’s inspiration did not extend to this subject. However this may be, the Apostles are represented as coming last in a procession of gladiators, as devoted to death, (Tertullian renders the word bestiarios, “appointed to fight with beasts,” see ch. 1 Corinthians 15:32,) and the whole universe, angels and men, as spectators of the conflict. Cf. Hebrews 10:33; Hebrews 12:1. The image is taken from the Isthmian games which were held near Corinth. See notes on ch. 1 Corinthians 9:24-27.1 Corinthians 4:9. Δοκῶ, I think) A feeling of humility; a gentle mimesis.[35] The Corinthians thought [or, seemed to themselves, δοκεῖ, c. 1 Corinthians 3:18] that they excelled.—ΤΟῪς ἈΠΟΣΤΌΛΟΝς, ἘΣΧΆΤΟΥς, the apostles, last) ἐσχάτος, the most worthless, 1 Corinthians 4:10-11. The antithetical words are put down in one and the same passage. The prophets also were afflicted, but the apostles much more; and the prophets were able to destroy their enemies, for example Elias [and so greatly were they esteemed among men, that even the Nobles considered themselves bound to reverence them, and to follow or send for them with every mark of honour, 2 Kings 1:10; 2 Kings 5:9; 2 Kings 8:9; 2 Kings 8:12.—V. g.], but it was the lot of the apostles to suffer and endure to the end.—ἀπέδειξεν) In Latin, munus ostendere, munus declarare, are the idiomatic expressions applied to the public shows among the Romans.—ἐπιθανατίους) ΠΡΟΣΔΟΚΩΜΈΝΟΥς ἈΠΟΘΑΝΕῖΝ, expecting to be put to death. See Hesychius.—τῷ κόσμῳ, to the world) which is immediately after divided into angels and men, without the repetition of the article.—καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις, to angels and men) i.e. those that are good; but rather, those that are bad.

[35] See Appendix. A delicate allusion to the words of another whom we wish to set right: as the apostle’s δοκῶ here refers to the Corinthians’ δοκεῖ, chap. 1 Corinthians 3:18.—ED.Verse 9. - For. This word shows how different was the reality. Hath set forth; displayed as on a stage (2 Thessalonians 2:4). Us the apostles. St. Paul identifies them with himself; but undoubtedly he had "laboured more abundantly than they all." Last. Servants of all; in the lowest circumstances of humiliation (comp. Mark 9:35). The apostles. Not the twelve only, but those who might be called apostles in a wider sense, who shared the same afflictions (Hebrews 10:33). As it were appointed to death. This daily doom is referred to by St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:30, 31; 2 Corinthians 4:11; Romans 8:36. Tertullian renders the word "veluti bestiaries," like criminals condemned to the wild beasts ('De Pudicit.,' 14). But the day had not yet come when Christians were to hear so often the terrible cry, "Christianos ad leones!" A spectacle; literally, a theatre. The same metaphor is used in Hebrews 10:33. To angels. The word, when used without an epithet, always means good angels, who are here supposed to look down in sympathy (comp. Hebrews 12:22). For

Introducing a contrast between the inflated self-satisfaction of the Corinthians and the actual condition of their teachers. You have come to reign, but the case is very different with us, for I think, etc.

Hath set forth (ἀπέδειξεν)

Only twice in Paul's writings; here, and 2 Thessalonians 2:4. See on approved, Acts 2:22. In classical Greek used of publishing a law; shewing forth, and therefore naming or creating a king or military leader; bringing forward testimony; displaying treasure, etc. So here, exhibiting.

Last (ἐσχάτους)

As in Mark 9:35, of relative rank and condition: as having in men's eyes the basest lot of all.

Appointed to death (ἐπιθανατίους)

Rev., doomed. Only here in the New Testament. Probably an allusion to the practice of exposing condemned criminals in the amphitheatre to fight with beasts or with one another as gladiators. The gladiators, on entering the arena, saluted the presiding officer with the words Nos morituri salutamus, We who are to die greet you. Tertullian paraphrases this passage, God hath chosen us apostles last as beast-fighters. "The vast range of an amphitheatre under the open sky, well represents the magnificent vision of all created things, from men up to angels, gazing on the dreadful death-struggle; and then the contrast of the selfish Corinthians sitting by unconcerned and unmoved by the awful spectacle" (Stanley). For a similar image of spectators watching the contest in the arena, see Hebrews 12:1. Compare also 1 Corinthians 15:32.

Spectacle (θέατρον)

Primarily, a theatre; then that which is exhibited. Compare the kindred verb θεατριζόμενοι being made a gazing-stock, Hebrews 10:33.

Unto the world (τῷ κόσμω)

The universe, a sense not usual with Paul; compare 1 Corinthians 8:4. The words to angels and to men define world; so that the rendering of the American Rev. is preferable, both to angels and men. Principal Edwards remarks: "This comprehensive use of the word kosmos is remarkable, because, on the one hand, it is an advance on the Old-Testament conception of two separate spheres of existence, heaven and earth, not comprehended under any wider designation; and, on the other, because it differs from the meaning attached to the word among the Greeks; inasmuch as the apostle uses it of the spiritual as well as the physical totality of existence." The spiritual oneness of the universe is a conception eminently characteristic of St. Paul; but it is foreshadowed by Plato. "Communion and friendship and orderliness and temperance and justice bind together heaven and earth and gods and men; and this universe is therefore called kosmos or order; not disorder or misrule" ("Gorgias," 508).

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