Leviticus 11:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

New Living Translation
You may eat any animal that has completely split hooves and chews the cud.

English Standard Version
Whatever parts the hoof and is cloven-footed and chews the cud, among the animals, you may eat.

New American Standard Bible
Whatever divides a hoof, thus making split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat.

King James Bible
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
You may eat any animal with divided hooves and that chews the cud.

International Standard Version
You may eat any animal that has divided hooves with cloven feet and that ruminates its cud,

NET Bible
You may eat any among the animals that has a divided hoof (the hooves are completely split in two) and that also chews the cud.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
all animals that have completely divided hoofs and that also chew their cud.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Whatever divides the hoof and is clovenfooted and chews the cud, among the animals, that shall you eat.

King James 2000 Bible
Whatsoever parts the hoof, and is cloven footed, and chews the cud, among the animals, that shall you eat.

American King James Version
Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven footed, and chews the cud, among the beasts, that shall you eat.

American Standard Version
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Whatsoever hath the hoof divided, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, you shall eat.

Darby Bible Translation
Whatever hath cloven hoofs, and feet quite split open, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts -- that shall ye eat.

English Revised Version
Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Webster's Bible Translation
Whatever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

World English Bible
Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and chews the cud among the animals, that you may eat.

Young's Literal Translation
any dividing a hoof, and cleaving the cleft of the hoofs, bringing up the cud, among the beasts, it ye do eat.
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

11:1-47 What animals were clean and unclean. - These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people's obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; and to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of these forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The law forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactness in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy our Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeemed and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who are dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God, and companions of his people.
]

Pulpit Commentary

Verses 3, 4. - Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, should rather be translated, Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and completely divides it, The camel parts but does not wholly divide the hoof, as there is ball at the back of the foot, of the nature of a heel.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven footed,.... That is, whose hoof is parted and cloven quite through; for there are some creatures that have partitions in their feet, but not quite through, they are parted above, but underneath are joined together by a skin; wherefore both these phrases are used to describe the beasts lawful to be eaten: the Egyptians seem to have borrowed this law from the Jews, for Chaeremon says (x), that they abstain from such four footed beasts that have only one hoof, or have many partitions, or have no horns: and so the Targum of Jonathan adds here,"which have horns,''which, though not in the text, agrees well with the creatures allowed by this law to be eaten, see Deuteronomy 14:4 for such are all horned cattle; nor are there any cattle horned forbid to be eaten:

and cheweth the cud among the beasts, that shall ye eat: who having no upper teeth cannot thoroughly chew their food at once, and therefore bring it up again out of their stomachs into their mouths and chew it over again, that it may be better prepared for digestion in the stomach, and so yield better nourishment; and this makes the flesh of such creatures fitter for food: and these creatures have more stomachs than one; the ventricles for rumination are four; the first is the paunch, which in oxen is so big as to hold food of fifty pound weight, the second the honeycomb, the third the tripe, the fourth the honey tripe, and to which are helpful the pectoral muscle, the abdomen, with the diaphragm (y): all this might have a moral and spiritual meaning in it, and may be applied either to ministers of the word; who ought rightly to divide the word of truth, and give to everyone their part, and who should walk uprightly according to it, and who should give themselves up wholly to the meditation of it, and thoroughly digest it; and study to show themselves workmen, that need not to be ashamed; or to private Christians, who have a discerning spirit in spiritual things, and can distinguish not only morality from immorality, but spiritual things from carnal, heavenly things from earthly, the voice of Christ from the voice of a stranger, and the doctrines of Christ from the doctrines of men; and who also walk as they should do, by faith on Christ, in the ways of God, and according to the Gospel; these chew the cud, meditate on the word, feed upon it while delivered, recall it, and have it brought to their remembrance by the divine Spirit, and ponder it in their hearts; see Psalm 1:1.

(x) Apud Porphyr. de Abstinentia, l. 4. sect. 7. (y) Scheuchzer. Physic. Sacr. vol. 2. p. 278, 279.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

3-7. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud—Ruminating animals by the peculiar structure of their stomachs digest their food more fully than others. It is found that in the act of chewing the cud, a large portion of the poisonous properties of noxious plants eaten by them, passes off by the salivary glands. This power of secreting the poisonous effects of vegetables, is said to be particularly remarkable in cows and goats, whose mouths are often sore, and sometimes bleed, in consequence. Their flesh is therefore in a better state for food, as it contains more of the nutritious juices, is more easily digested in the human stomach, and is consequently more easily assimilated. Animals which do not chew the cud, convert their food less perfectly; their flesh is therefore unwholesome, from the gross animal juices with which they abound, and is apt to produce scorbutic and scrofulous disorders. But the animals that may be eaten are those which "part the hoof as well as chew the cud," and this is another means of freeing the flesh of the animal from noxious substances. "In the case of animals with parted hoofs, when feeding in unfavorable situations a prodigious amount of foetid matter is discharged, and passes off between the toes; while animals with undivided hoofs, feeding on the same ground, become severely affected in the legs, from the poisonous plants among the pasture" [Whitlaw, Code of Health]. All experience attests this, and accordingly the use of ruminating animals (that is, those which both chew the cud and part the hoof) has always obtained in most countries though it was observed most carefully by the people who were favored with the promulgation of God's law.

Leviticus 11:3 Additional Commentaries
Context
Clean and Unclean Animals
2"Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, 'These are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth. 3Whatever divides a hoof, thus making split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat. 4'Nevertheless, you are not to eat of these, among those which chew the cud, or among those which divide the hoof: the camel, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you.…
Cross References
Leviticus 11:2
"Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:

Leviticus 11:4
"'There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:5
The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:6
The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:7
And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.

Leviticus 11:26
"'Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.

Deuteronomy 14:6
You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

Deuteronomy 14:8
The pig is also unclean; although it has a divided hoof, it does not chew the cud. You are not to eat their meat or touch their carcasses.
Treasury of Scripture

Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven footed, and chews the cud, among the beasts, that shall you eat.

parteth

Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man that walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, …

Proverbs 9:6 Forsake the foolish, and live; and go in the way of understanding.

2 Corinthians 6:17 Why come out from among them, and be you separate, said the Lord, …

cheweth

Deuteronomy 6:6,7 And these words, which I command you this day, shall be in your heart…

Deuteronomy 16:3 You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shall you eat …

Psalm 1:2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in his law does he …

Proverbs 2:1,2,10 My son, if you will receive my words, and hide my commandments with you…

Acts 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received …

1 Timothy 4:15 Meditate on these things; give yourself wholly to them; that your …

Of the laws relative to clean and unclean beasts, which are re- corded in this chapter and Deut. ch.14 the following may be found a useful abstract.

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Animal Animals Beast Beasts Cheweth Chews Cleaving Cleft Clovenfooted Cloven-Footed Completely Crushed Cud Divided Divides Dividing Division Eat Feet Food Foot Hoof Hoofs Horn Making Mouth Open Parteth Parts Quite Split Whatever Whatsoever Wholly
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Animal Animals Beast Beasts Cheweth Chews Cleaving Cleft Clovenfooted Cloven-Footed Completely Crushed Cud Divided Divides Dividing Division Eat Feet Food Foot Hoof Hoofs Horn Making Mouth Open Parteth Parts Quite Split Whatever Whatsoever Wholly
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