Exodus 1:13
Parallel Verses
New International Version
and worked them ruthlessly.

King James Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

Darby Bible Translation
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel serve with harshness;

World English Bible
The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,

Young's Literal Translation
and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigour,

Exodus 1:13 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

To serve with rigour - בפרך bepharech, with cruelty, great oppression; being ferocious with them. The word fierce is supposed by some to be derived from the Hebrew, as well as the Latin ferox, from which we more immediately bring our English term. This kind of cruelty to slaves, and ferociousness, unfeelingness, and hard-heartedness, were particularly forbidden to the children of Israel. See Leviticus 25:43, Leviticus 25:46, where the same word is used: Thou shalt not rule over him with Rigor, but shalt fear thy God.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

no reference

Library
Four Shaping Centuries
'Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt: every man and his household came with Jacob. 2. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3. Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4. Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5. And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already. 6. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. 7, And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

But, as for that which is Written, that God did Good to the Hebrew...
32. But, as for that which is written, that God did good to the Hebrew midwives, and to Rahab the harlot of Jericho, [2444] this was not because they lied, but because they were merciful to God's people. That therefore which was rewarded in them was, not their deceit, but their benevolence; benignity of mind, not iniquity of lying. [2445] For, as it would not be marvellous and absurd if God on account of good works after done by them should be willing to forgive some evil works at another time before
St. Augustine—Against Lying

Cross References
Genesis 15:13
Then the LORD said to him, "Know for certain that for four hundred years your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own and that they will be enslaved and mistreated there.

Exodus 1:14
They made their lives bitter with harsh labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labor the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly.

Leviticus 25:43
Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God.

Deuteronomy 4:20
But as for you, the LORD took you and brought you out of the iron-smelting furnace, out of Egypt, to be the people of his inheritance, as you now are.

1 Kings 12:14
he followed the advice of the young men and said, "My father made your yoke heavy; I will make it even heavier. My father scourged you with whips; I will scourge you with scorpions."

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