Leviticus 11:29
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
"'Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,

New Living Translation
"Of the small animals that scurry along the ground, these are unclean for you: the mole rat, the rat, large lizards of all kinds,

English Standard Version
“And these are unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the ground: the mole rat, the mouse, the great lizard of any kind,

New American Standard Bible
'Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the great lizard in its kinds,

King James Bible
These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
These creatures that swarm on the ground are unclean for you: the weasel, the mouse, any kind of large lizard,

International Standard Version
"These are unclean for you among the swarming creatures that crawl over the land: the rat, mouse, lizards of every kind,

NET Bible
"'Now this is what is unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the land: the rat, the mouse, the large lizard of any kind,

New Heart English Bible
"'These are they which are unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"The following swarming creatures that move on the ground are unclean for you-moles, mice, and all types of lizards:

JPS Tanakh 1917
And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds,

New American Standard 1977
‘Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the great lizard in its kinds,

Jubilee Bible 2000
These also shall be unclean unto you among the animals that creep upon the earth: the weasel and the mouse and the frog according to his species

King James 2000 Bible
These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kind,

American King James Version
These also shall be unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

American Standard Version
And these are they which are unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kind,

Douay-Rheims Bible
These also shall be reckoned among unclean things, of all that move upon the earth, the weasel, and the mouse, and the crocodile, every one according to their kind:

Darby Bible Translation
And these shall be unclean unto you among the crawling things which crawl on the earth: the mole, and the field-mouse, and the lizard, after its kind;

English Revised Version
And these are they which are unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kind,

Webster's Bible Translation
These also shall be unclean to you among the creeping animals that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise, after its kind,

World English Bible
"'These are they which are unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,

Young's Literal Translation
And this is to you the unclean among the teeming things which are teeming on the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after its kind,
Study Bible
Clean and Unclean Animals
28and the one who picks up their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you. 29Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, and the mouse, and the great lizard in its kinds, 30and the gecko, and the crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand reptile, and the chameleon.…
Cross References
Genesis 1:20
Then God said, "Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens."

Leviticus 11:28
and the one who picks up their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you.

Leviticus 11:30
and the gecko, and the crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand reptile, and the chameleon.

Leviticus 11:41
'Now every swarming thing that swarms on the earth is detestable, not to be eaten.
Treasury of Scripture

These also shall be unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

creeping things that creep

Leviticus 11:20,21,41,42 All fowls that creep, going on all four, shall be an abomination to you…

Psalm 10:3 For the wicked boasts of his heart's desire, and blesses the covetous, …

Psalm 17:13,14 Arise, O LORD, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from …

Haggai 2:6 For thus said the LORD of hosts; Yet once, it is a little while, …

Luke 12:15 And he said to them, Take heed, and beware of covetousness…

Luke 16:14 And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: …

John 6:26 Jesus answered them and said, Truly, truly, I say to you, You seek …

John 6:66 From that time many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him.

Ephesians 4:14 That we from now on be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried …

Philippians 3:19 Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory …

Colossians 3:5 Mortify therefore your members which are on the earth; fornication, …

2 Timothy 3:2-5 For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, …

Hebrews 13:5 Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with …

(29) These also shall be unclean.--Better, And these shall be the most unclean. As Leviticus 11:24-28 have been occupied with the discussion of the defilement caused by the carcases of unclean quadrupeds, which, as we have seen, belong to the first class of the animal kingdom, the Lawgiver now enumerates those "creeping things" of the fourth class, which likewise cause defilement by touching them. The eight animals here adduced (Leviticus 11:29-30) are therefore a continuation of the things that go on their belly, mentioned in Leviticus 11:20-23. They only differ in this respect, that in Leviticus 11:20-23 the creeping things have also wings, whilst those described here are creeping things without wings. In a stricter sense, however, Leviticus 11:29, &c, is a resumption of Leviticus 11:20.

