Genesis 49:10
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he to whom it belongs shall come and the obedience of the nations shall be his.

New Living Translation
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from his descendants, until the coming of the one to whom it belongs, the one whom all nations will honor.

English Standard Version
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.

New American Standard Bible
"The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes, And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.

King James Bible
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The scepter will not depart from Judah or the staff from between his feet until He whose right it is comes and the obedience of the peoples belongs to Him.

International Standard Version
The scepter will never depart from Judah, nor a ruler's staff from between his feet, until the One comes, who owns them both, and to him will belong the allegiance of nations.

NET Bible
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs; the nations will obey him.

New Heart English Bible
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until Shiloh comes. To him will the obedience of the peoples be.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
A scepter will never depart from Judah nor a ruler's staff from between his feet until Shiloh comes and the people obey him.

JPS Tanakh 1917
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.

New American Standard 1977
“The scepter shall not depart from Judah,
            Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet,
            Until Shiloh comes,
            And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples.

Jubilee Bible 2000
The sceptre shall not be taken from Judah, nor the lawgiver from between his feet until Shiloh comes; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

King James 2000 Bible
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

American King James Version
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and to him shall the gathering of the people be.

American Standard Version
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh come: And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The sceptre shall not be taken away from Juda, nor a ruler from his thigh, till he come that is to be sent, and he shall be the expectation of nations.

Darby Bible Translation
The scepter will not depart from Judah, Nor the lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh come, And to him will be the obedience of peoples.

English Revised Version
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh come; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.

Webster's Bible Translation
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh shall come: and to him shall be the gathering of the people.

World English Bible
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs. To him will the obedience of the peoples be.

Young's Literal Translation
The sceptre turneth not aside from Judah, And a lawgiver from between his feet, Till his Seed come; And his is the obedience of peoples.
Study Bible
Jacob Blesses his Sons
9"Judah is a lion's whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He couches, he lies down as a lion, And as a lion, who dares rouse him up? 10"The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes, And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples. 11"He ties his foal to the vine, And his donkey's colt to the choice vine; He washes his garments in wine, And his robes in the blood of grapes.…
Cross References
Numbers 24:17
"I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.

Psalm 2:6
"But as for Me, I have installed My King Upon Zion, My holy mountain."

Psalm 60:7
"Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim also is the helmet of My head; Judah is My scepter.

Psalm 72:8
May he also rule from sea to sea And from the River to the ends of the earth.

Psalm 108:8
"Gilead is Mine, Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim also is the helmet of My head; Judah is My scepter.

Isaiah 42:1
"Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations.

Isaiah 42:4
"He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law."

Isaiah 49:6
He says, "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth."

Jeremiah 33:26
then I would reject the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, not taking from his descendants rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. But I will restore their fortunes and will have mercy on them.'"
Treasury of Scripture

The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and to him shall the gathering of the people be.

sceptre.

Numbers 24:17 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not near: there …

Psalm 60:7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the strength …

Jeremiah 30:21 And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall …

Hosea 11:12 Ephraim compasses me about with lies, and the house of Israel with …

Ezekiel 19:11,14 And she had strong rods for the scepters of them that bore rule, …

Zechariah 10:11 And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite …

lawgiver.

Numbers 21:18 The princes dig the well, the nobles of the people dig it, by the …

Psalm 60:7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the strength …

Psalm 108:8 Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the strength of …

Isaiah 33:22 For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is …

between.

Deuteronomy 28:57 And toward her young one that comes out from between her feet, and …

until.

Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government …

Isaiah 11:1-5 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a …

Isaiah 62:11 Behold, the LORD has proclaimed to the end of the world, Say you …

Jeremiah 23:5,6 Behold, the days come, said the LORD, that I will raise to David …

Ezekiel 21:27 I will overturn, overturn, overturn, it: and it shall be no more, …

Daniel 9:25 Know therefore and understand…

Matthew 1:21 And she shall bring forth a son, and you shall call his name JESUS: …

Matthew 17:5 While he yet spoke, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and …

Matthew 21:9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, …

Luke 1:32,33 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and …

John 9:7 And said to him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by interpretation, …

John 18:31 Then said Pilate to them, Take you him, and judge him according to …

John 19:12,15 And from thereafter Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried …

the gathering.

Psalm 72:8-11 He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river to …

Isaiah 2:2 And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of …

Isaiah 11:10,12,13 And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand …

Isaiah 42:1,3,4 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; my elect, in whom my soul delights; …

Isaiah 49:6,7,22,23 And he said, It is a light thing that you should be my servant to …

Isaiah 55:4,5 Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and …

Isaiah 60:1 Arise, shine; for your light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen on you.

