Revelation 12:10
And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brothers is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) And I heard a loud voice . . .—Better, And I heard a great voice in the heavens saying, Now is come the salvation, and the might, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ. The definite article is placed before the words “salvation” and “might.” The words of this doxology are like an echo of the close of the Lord’s Prayer. The prayer “Thy kingdom come” seems answered. Now is come the kingdom. But it is not the full establishment of the kingdom which is here described; it is rather the manifestation of it. Since our Master passed into the heavens—and His victory is achieved, we know Him to be King, and even while we pray “Thy kingdom come” we yet confess “Thine is the kingdom”—the salvation so anxiously looked for (1Peter 1:10); the power so much needed by weak and sinful men (1Peter 1:5 and 1Corinthians 1:24); and the kingdom which cannot be shaken (Hebrews 12:28). The accuser of the brethren is cast down. This is another reason for joy and another feature of the salvation. The habit of the accuser is expressed by the use of the present tense. We should read not “who accused,” but “who accuseth.” Night and day he accused. (Comp. Zechariah 3:1, and Job 1:9; Job 2:5.) In Jewish writings, Michael is called “the advocate” (sunegor), and stands in opposition to the accuser (kategor); but now the accuser is cast down; for who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect, when it is God that justifieth, when it is Christ that died? (Romans 8:33-34.)

12:7-11 The attempts of the dragon proved unsuccessful against the church, and fatal to his own interests. The seat of this war was in heaven; in the church of Christ, the kingdom of heaven on earth. The parties were Christ, the great Angel of the covenant, and his faithful followers; and Satan and his instruments. The strength of the church is in having the Lord Jesus for the Captain of their salvation. Pagan idolatry, which was the worship of devils, was cast out of the empire by the spreading of Christianity. The salvation and strength of the church, are only to be ascribed to the King and Head of the church. The conquered enemy hates the presence of God, yet he is willing to appear there, to accuse the people of God. Let us take heed that we give him no cause to accuse us; and that, when we have sinned, we go before the Lord, condemn ourselves, and commit our cause to Christ as our Advocate. The servants of God overcame Satan by the blood of the Lamb, as the cause. By the word of their testimony: the powerful preaching of the gospel is mighty, through God, to pull down strong holds. By their courage and patience in sufferings: they loved not their lives so well but they could lay them down in Christ's cause. These were the warriors and the weapons by which Christianity overthrew the power of pagan idolatry; and if Christians had continued to fight with these weapons, and such as these, their victories would have been more numerous and glorious, and the effects more lasting. The redeemed overcame by a simple reliance on the blood of Christ, as the only ground of their hopes. In this we must be like them. We must not blend any thing else with this.And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven - The great enemy was expelled; the cause of God and truth was triumphant; and the conquering hosts united in celebrating the victory. This representation of a song, consequent on victory, is in accordance with the usual representations in the Bible. See the song of Moses at the Red Sea, Exodus 15; the song of Deborah, Judges 5; the song of David when the Lord had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, 2 Samuel 22; and Isaiah 12:25. On no occasion could such a song be more appropriate than on the complete routing and discomfiture of Satan and his rebellious hosts. Viewed in reference to the time here symbolized, this would relate to the certain triumph of the church and of truth on the earth; in reference to the language, there is an allusion to the joy and triumph of the heavenly hosts when Satan and his apostate legions were expelled.

Now is come salvation - That is, complete deliverance from the power of Satan.

And strength - That is, now is the mighty power of God manifested in casting down and subduing the great enemy of the church.

And the kingdom of our God - The reign of our God. See the notes on Matthew 3:2. That is now established among people, and God will henceforward rule. This refers to the certain ultimate triumph of his cause in the world.

And the power of his Christ - His anointed; that is, the kingdom of Christ as the Messiah, or as anointed and set apart to rule over the world. See the notes on Matthew 1:1.

