Vincent's Word Studies
Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
Very early in the morning (ὄρθρου βαθέως)
Lit., at deep dawn, or the dawn being deep. It is not uncommon in Greek to find βαθύς, deep, used of time; as deep or late evening. Plutarch says of Alexander, that he supped "at deep evening;" i.e., late at night. Philo says that the Hebrews crossed the Red Sea "about deep dawn (as here), while others were yet in bed." So Socrates, in prison, asks Crito the time of day. He replies, ὄρθρος βαθύς, the dawn is deep, i.e. breaking (Plato, "Crito," 43).
And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:
And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?
He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,
Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
And they remembered his words,
And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.
It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.
And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
To them (ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν)
Rev., literally, in their sight
Idle tales (λῆρος)
Lit., silly talk; nonsense. Only here in New Testament. Used in medical language of the wild talk of delirium. Wyc., madness. Tynd., feigned things.
Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
See on looketh, James 1:25. The best texts omit this verse.
Not garments, but the linen bandages in which the body had been rolled. So Rev., cloths.
And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.
And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
Went with (συνεπορεύετο)
The use of the imperfect here is very beautiful. Jesus drew near while they were absorbed in their talk, and was already walking with them when they observed him.
But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.
And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
Ye have (ἀντιβάλλετε)
Lit., throw back and forth; exchange.
"Discussed a doubt and tossed it to and fro" (Tennyson).
And are sad (σκυθρωποί)
Only here and Matthew 6:16, on which see note. The best texts put the interrogation point after walk, add καὶ ἐστάθησαν, and render, and they stood still, looking sad. So Rev.
And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem (σὺ μόνος παροικεῖς Ἰερουσαλὴμ)
Παροικεῖν, to dwell as a stranger, is used in later Greek of strangers who have no rights of citizenship, and no settled home. Compare Hebrews 11:9. See on strangers, 1 Peter 1:1; and compare sojourning, 1 Peter 1:17. The only of the A. V. is commonly understood adverbially: "Are you nothing but a stranger?" But the emphasis of the question falls there, and the word is an adjective. Render "Dost thou alone dwell as a stranger in Jerusalem?" Are you the only one who sojourns as a stranger in Jerusalem, and who does not know, etc. So, nearly, Wyc., Thou alone art a pilgrim in Jerusalem.
And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
What things (ποῖα)
Lit., "what kind of things."
And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
More correctly, hoped. Imperfect: were hoping all the while.
Should have redeemed
Rev., more correctly, should redeem (λυτροῦσθαι). See on 1 Peter 1:18.
Beside all this (σὺν πᾶσιν τούτοις)
Lit., with all these things: his betrayal and crucifixion, etc.
To-day is the third day (τρίτην ταύτην ἡμέραν ἄγει σήμερον)
The best texts omit to-day. The phrase forms an idiom which cannot be neatly rendered. Literally it is, "He (Christ) is passing (ἄγει) this day as the third." Rev., It is now the third day since, etc.
Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
Made us astonished (ἐξέστησαν)
Literally the verb means to put out of place ; and so, to drive one out of his senses. Hence the A. V. is feeble. Rev., better, amazed us.
And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
That they had seen - which said
Cleopas, absorbed in his story, throws himself back to the time of his interview with the women. Lit., "They came saying that they have seen a vision of angels which say" (λέγουσιν).
And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.
Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
Fools and slow of heart (ἀνόητοι καὶ βραδεῖς τῇ καρδίᾳ)
This is an unfortunate translation, in the light of the ordinary, popular use of the word fool. Jesus would never have called those sorrowful disciples fools in that sense. The word is compounded of ἀ, not, and νοέω, which implies, besides seeing, perception of the mind as consequent upon sight. It is therefore equivalent to dull of perception. They had read what the prophets had spoken, but had failed to perceive its application to Christ. While this rebuke relates to the understanding, the following one, slow of heart, goes deeper, and contemplates the region of feeling and moral susceptibility. Your heart is dull and slow to respond to these testimonies of your own prophets. Compare hardiness of heart, Mark 16:14.
All (ἐπὶ πᾶσιν)
Rev., rightly, in all; relying upon (ἐπί) all the utterances of the prophets.
Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
Ought not (οὐχὶ ἔδει)
The A. V. does not convey the precise meaning, which is, that, in the eternal order of things, and in fulfilment of the eternal counsel of God as expressed in the prophecies, it was essentially fitting that Christ should suffer. Rev. is clumsy but correct: behoved it not the Christ to suffer?