Isaiah 60:3,5 And the Gentiles shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness …

Ezekiel 21:27 I will overturn, overturn, overturn, it: and it shall be no more, …

Haggai 2:7 And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall …

Zechariah 2:11 And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall …

Zechariah 8:20-23 Thus said the LORD of hosts; It shall yet come to pass, that there …

Matthew 25:32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate …

Luke 1:32,33 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and …

Luke 2:30-32 For my eyes have seen your salvation…

John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to me.

Romans 15:12 And again, Esaias said, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that …

2 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every …

Hebrews 7:14 For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe …

Revelation 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying…

(10) The sceptre shall not depart from Judah.--Heb., a sceptre. The staff, adorned with carvings, and handed down from father to son, soon became the emblem of authority (see Note on Genesis 38:18). It probably indicates here tribal rather than royal rank, and means that Judah would continue, until the time indicated, to be a self-governed and legally-constituted tribe.

Nor a lawgiver from between his feet.--Most modern critics translate ruler's staff, but "lawgiver" has the support of all the ancient versions, the Targums paraphrasing it by scribe, and the Syriac in a similar way by expounder--i.e., of the law. Ruler's, staffs has the parallelism in its favour, but the ancient versions must not be lightly disregarded, and, besides, everywhere else the word means law-giver (see Deuteronomy 33:21; Judges 5:14; Isaiah 33:22). "From between his feet" means, "from among his descendants." The Targum of Onkelos renders, "from his children's children."

Until Shiloh come.--Many modern critics translate, "until he come to Shiloh," but this is to be rejected, first, as being contrary to all the ancient versions; and, secondly, as turning sense into nonsense. The town of Shiloh was in the tribe of Ephraim, and we know of no way in which Judah ever went thither. The ark was for a time at Shiloh, but the place lost all importance and sank into utter obscurity after its destruction by the Philistines, long before Judah took the leading part in the commonwealth of Israel.

Shiloh.--There are several interpretations of this word, depending upon different ways of spelling it. First, Jerome, in the Vulg., translates it, "He who shall be sent." He read, therefore, Shalu'ch. which differs from the reading in the Hebrew text by omitting the yod, and putting the guttural for h (Heb., ) as the final letter. We have, secondly, Shiloh, the reading of the present Hebrew text. This would mean, Peaceful, or Peace-maker, and agrees with the title given to the Messiah by Isaiah (Genesis 9:6). But, thirdly, all the versions excepting the Vulg. read Sheloh. Thus, the LXX. has, "He for whom it is laid up" (or, according to other MSS., "the things laid up for him."). With the former reading, Aquila and Symmachus agree; with the latter, Theodotion, Epiphanius, and others, showing that Sheloh was the reading in the centuries immediately after the Nativity of our Lord. The Samaritan transcript of the Hebrew text into Samaritan letters reads Sheloh, and the translation into Aramaic treats the word as a proper name, and renders, "Until Sheloh come." Onkelos boldly paraphrases, "Until Messiah come, whose is the kingdom;" and, finally, the Syriac has, "Until he come, whose it is." There is thus overwhelming evidence in favour of the reading Sheloh, and to this we must add that Sheloh is the reading even of several Hebrew MSS. We may, in fact, sum up the evidence by saying that the reading Shiloh, even in the Hebrew text, has only modern authority in its favour, and that all ancient authorities are in favour of Sheloh; for even Jerome omits the yod, though he changes the aspirate at the end into a guttural.

Sheloh literally means, Whose it is, and is an Aramaic form, such as that in Genesis 6:3, where we have observed that these Aramaisms are a proof either of extreme antiquity, or of a very late date. We find another in Judges 5:7, in the song of Deborah, confessedly a very ancient composition; and the form is quite in its place here in the elevated phraseology of this blessing, and in the mouth of Jacob, who had lived so long in a land where an Aramaic dialect was spoken.

Finally, Ezekiel, Ezekiel 21:27 (Heb., 32), quotes Jacob's words, using however the Hebrew idiom, "Until he come, whose is the right." And St. Paul (Galatians 3:19) refers to it in the words, "Until the seed come to whom it is promised," where the latter words seem to be a free rendering of the phrase in the LXX., "for whom it is laid up."

The passage has always been regarded as Messianic, not merely by Christians, but by the Jews, all whose ancient writers, including the Talmud, explain the name Shiloh, or Sheloh, of the Messiah. But the Targum of Onkelos would of itself be a sufficient proof, as we have there not the opinions or knowledge of one man, but the traditional explanation of the Pentateuch, handed down orally from the time of Ezra, and committed to writing probably in the first century of the Christian era. The objection has, indeed, been made in modern times that the patriarchs had no Messianic expectations. With those who believe in prophecy such an objection can have no weight; but independently of this, the promise made to Abraham, and solemnly confirmed to Jacob, that in his seed all the kindreds of the earth should be blessed, was pre-eminently Messianic: as was also the name Jehovah; for that name was the embodiment of the promise made to Eve, and beginning with her cry of hope that she had gotten the Coming One, had become by the time of Enoch the symbol of the expectation of mankind that God would appear on earth in human nature to save them.