For the accuser of our brethren is cast down - The phrase "our brethren" shows by whom this song is celebrated. It is sung in heaven; but it is by those who belonged to the redeemed church, and whose brethren were still suffering persecution and trial on the earth. It shows the tenderness of the tie which unites all the redeemed as brethren, whether on earth or in heaven; and it shows the interest which they "who have passed the flood" have in the trials, the sorrows, and the triumphs of those who are still upon the earth. We have here another appellation given to the great enemy - "accuser of the brethren." The word used here - κατήγορος katēgoros, in later editions of the New Testament κατήγωρ katēgōr - means properly "an accuser," one who blames another, or charges another with crime. The word occurs in John 8:10; Acts 23:30, Acts 23:35; Acts 24:8; Acts 25:16, Acts 25:18; Revelation 12:10, in all which places it is rendered "accuser" or "accusers," though only in the latter place applied to Satan. The verb frequently occurs, Matthew 12:10; Matthew 27:12; Mark 3:2; Mark 15:3, et al.

The description of Satan as an accuser accords with the opinion of the ancient Hebrews in regard to his character. Thus he is represented in Job 1:9-11; Job 2:4-5; Zechariah 3:1-2; 1 Chronicles 21:1. The phrase "of the brethren" refers to Christians, or to the people of God; and the meaning here is, that one of the characteristics of Satan - a characteristic so well known as to make it proper to designate him by it - is that he is an accuser of the righteous; that he is employed in bringing against them charges affecting their character and destroying their influence. The propriety of this appellation cannot be doubted. It is, as it has always been, one of the characteristics of Satan - one of the means by which he keeps up his influence in the world - to bring accusations against the people of God. Thus, under his suggestions, and by his agents, they are charged with hypocrisy; with insincerity; with being influenced by bad motives; with pursuing sinister designs under the cloak of religion; with secret vices and crimes. Thus it was that the martyrs were accused; thus it is that unfounded accusations are often brought against ministers of the gospel, palsying their power and diminishing their influence, or that when a professed Christian falls the church is made to suffer by an effort to cast suspicion on all who bear the Christian name. Perhaps the most skillful thing that Satan does, and the thing by which he most contributes to diminish the influence of the church, is in thus causing "accusations" to be brought against the people of God.

Is cast down - The period here referred to was, doubtless, the time when the church was about to be established and to flourish in the world, and when accusations would be brought against Christians by various classes of calumniators and informers. It is well known that in the early ages of Christianity crimes of the most horrid nature were charged on Christians, and that it was by these slanders that the effort was made to prevent the extension of the Christian church.

Which accused them before our God - See the notes on Job 1:9-10. The meaning is, that he accused them, as it were, in the very presence of God.

Day and night - He never ceased bringing these accusations, and sought by the perseverance and constancy with which they were urged to convince the world that there was no sincerity in the church and no reality in religion.

10. Now—Now that Satan has been cast out of heaven. Primarily fulfilled in part at Jesus' resurrection and ascension, when He said (Mt 28:18), "All power [Greek, 'exousia,' 'authority,' as here; see below] is given unto Me in heaven and in earth"; connected with Re 12:5, "Her child was caught up unto God and to His throne." In the ulterior sense, it refers to the eve of Christ's second coming, when Israel is about to be restored as mother-church of Christendom, Satan, who had resisted her restoration on the ground of her unworthiness, having been cast out by the instrumentality of Michael, Israel's angelic prince (see on [2717]Re 12:7). Thus this is parallel, and the necessary preliminary to the glorious event similarly expressed, Re 11:15, "The kingdom of this world is become (the very word here, Greek, 'egeneto,' 'is come,' 'hath come to pass') our Lord's and His Christ's," the result of Israel's resuming her place.

salvation, &c.—Greek, "the salvation (namely, fully, finally, and victoriously accomplished, Heb 9:28; compare Lu 3:6, yet future; hence, not till now do the blessed raise the fullest hallelujah for salvation to the Lamb, Re 7:10; 19:1) the power (Greek, 'dunamis'), and the authority (Greek, 'exousia'; 'legitimate power'; see above) of His Christ."

accused them before our God day and night—Hence the need that the oppressed Church, God's own elect (like the widow, continually coming, so as even to weary the unjust judge), should cry day and night unto Him.

