|New International Version (© 2011)|
and worked them ruthlessly.
King James Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:
American Standard Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:
Young's Literal Translation
and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigour,
Exodus 1:13 Additional TranslationsClarke's Commentary on the Bible
To serve with rigour - בפרך bepharech, with cruelty, great oppression; being ferocious with them. The word fierce is supposed by some to be derived from the Hebrew, as well as the Latin ferox, from which we more immediately bring our English term. This kind of cruelty to slaves, and ferociousness, unfeelingness, and hard-heartedness, were particularly forbidden to the children of Israel. See Leviticus 25:43, Leviticus 25:46, where the same word is used: Thou shalt not rule over him with Rigor, but shalt fear thy God.
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Exodus 1:13 Parallel CommentariesCause Children Compelled Egyptians Harder Harshness Israel Labor Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Work WorkedCause Children Compelled Egyptians Harder Harshness Israel Labor Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Work WorkedTHE HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica®.
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Genesis 15:13 Then the LORD said to him, "Know for certain that for four hundred years your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own and that they will be enslaved and mistreated there.
Exodus 1:14 They made their lives bitter with harsh labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labor the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly.
Leviticus 25:43 Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God.
Deuteronomy 4:20 But as for you, the LORD took you and brought you out of the iron-smelting furnace, out of Egypt, to be the people of his inheritance, as you now are.
1 Kings 12:14 he followed the advice of the young men and said, "My father made your yoke heavy; I will make it even heavier. My father scourged you with whips; I will scourge you with scorpions."