Taxes
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Taxes

I. Under the judges, according to the theocratic government contemplated by the law, the only payments incumbent upon the people as of permanent obligation were the Tithes, the Firstfruits, the Redemption-money of the first-born, and other offerings as belonging to special occasions. The payment by each Israelite of the half-shekel as "atonement-money," for the service of the tabernacle, on taking the census of the people, (Exodus 30:13) does not appear to have had the character of a recurring tax, but to have been supplementary to the freewill offerings of (Exodus 25:1-7) levied for the one purpose of the construction of the sacred tent. In later times, indeed, after the return from Babylon, there was an annual payment for maintaining the fabric and services of the temple; but the fact that this begins by of a shekel, (Nehemiah 10:32) shows that till then there was no such payment recognized as necessary. A little later the third became a half, and under the name of the didrachma , (Matthew 17:24) was paid by every Jew, in whatever part of the world he might be living. II. The kingdom, with centralized government and greater magnificence, involved of course, a larger expenditure, and therefore a heavier taxation, The chief burdens appear to have been-- (1) A tithe of the produce both of the soil and of live stock. (1 Samuel 8:15,17) (2) Forced military service for a month every year. (1 Samuel 8:12; 1 Kings 9:22; 1 Chronicles 27:1) (3) Gifts to the king. (1 Samuel 10:27; 16:20; 17:18) (4) Import duties. (1 Kings 10:15) (5) The monopoly of certain-branches of commerce. (1 Kings 9:28; 22:48; 10:28,29) (6) The appropriation to the king's use of the early crop of hay. (Amos 7:1) At times, too, in the history of both the kingdoms there were special burdens. A tribute of fifty shekels a head had to be paid by Menahem to the Assyrian king, (2 Kings 16:20) and under his successor Hoshea this assumed the form of an annual tribute. (2 Kings 17:4) III. Under the Persian empire the taxes paid by the Jews were, in their broad outlines, the same in kind as those of other subject races. The financial system which gained for Darius Hystaspes the name of the "shopkeeper king" involved the payment by each satrap of a fixed sum as the tribute due from his province. In Judea, as in other provinces, the inhabitants had to provide in kind for the maintenance of the governor's household, besides a money payment of forty shekels a day. (Nehemiah 5:14,15) In Ezra 4:13,20; 7:24 We get a formal enumeration of the three great branches of the revenue. The influence of Ezra secured for the whole ecclesiastical order, from the priests down to the Nethinim, an immunity from all three (Ezra 7:24) but the burden pressed heavily on the great body of the people. IV. Under the Egyptian and Syrian kings the taxes paid by the Jews became yet heavier. The "farming" system of finance was adopted in its worst form. The taxes were put up to auction. The contract sum for those of Phoenicia, Judea and Samaria had been estimated at about 8000 talents. An unscrupulous adventurer would bid double that sum, and would then go down to the province, and by violence and cruelty, like that of Turkish or Hindoo collectors, squeeze out a large margin of profit for himself. V. The pressure of Roman taxation, if not absolutely heavier, was probably more galling, as being more thorough and systematic, more distinctively a mark of bondage. The capture of Jerusalem by Pompey was followed immediately by the imposition of a tribute, and within a short time the sum thus taken from the resources of the country amounted to 10,000 talents. When Judea became formally a Roman province, the whole financial system of the empire came as a natural consequence. The taxes were systematically farmed, and the publicans appeared as a new curse to the country. The portoria were levied at harbors, piers and the gates of cities. (Matthew 17:24; Romans 13:7) In addition to this there was the poll-tax paid by every Jew, and looked upon, for that reason, as the special badge of servitude. United with this, as part of the same system, there was also, in all probability, a property tax of some kind. In addition to these general taxes, the inhabitants of Jerusalem were subject to a special house duty about this period.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
First mentioned in the command (Exodus 30:11-16) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for many generations (2 Chronicles 24:6; Matthew 17:24).

Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them (1 Samuel 8:10-18), to pay taxes for civil purposes (1 Kings 4:7; 9:15; 12:4). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them.

In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Romans 13:1-7; 1 Peter 2:13, 14). Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers (Matthew 17:25); the annual tax (phoros) on property (Luke 20:22; 23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute, " Matthew 17:25; 22:17; Mark 12:14); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" = two drachmas = half shekel, Matthew 17:24-27; Comp. Exodus 30:13). (see TRIBUTE.)