And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven: John undoubtedly heard this voice as in the third heaven, whither he was caught; but it is not only expressive of the joy and satisfaction which the glorious angels and glorified saints had, upon their knowledge of what was done upon the earth, but prophetical of the great joy which should be over all the church, upon Constantine’s stopping the persecution. and restoring peace to the church, by casting out all pagan idolatries and superstitions.

Now is come salvation; temporal salvation, and deliverance from persecutors.

And strength; now God hath showed himself a strong and mighty God.

And the kingdom of our God; and the King of kings, who reigneth over all the earth.

And the power of his Christ; now Christ hath shown his power.

For the accuser of our brethren is cast down, who accused them before our God day and night; for the devil, who incessantly accuseth the saints, is overcome. Two things are here observable:

1. That the holy angels call the saints brethren.

2. That the accusers of Christians, for their piety towards God, are of their father the devil, for his works they do.

Informers show who is their father, by accusing others, by murdering the servants of God; they differ no more than as elder and younger brethren, both are children of the same father. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven,.... Which was a song of praise on account of the victory obtained by Michael and his angels over the dragon and his, or for the overthrow and downfall of Paganism in the Roman empire; for by "heaven" is meant the empire, now become Christian, or the Christian church state in it; and the "loud voice" heard in it by John shows that there was a great number in it, who rejoiced on this occasion, and that they were full of affection and fervency, and therefore expressed themselves in such manner, and in form following:

now is come salvation and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ; "salvation" was come when Christ obtained it by his sufferings and death, and comes to particular persons in the effectual calling, and it will only be fully come when it is perfectly enjoyed in heaven: but here it designs a deliverance from Satan, as the god of this world, who was now dethroned, and cast down from his power, authority, and influence in the empire; and from Pagan idolatry and superstition, and from the ten days of tribulation, the cruel and bloody persecutions under the Heathen emperors; and denotes that safety and security, comfort, peace, and happiness, the churches enjoyed under the government of a Christian emperor: and now was come "strength"; not the strength of Christ personal, displayed in the redemption of his people; but rather of Christ mystical, of his church and interest, which had been very weak and low, and under oppression and persecution, but was now exalted, and in a flourishing condition, and was become strong and mighty; or it may design the strength and power of Christ, shown in destroying his enemies, in casting the dragon out of heaven down to the earth, and in bringing to confusion and destruction the Heathen emperors, princes, and others, who fled to the rocks and mountains for fear of him, and because of his great wrath: also now came "the kingdom of our God", the Gospel of the kingdom was preached everywhere and Gospel churches were set up in all parts of the empire, both which are sometimes signified by the kingdom of God; here was now an illustrious appearance of the kingdom of God in the world, such as had never been before; and which was a pledge and presage of the greatness of the kingdom, or of that everlasting kingdom which will be set up hereafter, when all other kingdoms will be at an end: to which is added "the power of his Christ"; or his authority as Lord and Christ, which took place at his resurrection, ascension, and session at the right hand of God, and which will more fully appear at the last day, when he shall come in glory, and exercise his authority in judging the quick and dead, of which there was some resemblance at this time, in dethroning Satan, destroying Paganism, and putting an end to the power of the Heathen emperors and empire; and which is expressed in such language as the day of judgment is, Revelation 6:12; for to the opening of the sixth seal does this passage belong: a further account is given of the matter of this song, and the reason of it:

for the accuser of our brethren is cast down; hence it appears that this is not a song of the angels in heaven, since the saints are never called their brethren, nor the angels theirs, but their fellow servants; rather it may be thought to be the song of the saints in heaven, acknowledging those on earth to be their brethren, as they are, for there is but one family in heaven and in earth, and the saints on earth are called the of the souls under the altar, Revelation 6:9; but as this refers to the state of the church in Constantine's time, it must be the song of the saints in that state, who call the martyrs, that had been slain under the former persecutions, their brethren; for that they are the persons meant is clear from the following verse, whom Satan is an accuser of, for he is designed here; the word rendered "devil" signifies an accuser, and a false one, and is so translated Titus 2:3; this is a name frequently given to Satan by the Jews, and have adopted into their language the very Greek word (q) that is here used; and often say of him that he accuses Israel, and particularly that he accuses Israel above, that is, in heaven; and that he stands and (r), "continually accuses them", the very phrase used in the next clause: when Israel came out of Egypt, they say (s) the angel Samael (the devil) stood and accused them; the first day of the month Tisri, according to them (t), is appointed a day for blowing of trumpets, to confound Satan, who comes to accuse at that time; so they say (u) that Satan stood and accused Abraham, and others; and indeed he was an accuser from the beginning, both of God to men, and of men to God; we have instances in Job and Joshua the high priest, Job 1:8 Zechariah 3:1; but here it refers to the accusations brought against the Christians in the primitive times, during the ten persecutions, which were very horrid ones indeed; as that they had their private suppers, at which they ate their own infants, and their nightly meetings, for the gratifying of their lusts, in which they committed adultery, incest, and all manner of uncleanness; if ever a fire happened in a city, they were charged with it; and whenever there were any famine, or pestilence, or wars, or any public calamity, they were accused as the cause and occasion of it; as appears from the apologies for them written by Justin, Tertullian, Cyprian, Minutius Felix, &c. so that Satan at this time was remarkably the accuser of the brethren; but now this father of lies was cast down, he was cast out of heaven, and deprived of that power and authority he had in the empire, and lost his influence over men, and could not spread his lies, and get his false charges and accusations credited and received as before; he was not indeed wholly destroyed, nor even shut up in the bottomless pit, but he was cast down to the earth; he was in a low condition, his power was greatly diminished, and he was conquered by Christ, and cast down and bruised under the feet of the saints,

which accused them before our God day and night; so the evil spirit in Ahab's time, and Satan in Job's time, are said to stand before the Lord: and this shows the malice, and also the insolence of the devil, that he should stand and accuse the saints before God, who he knew was their God, and was on their side, and therefore his accusations could be of no avail; and though Christ appears in the presence of God for them, and is their advocate with the Father, yet he is constant and indefatigable in going about, and picking up charges against them, and carrying them to God.

(q) Pirke Abot, c. 4. sect. 11. Maimon. & Bartenora in ib. (r) Shaare Ora, fol. 21. 4. & 24. 2.((s) Shemot Rabba, sect. 21. fol. 106. 4. (t) Targum Jon. in Numbers 29.1.((u) Zohar in Numb. fol. 107. 2.

And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, {16} Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.

(16) The song of victory or triumph containing first, a proposition of the glory of God and of Christ shown in that victory: secondly, it contains a reason for the same proposition, taken from the effects, as the enemy is overcome in battle, in this verse, and the godly are made conquerors (and more than conquerors) Ro 8:37. Thirdly a conclusion, in which is an exhortation to the angels, and to the saints: and to the word, a prophecy of great misery, and of destruction obtained by the devil against mankind, since he himself will soon be miserable Re 12:12.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Revelation 12:10-12. A loud voice in heaven[3113] celebrates the victory which has just occurred before the eye of the seer, over the adversary of Christ and his kingdom (Revelation 12:10-12 a), as one in which believers also are to participate, Revelation 12:10; but this voice proclaims, also, woe to the whole earth, because the dragon cast out upon it will make use of the short time given him for his wrath (Revelation 12:12 b).

ἄρτι, “now,” since the victory over the dragon, Revelation 12:8 sq., as also the conclusion from Revelation 12:10, ὅτι ἐβλ., κ.τ.λ., once again expressly emphasizes.