The weasel.--Though the Hebrew name (choled), which literally denotes "the gliding" or "slipping in" animal, does not occur again in the Bible, yet the ancient versions and the description given of it by the administrators of the law in the time of Christ place it beyond a doubt that it is meant for weasel. According to these authorities the animal in question lodges in the holes of walls and in ditches, is inordinately voracious, kills other animals of prey much bigger than itself, and carries them off in its mouth. It is especially obnoxious to poultry, for which reason the ventilating holes in hen roosts are made so small that it should not be able to get through them, it has pointed and crooked teeth, with which it pierces through the skull and brain of the hens; it attacks sleeping children and human corpses, and laps water from a vessel. It delights in pilfering bright objects, which it hides in holes. It will be seen that this description given by the administrators of the law during the second Temple, of the animal meant by choled can only apply to the weasel, and not to the mole. This is fully supported by the ancient versions, though the word denotes "mole" in Arabic, and is sometimes also used in this sense in the Talmud.

And the mouse.--Besides this passage, this word (achbar), which is taken to denote "the field," or 'corn-destroyer," also occurs four times in Samuel (1Samuel 6:4-5; 1Samuel 6:11; 1Samuel 6:18), and once in Isaiah (Isaiah 66:17) and is uniformly translated "mouse." That this is the true rendering is fully confirmed by the ancient versions and the administrators of the law during the second Temple. Their insatiable voracity and great fecundity make mice destroy the entire produce of a harvest in an incredibly short time. For this reason they became the symbol of destruction in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and obtained the appellation, "the scourge of the field" in the Bible (1Samuel 6:5). So great was the injury which they inflicted upon the fields in Palestine, that during the second Temple the administrators of the law permitted the Jews to destroy them by any means, even on the middle days of the two great pilgrimage festivals, the Feasts of Passover and of Tabernacles. The mischievous instinct which they have of gnawing at things which they cannot eat, and of penetrating into the sanctuary, and destroying the sacred food and scriptures, made mice peculiarly repulsive to the Jews, who gave them the appellation of "wicked mice," a name with which they brand any malicious and wicked person to this day.

And the tortoise.--This creature (tzb), which literally denotes "the swollen," "the inflated" (see Numbers 5:27), occurs nowhere else in the Bible. That it is not the tortoise is perfectly certain, since this animal, according to the highest legal authority, was not unclean. Thus Maimonides tells us "only those animals mentioned in the Law (Leviticus 11:29-30) are defiling, but not the serpent, the frog, and the tortoise." It is certain that the authorities in the time of Christ took it to denote the toad. This is evident from the discussion as to the condition of the man who has touched an animal, and cannot decide whether it is a frog, which is not defiling, or a tzb, which is defiling. As it is the toad, and not the tortoise or lizard, which has such a misleading resemblance to the frog, there can hardly be any doubt that the administrators of the law understood the reptile here to denote the toad. This agrees with the meaning of the name, which, as we have seen, denotes the "swollen one," and which is one of the peculiar characteristics distinguishing it from the frog, by its having a thick, squat, and more swollen body. The reason why the toad and not the frog is put into the defiling list of reptiles is probably owing to the fact that its shorter legs impart to it more the appearance of a creeping thing, and that it was believed that the limpid fluid which this reptile suddenly discharges when touched is poisonous. Some ancient versions, however, translate it "the land crocodile."

Verses 29, 30. - The creeping things that creep upon the earth. This class contains things that go on their belly, but have not wings, like the previous class of creeping things (verses 20-23). By the words translated tortoise, ferret, chameleon, lizard, snail, mole, different varieties of the lizard are probably meant. The mouse is joined by Isaiah with "eating swine's flesh and the abomination" (Isaiah 66:17). These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth,.... As distinguished from those creeping things that fly, these having no wings as they; and which were equally unclean, neither to be eaten nor touched, neither their blood, their skin, nor their flesh, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it: and the Misnic doctors say (d) that the blood of a creeping thing and its flesh are joined together: and Maimonides (e) observes, that this is a fundamental thing with them, that the blood of a creeping thing is like its flesh; which in Siphre (an ancient book of theirs) is gathered from what is said in Leviticus 11:29 "these shall be unclean", &c. hence the wise men say, the blood of a creeping thing pollutes as its flesh: the creeping things intended are as follow:

the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind; the first of these, "the weasel", a creature well known; there are two sorts of it, as Pliny (f) says, the field weasel, and the house weasel; the former are called by the Jewish writers the weasel of the bushes (g), and the latter the weasel that dwells in the foundations of houses (h); and of the former there was a doubt among some of them whether it was a species of the eight reptiles in Leviticus 11:29 or whether it was a species of animals (i); and which, Maimonides says, is a species of foxes like to weasels: Bochart (k) thinks the mole is intended; but the generality of interpreters understand it of the weasel; and so Jarchi and Kimchi, and Philip Aquinas (l), interpret it by "mustela", the weasel: however, all agree the second is rightly interpreted "the mouse"; which has its name in Hebrew from its being a waster and destroyer of fields; an instance of which we have in 1 Samuel 6:5; see Gill on 1 Samuel 6:5; so that this sort may be chiefly intended, though it includes all others, who are distinguished by their colours, the black, the red, and the white, which are all mentioned by Jonathan in his paraphrase of the text: this animal, as a learned physician (m) expresses it, eats almost everything, gnaws whatever it meets with, and, among other things, is a great lover of swine's flesh, which was an abomination to the Jews; nor does it abstain from dung, and therefore it is no wonder it should be reckoned among impure creatures; and yet we find they were eaten by some people, see Isaiah 66:17 especially the dormouse; for which the old Romans made conveniences to keep them in, and feed them, and breed them for the table (n): so rats in the West Indies are brought to market and sold for food, as a learned author (o) of undoubted credit assures us, who was an eyewitness of it: the last in this text, "the tortoise", means the land tortoise; it has its name from the shell with which it is covered, this word being sometimes used for a covered wagon, Numbers 7:3 there are various kinds of them, as Pliny (p) and other writers observe, and who, as Strabo (q) and Mela (r) also, speak of a people they call Chelonophagi, or tortoise eaters: a tortoise of the land kind is esteemed a very delicate dish: Dr. Shaw (s), speaking of the land and water tortoises in Barbary, says, the former, which hides itself during the winter months, is very palatable food, but the latter is very unwholesome: the Septuagint version renders it, the "land crocodile", which, is approved of by Bochart (t): and Leo Africanus says (u), that many in Egypt eat the flesh of the crocodile, and affirm it to be of good savour; and so Benzon (w) says, its flesh is white and tender, and tastes like veal; though some among them, as Strabo (x) asserts, have a great antipathy and hatred to them; and others worship them as gods, and neither can be supposed to eat them; the land crocodiles are eaten by the Syrians, as Jerom (y) affirms, for those feeding on the sweetest flowers, as is said, their entrails are highly valued for their agreeable odour: Jarchi says, it is a creature like a frog; he means a toad; so Philip Aquinas and many render the word: Dr. Shaw takes the creature designed to be the sharp-scaled tailed lizard (z).

(d) Misn. Meilah, c. 4. sect. 3.((e) Pirush. in ib. (f) Nat. Hist. l. 29. c. 4. (g) Misn. Celaim, c. 8. sect. 5. (h) T. Bab. Cholin, fol. 20. 2.((i) Maimon. in Misn. ib. (k) Hierozoic. par. 1. l. 3. c. 95. col. 1022. (l) Sepher Shorash. & Aquinas in rad. (m) Scheuchzer. Physic. Sacr. vol. 2. p. 307. (n) Varro de re Rustic. l. 3. c. 14. apud Sir Hans Sloane's History of Jamaica, vol. 1. Introduct. p. 24. (o) Sir Hans Sloane, ib. p. 25. (p) Nat. Hist. l. 9. c. 10. & l. 32. c. 4. (q) Geograph. l. 16. p. 532. (r) De Situ Orbis, l. 3. c. 8. (s) Travels, p. 178. (t) Ut supra, (Hierozoic. par. 1.) l. 4. c. 1.((u) Descriptio Africae, l. 9. p. 762. (w) Nov. Orb. Hist. c. 3.((x) Geograph. l. 17. p. 558, 560, 561, 563. (y) Adv. Jovin. l. 2.((z) Ut supra. Travels, p. 178 29. the weasel—rather, the mole.

the mouse—From its diminutive size it is placed among the reptiles instead of the quadrupeds.

the tortoise—a lizard, resembling very nearly in shape, and in the hard pointed scales of the tail, the shaketail.11:1-47 What animals were clean and unclean. - These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people's obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; and to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of these forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The law forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactness in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy our Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeemed and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who are dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God, and companions of his people.
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Alphabetical: about among and animals any are earth for great ground in its kind kinds lizard mole mouse move Now Of on rat swarm swarming that the these things to unclean weasel which you

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