Greek
5057. telones -- tax collector
... tax collector. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: telones Phonetic
Spelling: (tel-o'-nace) Short Definition: a collector of taxes Definition: a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5057.htm - 7k

5411. phoros -- tribute
... tribute, especially on persons. Word Origin from phero Definition tribute
NASB Word Usage tax (2), taxes (3). tribute. From phero; a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5411.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
5065. nagas -- to press, drive, oppress, exact
... distress, driver, exactor, oppressor, raiser of taxes, taskmaster. A primitive
root; to drive (an animal, a workman, a debtor, an ...
/hebrew/5065.htm - 6k

5674. abar -- to pass over, through, or by, pass on
... beyond, by, -enger, on, out, over, through), (cause to, make) + proclaim(-amation),
perish, provoke to anger, put away, rage, + raiser of taxes, remove, send ...
/hebrew/5674.htm - 6k

4061. middah -- tribute
... Word Origin (Aramaic) corresponding to middah Definition tribute NASB Word
Usage tax (1), taxes (1), tribute (3). toll, tribute. ...
/hebrew/4061.htm - 6k

Library

Equalization of the More Oppressive Taxes.
... Book IV. Chapter III."Equalization of the More Oppressive Taxes. And whereas
some persons found fault with the surveys of land ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/chapter iii equalization of the more.htm

Remission of a Fourth Part of the Taxes.
... Book IV. Chapter II."Remission of a Fourth Part of the Taxes. The extent
to which he studied the general happiness and prosperity ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/chapter ii remission of a fourth.htm

Letter Lxxxviii. Without Address on the Subject of the Exaction of ...
... TOU AGIOU BAChILEIOU PERI TOU PNEUMATOCh BIBLION. Letter LXXXVIII. Without
address on the subject of the exaction of taxes. Your ...
/.../basil/basil letters and select works/letter lxxxviii without address on.htm

The Friend of Sinners
... For first, these taxes were not taken by the Jewish government, but by the
Romans"heathen foreigners who had conquered them, and kept them down by soldiery ...
/.../kingsley/the good news of god/sermon xxxiii the friend of.htm

Concerning Zamaris, the Babylonian Jew; Concerning the Plots Laid ...
... to him from all those parts where the ancient Jewish laws were observed, and the
country became full of people, by reason of their universal freedom from taxes ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 2 concerning zamaris the.htm

The Historical Situation
... of government, having command of the army, and being the final resort in legal
procedure, as well as supervising the collection of the customs and taxes. ...
/.../rhees/the life of jesus of nazareth/i the historical situation.htm

How Antiochus Made a League with Ptolemy and How Onias Provoked ...
... And upon the division of the taxes between the two kings, all the principal men
framed the taxes of their several countries, and collecting the sum that was ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 4 how antiochus made.htm

How the Kings of Asia Honored the Nation of the Jews and Made them ...
... and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred
singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 3 how the kings.htm

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 2
... royal domain and the slaves, the treasury and the establishments which provided
for its service: the buildings and places for the receipt of taxes -- The scribe ...
/.../history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 2/title page.htm

Some Words and Works of Jesus
... The Jews could not bear paying taxes to the Romans, and they hated the
publicans. They would not eat with them or talk with them. ...
/.../anonymous/the good shepherd/chapter vi some words and.htm

Thesaurus
Taxes (19 Occurrences)
... Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel
had warned them (1 Samuel 8:10-18), to pay taxes for civil purposes (1 Kings 4:7 ...
/t/taxes.htm - 14k

Assessor
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (n.) One appointed to assess taxes. 2. (n.)
One appointed or elected to assist a judge or magistrate ...
/a/assessor.htm - 9k

Publican (7 Occurrences)
... One who farmed the taxes (eg, Zacchaeus, Luke 19:2) to be levied from a town or
district, and thus undertook to pay to the supreme government a certain amount. ...
/p/publican.htm - 9k

Caesar (25 Occurrences)
... Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY YLT
NAS RSV NIV). ... Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? ...
/c/caesar.htm - 16k

Pay (212 Occurrences)
... Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (WEB WEY RSV NIV). Matthew 22:21
"Caesar's," they replied. ... Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? ...
/p/pay.htm - 37k

Levy (19 Occurrences)
... Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee). Noah Webster's Dictionary. 1. (n.) The act
of collecting by authority; as, the levy of taxes. 2. (n ...
/l/levy.htm - 13k

Tribute (67 Occurrences)
... 22:17 Mark 12:14) = "census," while phoros (Luke 20:22; Luke 23:2 Romans 13:6, 7),
signifies an annual tax on persons, houses, lands, both being direct taxes. ...
/t/tribute.htm - 32k

Revenue (10 Occurrences)
... 3. (n.) The annual yield of taxes, excise, customs, duties, rents, etc., which a
nation, state, or municipality collects and receives into the treasury for ...
/r/revenue.htm - 10k

Payment (168 Occurrences)
... come back from the dead. (BBE). Luke 20:22 Is it right for us to make payment
of taxes to Caesar or not? (BBE). Luke 23:2 "We have ...
/p/payment.htm - 37k

Taxing (3 Occurrences)
...TAXES IN ISRAEL UNDER SELF-GOVERNMENT 1. In the Earliest Period 2. Under the
Theocracy; in the Period of the Judges 3. Under the Kings III. ...
/t/taxing.htm - 35k

Concordance
Taxes (19 Occurrences)

Matthew 9:9
And when Jesus was going from there, he saw a man whose name was Matthew, seated at the place where taxes were taken; and he said to him, Come after me. And he got up and went after him.
(BBE)

Matthew 17:25
And when he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, 'What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth -- from whom do they receive custom or poll-tax? from their sons or from the strangers?'
(See NIV)