ἘΓΈΝΕΤΟ Ἡ ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ, Κ.Τ.Λ. Incorrectly, Hofm.: “God and his Anointed have established their salvation and their power.” Also De Wette, who properly refers to Revelation 11:15, is incorrect in his remark: There is with respect to the ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ a sort of zeugma or mingling of thoughts; the sentence, “Salvation is God,” Revelation 7:10, Revelation 19:1, becomes in this connection: “Now it is shown that the salvation is God’s.” De Wette, as also those who have wished to change the meaning of Ἡ ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ, has correctly felt that it is just the idea of the ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ whereby the mode of statement in this passage appears more difficult than in the entirely similar passage, Revelation 11:15. But precisely as the ΔὙΝΑΜΙς and the ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ, so also the ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ, i.e., salvation in the specific Christian sense,—not “victory,”[3114] which ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ does not mean,—is beheld with complete objectivity. The salvation, like the kingdom, the strength, and the power, has now become our God’s, since the dragon in heaven has been overcome; now his salvation, his power, his kingdom, are no longer attacked and injured by the violence of the dragon up to this time unbroken, and his power not yet overcome. This is the precise mode of the presentation, along with which the other view also co-exists, that it is essentially and alone God’s salvation, power, and kingdom which God seizes,[3115] or which becomes God’s. The individual ideas are very significant; ἡ σωτηρία is the salvation, not only inasmuch as saints are thereby delivered,[3116]—this reference is necessary, nevertheless is too narrow,—but[3117] the sum total of all righteousness, blessedness, and holiness, as they have been prepared for the creature by God through his Christ, the ΣΩΤΉΟ, but have been prevented from reaching the same by the dragon, the antichrist. The ΔΎΝΑΜΙς, the power of God, has been manifested in his victory over the dragon;[3118] the ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ, “where God’s majesty shows itself,”[3119] is the royal glory of God,[3120] which is peculiar to him as the possessor of unconditioned power, and which he displays especially in creation and the imparting of salvation.[3121] The ἘΞΟΥΣΊΑ is ascribed to God’s Christ, because it is the definite, supreme power[3122] peculiar to God’s Christ as such.[3123] The reason for the ascription of praise, ἌΡΤΙ ἘΓΈΝΕΤΟ, Κ.Τ.Λ., lies in what is reported in Revelation 12:8-9; for the entire undertaking of the dragon[3124] was nothing else than the truly antichristian attempt to frustrate the ΣΩΤΗΡΊΑ, to bid defiance to the ΔΎΝΑΜΙς of God, to oppose his ΒΑΣΙΛΕΊΑ, and to bring to naught the ἘΞΟΥΣΊΑ of Christ, ay, Christ himself. From a new side, not at all touched in Revelation 12:3 sqq., and also very remote from that presentation, is the overcome adversary designated by the appellation Ὁ ΚΑΤΉΓΩΡ Τ. ἈΔΕΛΦ. ἩΜ., Κ.Τ.Λ. The form of the word is Hebraistic: קטיגור. Precisely analogous is the rabbinical designation of Michael as the סביגוד, the ΣΥΝΉΓΩΡ, i.e., ΣΥΝΉΓΟΡΟς, advocate, of the godly.[3125] In the later Greek there is also the analogous form ΔΙΆΚΩΝ for ΔΙΆΚΟΝΟς.[3126]

ΤῶΝ ἈΔΕΛΦῶΝ ἩΜῶΝ. The brethren of those by whom, in a loud voice, the song of praise is raised, are undoubtedly believers in the earthly life, for only they could be exposed to the accusation on the part of Satan; but an inference as to the designation of the heavenly persons who speak of believing men as their brethren is not to be made: it can in no way be decided as to whether the adoring voice proceeds from the angels,[3127] or from the twenty-four elders,[3128] or perhaps from the already perfected saints,[3129]—who, however, would not be regarded as saints only of the O. T.[3130] The idea of a perpetual[3131] accusation of the godly on the part of Satan,[3132] which occurs neither in the N. nor the O. T. as an express doctrinal article, is derived and formulated by Jewish theology from Zechariah 3 and Job 1, 2.[3133] The N. T. contains an allusion to that conception only so far as the names ordinarily used in the N. T., ὁ διάβολος and ό σατανᾶς, also ὁ ἀντικείμενος, according to their original significance, point back to the same. In the latter circumstance, sufficient scriptural ground for receiving the accusing activity of Satan in dogmatical seriousness can be acknowledged only if the Scriptures were elsewhere to show expressly that they advocate such definite sense for that name already firmly fixed. But this occurs neither in Job 1, 2, nor in Zechariah 3; for the former mythically fashioned passage does not treat at all of a peculiar accusation, while, according to the nature of the subject, objective reality does not pertain to the vision of the prophet. Scripture, therefore, does not give us a doctrinal article, which would be just as incomprehensible to Christian thought, as the idea of an actual abode of the devil and his angels in heaven.[3134] But as there, so also here, every allegorizing interpretation of the text is to be rejected,[3135] and it is to be decided, according to the analogy of Scripture, that the idea of a perpetual accusation of believers by Satan, derived in its concrete formation from Jewish theology, makes no claim of objective truth, but is to be regarded as a point of the prophetic conception founded in the individuality of John.

