Exodus 1:13
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
and worked them ruthlessly.

New Living Translation
So the Egyptians worked the people of Israel without mercy.

English Standard Version
So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel work as slaves

New American Standard Bible
The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;

King James Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
They worked the Israelites ruthlessly

International Standard Version
The Egyptians ruthlessly forced the Israelis to serve them,

NET Bible
and they made the Israelites serve rigorously.

New Heart English Bible
And the Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel labor,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
So they forced the Israelites to work hard as slaves.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour.

New American Standard 1977
And the Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the Egyptians made the sons of Israel serve with rigor,

King James 2000 Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

American King James Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

American Standard Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Egyptians hated the children of Israel, and afflicted them and mocked them:

Darby Bible Translation
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel serve with harshness;

English Revised Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

Webster's Bible Translation
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor.

World English Bible
The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,

Young's Literal Translation
and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigour,
Study Bible
Oppression by a New Pharaoh
12But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out, so that they were in dread of the sons of Israel. 13The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously; 14and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all kinds of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.…
Cross References
Genesis 15:13
God said to Abram, "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, where they will be enslaved and oppressed four hundred years.

Exodus 1:14
and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all kinds of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.

Leviticus 25:43
'You shall not rule over him with severity, but are to revere your God.

Deuteronomy 4:20
"But the LORD has taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, from Egypt, to be a people for His own possession, as today.

1 Kings 12:14
and he spoke to them according to the advice of the young men, saying, "My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add to your yoke; my father disciplined you with whips, but I will discipline you with scorpions."
Treasury of Scripture

And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

no reference

(13) With rigour.--Forced labour in Egypt was of a very severe character. Those condemned to it worked from morning to night under the rod of a task-master, which was freely applied to their legs or backs, if they rested their weary limbs for a moment. (See Records of the Past, vol. viii. p. 149; Chabas, Mlanges Egyptolo-giques, vol. ii. p. 121). The heat of the sun was great; the burthens which the labourers had to carry were heavy, and the toil was incessant. Death often resulted from the, excessive work. According to Herodotus, a single monarch, Neco, destroyed in this way 120,000 of his subjects (Herod, ii. 158).

Verse 13. - The Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour. The word translated rigour is a very rare one. It is derived from a root which means "to break in pieces, to crush." The "rigour" would be shown especially in the free use of the stick by the taskmaster, and in the prolongation of the hours of work. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour. Or with breach (c), with what might tend to break their strength; they laid heavier burdens upon them, obliged them to harder service, used them more cruelly and with greater fierceness, adding to their hard service ill words, and perhaps blows.

(c) "in fractione", Cajetan. apud Rivet. 13, 14. The Egyptians … made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick—Ruins of great brick buildings are found in all parts of Egypt. The use of crude brick, baked in the sun, was universal in upper and lower Egypt, both for public and private buildings; all but the temples themselves were of crude brick. It is worthy of remark that more bricks bearing the name of Thothmes III, who is supposed to have been the king of Egypt at the time of the Exodus, have been discovered than of any other period [Wilkinson]. Parties of these brickmakers are seen depicted on the ancient monuments with "taskmasters," some standing, others in a sitting posture beside the laborers, with their uplifted sticks in their hands.1:8-14 The land of Egypt became to Israel a house of bondage. The place where we have been happy, may soon become the place of our affliction; and that may prove the greatest cross to us, of which we said, This same shall comfort us. Cease from man, and say not of any place on this side heaven, This is my rest. All that knew Joseph, loved him, and were kind to his brethren for his sake; but the best and most useful services a man does to others, are soon forgotten after his death. Our great care should be, to serve God, and to please him who is not unrighteous, whatever men are, to forget our work and labour of love. The offence of Israel is, that he prospers. There is no sight more hateful to a wicked man than the prosperity of the righteous. The Egyptians feared lest the children of Israel should join their enemies, and get them up out of the land. Wickedness is ever cowardly and unjust; it makes a man fear, where no fear is, and flee, when no one pursues him. And human wisdom often is foolishness, and very sinful. God's people had task-masters set over them, not only to burden them, but to afflict them with their burdens. They not only made them serve for Pharaoh's profit, but so that their lives became bitter. The Israelites wonderfully increased. Christianity spread most when it was persecuted: the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the church. They that take counsel against the Lord and his Israel, do but imagine a vain thing, and create greater vexation to themselves.
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