Unto him shall the gathering of the people be.--The word used here is rare, and the translation "gathering" was a guess of Rashi. Really it means obedience, as is proved by the one other place where it occurs (Proverbs 30:17). For "people" the Heb. has peoples. Not Israel only, "the people," but all nations are to obey Him "whose is the kingdom." This is the rendering of Onkelos, "and him shall the peoples obey;" and of the Samaritan Version, "and at his hand shall the peoples be led." The LXX., Syriac, and Vulg. agree in rendering, "and he shall be the expectation of the nations."

The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,.... Which some understand of the tribe, that Judah should not cease from being a tribe, or that it should continue a distinct tribe until the coming of the Messiah, who was to be of it, and was, and that it might appear he sprung from it; but this was not peculiar to this tribe, for the tribe of Benjamin continued, and so did the tribe of Levi unto the coming of Christ: besides, by Judah is meant the tribe, and to say a tribe shall not depart from the tribe, is not only a tautology, but scarcely sense; it rather signifies dominion, power, and authority, as the sceptre always does, it being an emblem of it, see Numbers 24:17 and this intends either the government, which was in the heads and princes of the tribe, which commenced as soon as it became a tribe, and lasted as long as it remained one, even unto the times of the Messiah; or kingly power and government, which the sceptre is generally thought to be an emblem of, and which first commenced in David, who was of the tribe of Judah, and continued unto the Babylonish captivity, when another sort of governors and government took place, designed in the next clause:

nor a lawgiver from between his feet; which may be rendered disjunctively, "or a lawgiver"; any ruler or governor, that has jurisdiction over others, though under another, as the word is used, Judges 5:14 and the sense is, that till the Messiah came there should be in the tribe of Judah, either a king, a sceptre bearer, as there was unto the captivity; or a governor, though under others, as there were unto the times of Christ under the Babylonians, Persians, Grecians, and Romans; such as Gedaliah, Zorobabel, &c. and particularly the sanhedrim, a court of judicature, the members of which chiefly consisted of the tribe of Judah, and the or prince of it, was always of that tribe, and which retained its power to the latter end of Herod's reign, when Christ was come; and though it was greatly diminished, it had some power remaining, even at the death of Christ, but quickly after had none at all: and if by the "lawgiver" is meant a scribe or a teacher of the law, as all the Targums, Aben Ezra, Ben Melech, and others interpret it, who used to sit at the feet of a ruler, judge, or prince of the sanhedrim; it is notorious there were of these unto, and in the times of the Messiah: in short, it matters not for the fulfilment of this prophecy what sort of governors those were after the captivity, nor of what tribe they were; they were in Judah, and their government was exercised therein, and that was in the hands of Judah, and they and that did not depart from thence till Shiloh came; since those that were of the other tribes, after the return from the captivity all went by the name of Judah:

until Shiloh come; which all the three Targums interpret of the Messiah, as do many of the Jewish writers, ancient and modern (p); and is the name of the Messiah in their Talmud (q), and in other writings (r); and well agrees with him, coming from a root which signifies to be "quiet", "peaceable", and "prosperous"; as he was of a quiet and peaceable disposition, came to make peace between God and men, and made it by the blood of his cross, and gives spiritual peace to all his followers, and brings them at length to everlasting peace and happiness; having prospered and succeeded in the great work of their redemption and salvation he undertook:

and unto him shall the gathering of the people be; not of the Jews, though there were great gatherings of them to hear him preach, and see his miracles; as there were of all his people to him at his death, and in him as their head and representative, Ephesians 1:10 but of the Gentiles; upon his death, the Gospel being preached to all nations, multitudes among them were converted to Christ, embraced his doctrines, professed his religion, and abode by him, see Isaiah 11:10 some render it, the obedience of the people (s), from the use of the word in Proverbs 30:17, which sense agrees with the former; for those who are truly gathered by the ministry of the word yield an obedience to his doctrines and ordinances; and others read, "the expectation of the people" (t); the Messiah being the desire of all nations, Haggai 2:6 this, with what goes before, clearly shows that the Messiah must be come, since government in every sense has departed from Judah for 1900 years or thereabout, and the Gentiles have embraced the Messiah and his Gospel the Jews rejected: the various contradictory senses they put upon this prophecy show the puzzle and confusion they are in about it, and serve to confirm the true sense of it: some apply it to the city Shiloh, others to Moses, others to Saul, others to David; nay, some will have Shiloh to be Jeroboam, or Ahijah the Shilonite, and even Nebuchadnezzar: there are two senses they put upon it which deserve the most notice, the one is, that "Shebet", we render "sceptre", signifies a "rod"; and so it does, but such a rod as is an ensign of government, as it must here, by what follows, see Ezekiel 19:11, but they would have it to signify either a rod of correction (u), or a staff of support; but what correction or affliction has befallen the tribe of Judah peculiar to it? was it not in a flourishing condition for five hundred years, under the reign of David's family? and when the rest of the tribes were carried captive and never returned, Judah remained in its own land, and, when carried captive, after seventy years returned again to it; add to which, that this is a prediction, not of affliction and distress, that should abide in the tribe of Judah, but of honour and glory to it: and besides, Judah has had a far greater share of correction since the coming of the true Messiah than ever it had before: and what support have the Jews now, or have had for many hundred years, being out of their land (v), destitute of their privileges, living among other nations in disgrace, and for the most part in poverty and distress? the other sense is this, "the sceptre and lawgiver shall not depart from Judah for ever, when Shiloh comes (w)"; but this is contrary to the accents which separate and divide the phrase, "between his feet", from that, "for ever", as this version renders the word; though never signifies "for ever", absolutely put, without some antecedent noun or particle; nor does signify "when", but always "until", when it is joined with the particle as it is here; besides, this sense makes the prophecy to pass over some thousands of years before any notice is taken of Judah's sceptre, which, according to the Jews, it had thousands of years ago, as well as contradicts a received notion of their own, that the Messiah, when he comes, shall not reign for ever, but for a certain time, and even a small time; some say forty years, some seventy, and others four hundred (x).

(p) Zohar in Gen. fol. 32. 4. & in Exod. fol. 4. 1. & in Numb. fol. 101. 2. Bereshit Rabba, fol. 98. sect. 85. 3. Jarchi & Baal Hatturim, in loc. Nachmanidis Disputat. cum Paulo, p. 53. Abarbinel. Mashmiah Jesbuah, fol. 10. 1. R. Abraham Seba, Tzeror Hammor, fol. 36. 4. & 62. 2.((q) T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 98. 2.((r) Echa Rabbati, fol. 50. 2.((s) "obedientia populorum", Montanus, Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Cocceius, Ainsworth; with which agree the Targums of Onkelos and Jerusalem, Aben Ezra, Kimchi in Sepher Shorash. rad. (t) , Sept Theodotion; "expectatio Gentium", V. L. (u) R. Joel Ben Sueb apud Menasseh, Ben Israel. Conciliator in Gen. Quaest. 65. sect. 8. (v) Written about 1750. Ed. (w) Vid. Menasseh, ib. sect. 3.((x) T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 99. 1.10. until Shiloh come—Shiloh—this obscure word is variously interpreted to mean "the sent" (Joh 17:3), "the seed" (Isa 11:1), the "peaceable or prosperous one" (Eph 2:14)—that is, the Messiah (Isa 11:10; Ro 15:12); and when He should come, "the tribe of Judah should no longer boast either an independent king or a judge of their own" [Calvin]. The Jews have been for eighteen centuries without a ruler and without a judge since Shiloh came, and "to Him the gathering of the people has been."49:8-12 Judah's name signifies praise. God was praised for him, chap. 29:35, praised by him, and praised in him; therefore his brethren shall praise him. Judah should be a strong and courageous tribe. Judah is compared, not to a lion raging and ranging, but to a lion enjoying the satisfaction of his power and success, without creating vexation to others; this is to be truly great. Judah should be the royal tribe, the tribe from which Messiah the Prince should come. Shiloh, that promised Seed in whom the earth should be blessed, that peaceable and prosperous One, or Saviour, he shall come of Judah. Thus dying Jacob at a great distance saw Christ's day, and it was his comfort and support on his death-bed. Till Christ's coming, Judah possessed authority, but after his crucifixion this was shortened, and according to what Christ foretold, Jerusalem was destroyed, and all the poor harassed remnant of Jews were confounded together. Much which is here said concerning Judah, is to be applied to our Lord Jesus. In him there is plenty of all which is nourishing and refreshing to the soul, and which maintains and cheers the Divine life in it. He is the true Vine; wine is the appointed symbol of his blood, which is drink indeed, as shed for sinners, and applied in faith; and all the blessings of his gospel are wine and milk, without money and without price, to which every thirsty soul is welcome. Isa 55:1.
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