[3113] Cf. Revelation 11:15; Revelation 11:12.

[3114] Eichh., Ew. ii.

[3115] Cf. (Revelation 11:17) the τ. δύν. σου in connection with the εἴληφας.

[3116] Beng. Cf. Hengstenb., Ebrard.

[3117] Cf. the similar passages Revelation 7:10, Revelation 19:1.

[3118] Cf. Beng.

[3119] Beng.

[3120] Revelation 11:15; Revelation 11:17.

[3121] Cf. Revelation 1:6, Revelation 5:10.

[3122] Cf. Revelation 13:2, where ἐξ. stands for the definite supreme power existent in a commission, office, etc.

[3123] Cf. Revelation 13:2, where ἐξ. is with δύναμις; Revelation 6:8, Revelation 9:3, Revelation 11:6, Revelation 14:18, Revelation 17:18, Revelation 20:6, where ἐξ. is used with respect to definite supreme authority lying in a commission, office, etc.

[3124] Revelation 12:3 sqq.

[3125] Cf. Schöttg.

[3126] Cf. Wetst.

[3127] Beda, etc.

[3128] Ew. i., etc.

[3129] Ew. ii., according to Revelation 6:4 sqq., Revelation 7:9 sqq

[3130] Beng.

[3131] ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός. Cf. Revelation 4:8.

[3132] Sohar Levit., p. 43: “He always stands as accuser before the king of Israel” (in Schöttg.).

[3133] Cf. examples in Schöttg.

[3134] Cf. Revelation 12:7 sqq.Revelation 12:10. κατήγωρ (קטיגוִר) is the counterpart to the rabbinic (Lueken 22) title of συνήγορος given to Michael as a sort of Greatheart or advocate and protector of men (En. lx. 9). The Aramaic derivation of the word (Win. § 8. 13) is not absolutely necessary, as the papyri show that it might have sprung up on Greek soil (cf. Thumb, 126; Rademacher, Rhein. Mus. lvii. 148). On the accuser’s rôle cf. Sohar Levit. fol. 43 (ille semper stat tanquam delator coram rege Israelis) and the prayer of Jub. Revelation 1:20 : “let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before thee and to turn them deceitfully from all the paths of righteousness” (where both traits are combined, cf. above on 9).10. a loud voice] See on Revelation 6:6 : and cf. Revelation 11:12 : the word “loud” here is literally “great” as there. Here, “our brethren” seems to imply, that it is a number of angels that speak.

salvation, and strength] Rather, the salvation and the might and the kingdom of.…”

power] Differs from the preceding word “strength” or “might” as implying that it is derivative—cf. 1 Corinthians 15:27-28.

the accuser] In Jewish tradition, Satan is spoken of under this title, the Greek word here used being Hebraical, and here, though of course written in Greek letters, it has the Hebraical, not the classical form. St Michael was called by the correlative term, “the Advocate.”

which accused] More literally accuseth, but the context shews that the meaning of the tense is to mark the act as habitual rather than as present. The “Prologue in Heaven” of the Book of Job, and Zechariah 3:1, of course illustrate the sense.Revelation 12:10. Ἀρτι, now) This particle teaches most evidently, that this twelfth chapter, from its very beginning, refers to the trumpet of the seventh angel; for the voice which was heard immediately under the sound of that trumpet, ch. Revelation 11:15, respecting the kingdom, is here repeated with a remarkable increase of meaning by the figure, Epitasis [see Append.]; nor can it by any means be placed before this trumpet in particular. The accuser attacked the citizens, and not the king. Moreover, the latter part of the twelfth chapter, has a most close coherence with this very passage. In ch. Revelation 2:15-18, these things are set forth, which this most important trumpet comprises; in Revelation 2:19, and ch. 12–22 is an Exergasia [see Append. “Epexegesis.”], and copious description of its accomplishment.—ὁ κατήγωρ[127]) A name naturalized and adopted even in the East, and so used by the Syriac translator in this passage. Therefore in this very place it is not used as a Greek word (as Camero remarks), but as a Hebrew word, the purely Greek synonym, Ὁ ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡῶΝ, following. The two languages are joined together, as in Revelation 12:9, and repeatedly in this book, which has reference to both Israelites and Gentiles. See Schoettgen, Hor. Hebr. p. 1120, and those winch follow; where also the office of Michaël, and the appellation, old serpent, are illustrated from the writings of the Hebrews.