Matthew 22:17
Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?"
(WEB RSV NIV)

Mark 2:14
And when he went by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, seated at the place where taxes were taken, and he said to him, Come with me. And he got up, and went with him.
(BBE)

Mark 12:14
When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?
(WEB BBE RSV NIV)

Luke 5:27
And after these things he went out, and saw Levi, a tax-farmer, seated at the place where taxes were taken, and said to him, Come after me.
(BBE DBY)

Luke 19:2
There was a man there called Zacchaeus, who was the local surveyor of taxes, and was wealthy.
(WEY)

Luke 20:22
Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?"
(WEB BBE NAS NIV)

Luke 23:2
They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king."
(WEB BBE NAS NIV)

Romans 13:6
For this reason you also pay taxes, for they are servants of God's service, attending continually on this very thing.
(WEB WEY BBE NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 13:7
Give therefore to everyone what you owe: taxes to whom taxes are due; customs to whom customs; respect to whom respect; honor to whom honor.
(WEB WEY BBE RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:25
The men of Israel said, "Have you seen this man who is come up? He has surely come up to defy Israel. It shall be, that the man who kills him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel."
(See NIV)

Ezra 4:13
The king may be certain that when the building of this town and its walls is complete, they will give no tax or payment in goods or forced payments, and in the end it will be a cause of loss to the kings.
(See NIV)

Ezra 4:20
Further, there have been great kings in Jerusalem, ruling over all the country across the river, to whom they gave taxes and payments in goods and forced payments.
(BBE NIV)

Ezra 7:24
In addition, we make it clear to you, that it will be against the law to put any tax or payment in goods or forced payment on any of the priests or Levites, the music-makers, door-keepers, Nethinim, or any servants of this house of God.
(See NIV)

Nehemiah 5:4
And there were others who said, We have given up our fields and our vine-gardens to get money for the king's taxes.
(BBE)

Esther 2:18
Then the king made a great feast for all his princes and his servants, even Esther's feast; and he proclaimed a holiday in the provinces, and gave gifts according to the king's bounty.
(See RSV)

Daniel 11:20
Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
(KJV WBS)

Amos 5:11
Forasmuch therefore as you trample on the poor, and take taxes from him of wheat: You have built houses of cut stone, but you will not dwell in them. You have planted pleasant vineyards, but you shall not drink their wine.
(WEB BBE)

Subtopics

Taxes

Related Terms

Assessor

Publican (7 Occurrences)

Caesar (25 Occurrences)

Pay (212 Occurrences)

Levy (19 Occurrences)

Tribute (67 Occurrences)

Revenue (10 Occurrences)

Payment (168 Occurrences)

Taxing (3 Occurrences)

Tax-farmer (7 Occurrences)

Lawful (38 Occurrences)

Rehoboam (42 Occurrences)

Respect (204 Occurrences)

Seated (252 Occurrences)

Tax (43 Occurrences)

Owe (10 Occurrences)

Toll (8 Occurrences)

Due (93 Occurrences)

Promptly (4 Occurrences)

Burden (111 Occurrences)

Customs (25 Occurrences)

Honor (240 Occurrences)

Custom (51 Occurrences)

Vine-gardens (41 Occurrences)

Tithe (30 Occurrences)

Government (20 Occurrences)

Zacchaeus (3 Occurrences)

Nation (192 Occurrences)

Oppressive (6 Occurrences)

Opposes (7 Occurrences)

Lush (2 Occurrences)

Local (5 Occurrences)

Garrison (15 Occurrences)

Governing (6 Occurrences)

Impose (12 Occurrences)

Integrity (46 Occurrences)

Forbidding (6 Occurrences)

Farm (9 Occurrences)

Farmer (17 Occurrences)

Treasurer (6 Occurrences)

Taskmaster (3 Occurrences)

Tirshatha (5 Occurrences)

Taxed (4 Occurrences)

Taxation (1 Occurrence)

Tax-gatherers (16 Occurrences)

Tiberius (1 Occurrence)

Really (100 Occurrences)

Record (71 Occurrences)

Raiser (4 Occurrences)

Exact (31 Occurrences)

Energies (2 Occurrences)

Distress (169 Occurrences)

Decapolis (3 Occurrences)

Declare (346 Occurrences)

Devoting (7 Occurrences)

Defer (7 Occurrences)

Misleading (8 Occurrences)

Man's (347 Occurrences)

Mansions (5 Occurrences)

Pressure (10 Occurrences)

Position (189 Occurrences)

Perverting (6 Occurrences)

Payments (7 Occurrences)

Partial (14 Occurrences)

Paying (17 Occurrences)

Census (24 Occurrences)

Collector (8 Occurrences)

Collect (24 Occurrences)

Claims (12 Occurrences)

Charge (379 Occurrences)

Colony (1 Occurrence)

Aren't (102 Occurrences)

Attention (236 Occurrences)

Accuse (34 Occurrences)

Antiochus

Accordance (118 Occurrences)

Authorities (44 Occurrences)

Attending (14 Occurrences)

Assessment (1 Occurrence)

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