|New International Version (©2011)|
"Say to the Israelites: 'Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:
New Living Translation (©2007)
"Give the following instructions to the people of Israel. "Of all the land animals, these are the ones you may use for food.
English Standard Version (©2001)
“Speak to the people of Israel, saying, These are the living things that you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth.
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
"Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, 'These are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth.
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
Holman Christian Standard Bible (©2009)
Tell the Israelites: You may eat all these kinds of land animals.
International Standard Version (©2012)
"Tell the Israelis that these are the living creatures that you may eat among the animals of the earth:
NET Bible (©2006)
"Tell the Israelites: 'This is the kind of creature you may eat from among all the animals that are on the land.
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
"Tell the Israelites: Here are the kinds of land animals you may eat:
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the animals which you shall eat among all the animals that are on the earth.
American King James Version
Speak to the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which you shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
American Standard Version
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
Say to the children of Israel: These are the animals which you are to eat of all the living things of the earth.
Darby Bible Translation
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the animals which ye shall eat of all the beasts which are on the earth.
English Revised Version
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the living things which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
Webster's Bible Translation
Speak to the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
World English Bible
"Speak to the children of Israel, saying, 'These are the living things which you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth.
Young's Literal Translation
Speak unto the sons of Israel, saying, This is the beast which ye do eat out of all the beasts which are on the earth:
|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
11:1-47 What animals were clean and unclean. - These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people's obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; and to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of these forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The law forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactness in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy our Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeemed and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who are dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God, and companions of his people.
Verse 2. - These are the beasts that ye shall eat. In order that the Israelites might know how to avoid the uncleanness arising from the consumption of unclean flesh, plain rules are given them by which they may distinguish what flesh is clean and what is unclean. The first rule is that anything that dies of itself is unclean, whether it be beast, bird, or fish. The reasons of this are plain: for
(1) the flesh still retains the blood, which no Israelite might eat; and
(2) there is something loathsome in the idea of eating such flesh. Next, as to beasts, a class is marked off as edible by two plainly discernible characteristics, and instances are given to show that where there is any doubt owing to the animals possessing one of the characteristic marks only, the rule is to be construed strictly. As to fish and insects, equally plain rules, one in each case, are laid down; but as birds are not readily distinguished into large classes, the names of those that are unclean are given one by one, the remainder being all of them permissible. Thus the simple Israelite would run no risk of incurring uncleanness by inadvertently eating unclean food, whether of beast, bird, fish, or insect. The object of the regulations being to exclude all meats naturally offensive to the human taste, all carnivorous quadrupeds are shut out by the rule of chewing the cud (verse 3), with the same purpose, birds of prey and birds that eat offal are prohibited (verses 13-19), and scaleless fish on account of their repulsive appearance (verses 9-12), as well as beetles, maggots, and vermin of all sorts. In the case of beasts and fish, the rules laid down to mark off those things that are offensive, being general in their application, are such as to include in the forbidden class some few which do not appear naturally loathsome. This is owing partly to the difficulty of classification, partly to a change of feeling which experience has wrought in the sentiments of mankind with regard to such edibles as swine's flesh and shell-fish.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying,.... For to them only belong the following laws, and not unto the Gentiles, as Jarchi rightly observes; these were parts of the ceremonial law, which was peculiarly given to them, and lay, among other things, in meats and drinks, and now abolished; for it is not what goes into a man that defiles him; nor is anything common or unclean of itself, but every creature of God is good if received with thanksgiving. The sons of Noah had free liberty, without any restraint or limitation, of using for food any living creature that moved upon the face of the earth; in the choice of which they were left to exercise their reason and judgment, and is the case with us now; but as men have not so nice a smell as some animals have, and cannot distinguish by their senses so well as they what food is most wholesome, which makes the exercise of their reason and judgment necessary, and the people of the Jews being a special people, and for whom the Lord had a peculiar regard; for the sake of their health, and to preserve them from diseases they were subject to, such as the leprosy and others, and to direct them to what was most salubrious and healthful, gave them the following laws; and which, though they are not obligatory upon us, yet may be a direction to us, in the use of what may be most suitable and proper food for us, the difference of climates, and of the constitutions of men's bodies, being considered: not that we are to suppose, that the case of health was the only reason of delivering out these laws to the children of Israel, for other ends, besides that, may be thought to be had in view; as to assert his sovereign right to the creatures, and his disposal of them to them according to his will and pleasure; to lay a restraint on their appetites, to prevent luxury, and to teach them self denial, and compliance with his will; as also to keep them the more from the company and conversation of the Gentiles, by whom they otherwise might be led into idolatry; and to give them an aversion to their idols, to whom the creatures forbidden them to eat, many of them were either now or would be sacred to them; and chiefly to excite to a care for purity, both inward and outward, and create in the man abhorrence of those vices which may be signified by the ill qualities of several of the creatures; and to instruct them in the difference between holy and unholy persons, with whom they should or should not have communion; see Acts 10:11.
these are the beasts that ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth; they are not particularly mentioned here, but they are in Deuteronomy 14:4 and they are these ten; the ox, the sheep, and the goat, the hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois; of all which; see Gill on Deuteronomy 14:4, Deuteronomy 14:5, here only some general things are observed to describe them by, as follow.
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