[127] Κατήγωρ, A. Κατήγορος, BC and Rec. Text.—E.Verse 10. - And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven. The "great voice" is characteristic of all the heavenly utterances (cf. Revelation 5:2; Revelation 6:1, 10; Revelation 16:17, etc.). The personality of the speaker is not indicated. From the following chorus the voice would seem to proceed from many inhabitants of heaven. Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ; the salvation and the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ (Revised Version). The Revised Version marginal reading may also be noticed, Now is the salvation... become our God's, and the authority [is become] his Christ's. The heavenly inhabitants celebrate the triumphant confirmation of God's supremacy, which has been vindicated by the defeat and expulsion of the rebellious hosts. "The salvation of God" (σωτηρία) is that which proceeds from him; "that salvation which belongs to God as its Author" (Alford); cf. Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:1. "The authority of his Christ" is first manifested in heaven; Satan is cast down to the earth, and here again at a subsequent epoch the authority of Christ is displayed, and another victory won over the devil. This seems to be the conclusion of the heavenly song. As before stated (see on ver. 7), the three and a half verses now concluded seem to relate to a period previous to the creation of the world. It seems equally probable that the following two and a half verses refer to those earthly martyrs and suffering Christians for whom this book is specially written. These two views can be reconciled by supposing the song of the heavenly voice to cease at the word "Christ" (ver. 10); and then the writer adds words of his own, as if he would say, "The cause of the victorious song which I have just recited was the fact that the devil was cast down, the same who is constantly accusing (ὁ κατηγορῶν) our brethren. But they (our brethren) overcame him, and valued not their lives, etc. Well may ye heavens rejoice over your happy lot, though it means woe to the earth for a short time." For the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. The one accusing them (ὁ κατηρορῶν); not the past tense. Satan does not cease to accuse, though he may not do so with effect, since he may be overcome by the "blood of the Lamb." The heavenly beings are henceforth beyond his reach. He can yet accuse men - our brethren - says St. John; but even here his power is limited by the victory of the death and resurrection of Christ referred to in ver. 5. "Accuser" (κατήγορος) is found in א, B, C, P, Andreas, Arethas. The form κατήγωρ, found in A, is rather the Targumic and rabbinic corruption of the word קטיגור, than the Greek word itself. "Of our brethren," the saints and martyrs (see above); "is cast down" (or, "was cast down") from heaven. Saying in heaven (λέγουσαν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ)

The correct reading joins in heaven with great voice. So Rev. I heard a great voice in heaven.

Now (ἄρτι)

See on John 13:33.

Is come (ἐγένετο)

Lit., came to pass. Alford says: "It is impossible in English to join to a particle of present time, such as ἄρτι now, a verb in aoristic time. We are driven to the perfect in such cases."

Salvation, power, the kingdom

All have the article: the salvation, etc. So Rev. The phrase, now is come the salvation, etc., means that these are realized and established. Some, less correctly, render, now is the salvation, etc., become our God's. Compare Luke 3:6.

Power (ἐξουσία)

See on Mark 2:10. Rev., authority.

The accuser of our brethren (ὁ κατήγορος τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν)

The correct form of the Greek for accuser is a transcript of the Rabbinical Hebrew, κατήγωρ. The Rabbins had a corresponding term συνήγωρ for Michael, as the advocate of God's people. The phrase is applied to Satan nowhere else in the New Testament.

Is cast down (κατεβλήθη)

The aorist tense. Once and for all. Compare John 12:31; John 16:8, John 16:11.

continued...

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