Exodus 1:13
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel work as slaves

King James Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

American Standard Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Egyptians hated the children of Israel, and afflicted them and mocked them:

English Revised Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

Webster's Bible Translation
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor.

Exodus 1:13 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

After the death of Joseph and his brethren and the whole of the family that had first immigrated, there occurred that miraculous increase in the number of the children of Israel, by which the blessings of creation and promise were fully realised. The words פּרוּ ישׁרצוּ (swarmed), and ירבּוּ point back to Genesis 1:28 and Genesis 8:17, and יעצמוּ to עצוּם גּוי in Genesis 18:18. "The land was filled with them," i.e., the land of Egypt, particularly Goshen, where they were settled (Genesis 47:11). The extra-ordinary fruitfulness of Egypt in both men and cattle is attested not only by ancient writers, but by modern travellers also (vid., Aristotelis hist. animal. vii. 4, 5; Columella de re rust. iii. 8; Plin. hist. n. vii. 3; also Rosenmller a. und n. Morgenland i. p. 252). This blessing of nature was heightened still further in the case of the Israelites by the grace of the promise, so that the increase became extraordinarily great (see the comm. on Exodus 12:37).

Exodus 1:13 Parallel Commentaries

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Cross References
Genesis 15:13
Then the LORD said to Abram, "Know for certain that your offspring will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs and will be servants there, and they will be afflicted for four hundred years.

Exodus 1:14
and made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field. In all their work they ruthlessly made them work as slaves.

Leviticus 25:43
You shall not rule over him ruthlessly but shall fear your God.

Deuteronomy 4:20
But the LORD has taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be a people of his own inheritance, as you are this day.

1 Kings 12:14
he spoke to them according to the counsel of the young men, saying, "My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add to your yoke. My father disciplined you with whips, but I will discipline you with scorpions."

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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