And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
He expounded (διερμήνυεν)
Or interpreted: throughout (διά). Imperfect, he went on interpreting from passage to passage.
And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
They went (ἐπορεύοντο)
Imperfect, were going. So Rev,
Made as though (προσεποιήσατο)
The verb means originally to add or attach to; hence to take to one's self what does not belong to him; and so, to pretend; though pretending as implying anything false, does not attach to this act of Jesus. He was going on, and would have gone on but for their invitation. Only here in New Testament.
But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.
They constrained (παρεβιάσαντο)
Contrary to (παρά) his apparent intention of going on. Only here and Acts 16:15.
Is far spent (κέκλικεν)
Lit., has declined. Wyc., is now bowed down.
And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
And gave (ἐπεδίδου)
A very beautiful use of the imperfect, indicating that while he was in the act of distributing they recognized him. He blessed, and having broken, was giving it to them, when, in an instant, their eyes were opened (aorist tense).
And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
They knew (ἐπέγνωσαν)
And he vanished out of their sight (αὐτὸς ἄφαντος ἐγένετο ἀπ' αὐτῶν)
Lit., he, invisible, became away from them. It is not simply, he suddenly departed from them, but he passed away from them invisibly. The ἐγένετο, became, is construed with ἀπ' αὐτῶν, from them.
And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
Did not our heart burn - while he talked - opened. (οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν - ὡς ἐλάλει - διήνοιγεν)
The A. V., as usual, pays no attention to the graphic imperfects here. They are speaking of something which was in progress: "was not our heart burning (finite verb and participle) while he was speaking, and was opening the scriptures?"
And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
Is risen (ἠγέρθη) - appeared (ὤφθη)
Both aorists. The Lord rose and appeared. So Wyc. See on appeared, Luke 22:43.
And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
They told (ἐξηγοῦντο)
Rev., rehearsed is better, because the verb means to tell at length or relate in full.
And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
The best texts omit Jesus. Render as Rev., "he himself stood."
And saith unto them, Peace be unto you
The best texts omit.
But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.
And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
See on James 2:4, and deceiving, James 1:22. Rev., reasonings. As if he had said, "Why do you reason about a matter which your spiritual perception ought to discern at once." Compare note on fools, Luke 24:25.
Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
Compare 1 John 1:1. The word occurs also Acts 17:27; Hebrews 12:18. "It never expresses the so handling an object as to exercise a moulding, modifying influence upon it, but at most a feeling of its surface; this, it may be, with the intention of learning its composition (Genesis 27:12, Genesis 27:21, Genesis 27:22); while, not seldom, it signifies no more than a feeling for or after an object, without any actual coming in contact with it at all" (Trench, "Synonyms"). Compare Acts 17:27. Used of groping in the dark, Job 5:14 :; of the blind, Isaiah 59:10; Deuteronomy 28:29; Judges, Judges 16:26. See on Hebrews 12:18.
And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
Only here in New Testament. Lit., anything eatable. Wyc., anything that shall be eaten. Rev., better, anything to eat, as the word meat has largely lost, in popular usage, its old sense of food in general.
And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
Only here in New Testament.
Of an honey-comb
The best texts omit.
And he took it, and did eat before them.
And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
The best texts insert my.
See on ought not, Luke 24:26.
Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
Which had been closed. See on fools, Luke 24:25.
And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
Thus it behoved
The best texts omit. Render, as Rev., thus it is written that the Christ should suffer.
Christ (τὸν Χριστὸν)
Note the article, the Christ, and see on Matthew 1:1.
And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
Should be preached
See on preacher, 2 Peter 2:5.
In his name
On the foundation of (ἐπἵ) See on Matthew 24:5.
Beginning from Jerusalem
Some editors place a period after nations, and join these words with the next sentence, omitting and: "beginning from Jerusalem ye are witnesses."
And ye are witnesses of these things.
And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
I send (ἐγὼ ἐξαποστέλλω)
Rev., better, send forth, giving the force of ἐξ. Iemphatic.
Endued with power
The Rev. has properly substituted the simpler clothed, which, to the English reader, conveys the exact figure in the word. This metaphorical sense of clothed is found in classical Greek. Aristophanes has clothed with audacity; Homer, clothed with strength; Plutarch, clothed with nobility and wealth.
And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
And was carried up into heaven
Some texts omit.
And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.