Romans 9:12
Parallel Verses
New International Version
not by works but by him who calls--she was told, "The older will serve the younger."

New Living Translation
he calls people, but not according to their good or bad works.) She was told, "Your older son will serve your younger son."

English Standard Version
she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”

New American Standard Bible
it was said to her, "THE OLDER WILL SERVE THE YOUNGER."

King James Bible
It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
not from works but from the One who calls--she was told: The older will serve the younger.

International Standard Version
according to his calling and not by actions), Rebecca was told, "The older child will serve the younger one."

NET Bible
it was said to her, "The older will serve the younger,"

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
For it was said, “The elder shall be a Servant to the younger”,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
a choice based on God's call and not on anything people do.

Jubilee Bible 2000
it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

King James 2000 Bible
It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

American King James Version
It was said to her, The elder shall serve the younger.

American Standard Version
it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said to her: The elder shall serve the younger.

Darby Bible Translation
it was said to her, The greater shall serve the less:

English Revised Version
it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Webster's Bible Translation
It was said to her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Weymouth New Testament
"The elder of them will be bondservant to the younger."

World English Bible
it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger."

Young's Literal Translation
'The greater shall serve the less;'
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

9:6-13 The rejection of the Jews by the gospel dispensation, did not break God's promise to the patriarchs. The promises and threatenings shall be fulfilled. Grace does not run in the blood; nor are saving benefits always found with outward church privileges. Not only some of Abraham's seed were chosen, and others not, but God therein wrought according to the counsel of his own will. God foresaw both Esau and Jacob as born in sin, by nature children of wrath even as others. If left to themselves they would have continued in sin through life; but for wise and holy reasons, not made known to us, he purposed to change Jacob's heart, and to leave Esau to his perverseness. This instance of Esau and Jacob throws light upon the Divine conduct to the fallen race of man. The whole Scripture shows the difference between the professed Christian and the real believer. Outward privileges are bestowed on many who are not the children of God. There is, however, full encouragement to diligent use of the means of grace which God has appointed.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

It was said unto her,.... To Rebecca, Genesis 25:23,

the elder shall serve the younger, or "the greater shall serve the lesser", an Hebrew way of speaking; so Japheth is called "the great", or, as we render it, "the elder", Genesis 10:21; and the evil imagination is said (i) to be "greater", that is, elder than the good, thirteen years; See Gill on Luke 22:26; The sense is, Esau shall be a servant to Jacob; which is to be understood, not of temporal servitude; for in this sense he never was a servant to him; so far from it, that as soon as Jacob had got the birthright and blessing, he was obliged to flee from the face and fury of Esau; and upon his return after many years, he sent messengers to Esau in a very submissive manner, charging them after this manner, "thus shall ye shall say to my lord Esau, thy servant Jacob saith thus", &c. Genesis 32:4, and when he found that his brother was coming to meet him, which threw him into a panic fear, lest he should "smite him, and the mother with the children", Genesis 32:11, he prepares presents for him; and when he came to him, bowed himself seven times, and his wives and children bowed likewise; and the language in which he addressed his brother Esau, all the while they were together, was that of "my lord": now if this oracle was to be understood of outward temporal servitude, it is strange it should have no appearance, nor any shadow of an accomplishment in the persons of Jacob and Esau, supposing it was to have one in their posterity; and indeed the completion of it, in this sense, is not very evident in their offspring. It is certain, there was a long train of dukes and kings in Esau's family, before there was any king in Israel; the posterity of Esau were in lordly grandeur and splendour, when the children of Israel were grievously oppressed with hard bondage in Egypt. The single instance usually referred to, when the Edomites became tributaries to David, was near a thousand years after the giving out of this oracle; and this show of servitude did not last long, for in Joram's time they revolted, and so continued; and it is evident, that at the time of the Babylonish captivity, the children of Edom were prosperous and triumphant, and said concerning Jerusalem, "Raze it, raze it, even to the foundation thereof", Psalm 137:7, this servitude therefore is to be understood in a spiritual sense, of Esau's exclusion from the favour of God, and blessings of grace, signified by his being rejected from inheriting the blessing, which was given to Jacob; and it appeared that he was not a son, but a servant, by his departure, and pitching his dwelling elsewhere; which showed he had no interest in spiritual adoption, no right to the covenant of grace, nor was he an heir of heaven, all which were peculiar to Jacob: Esau was a servant of sin, under the dominion of it, and in bondage to it; whilst Jacob was the Lord's freeman, and, as a prince, had power with God and with men, and prevailed: Esau was serviceable to Jacob, both in things temporal and spiritual; as reprobates are to the elect, for all things are for their sakes, and work together for their good; Jacob's being obliged to flee from his brother, was for his good; by this means he got him a suitable wife, and large substance: his brother's meeting him on his return, which gave him so much pain and uneasiness, issued in his spiritual good; this sent him to the throne of grace, to humble himself before God, acknowledge his mercies, and his dependence on him, to implore his help, and plead his promises; and thus the oracle was verified in the persons of Jacob and Esau.

(i) Midrash Kohelet, fol. 80. 1.



Romans 9:12 Additional Commentaries
Context
God's Sovereign Choice
11for though the twins were not yet born and had not done anything good or bad, so that God's purpose according to His choice would stand, not because of works but because of Him who calls, 12it was said to her, "THE OLDER WILL SERVE THE YOUNGER." 13Just as it is written, "JACOB I LOVED, BUT ESAU I HATED."…
Cross References
Genesis 25:23
The LORD said to her, "Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples from within you will be separated; one people will be stronger than the other, and the older will serve the younger."

Matthew 6:24
"No one can serve two masters. Either you will hate the one and love the other, or you will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and money.
Treasury of Scripture

It was said to her, The elder shall serve the younger.

The elder. or, The greater.

Genesis 25:22,23 And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If …

2 Samuel 8:14 And he put garrisons in Edom; throughout all Edom put he garrisons, …

1 Kings 22:47 There was then no king in Edom: a deputy was king.

younger. or, lesser.

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