Galatians 1:7
Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) But there be some.—The force of the Greek, conjunction is, rather, except that, as the word “only” is used idiomatically in English. So far from being a second gospel, it is really no gospel, “only there are some . . . ,” i.e., the only sense in which there can be any mention of a second gospel is that there are some who pervert the old gospel. The existence of this party is the only excuse for the name. And it is a mere excuse. They do not deserve any such dignity. They really lay themselves under the curse of God.

That trouble you.—The Judaising party, with its restless factiousness and bigotry, causing schisms and divisions in the Church.

Pervert.—The Greek is even still stronger—reverse, or change to its very opposite. This they did by substituting a doctrine of righteousness by works—self-justification before God by performing the precepts of the Mosaic law—for the doctrine of reconciliation with God through the free forgiveness which He has promised to faith in Christ.

The gospel of Christ.—Where combinations of this kind occur, the question naturally suggests itself: What is the relation of the two words to each other? For instance, in the present case, is it “the gospel taught by Christ,” or the “gospel concerning Christ?” The following rule has been proposed:—In such phrases as the “gospel of salvation,” the “gospel of the kingdom,” the genitive is that of the object—“of” is equivalent to “concerning.” In the phrase “the gospel of God” it represents rather the cause or authorship: “the gospel of which God is the Author.” In the present phrase, “the gospel of Christ,” it may be either one or the other, according to the context. We must not, however, narrow too much the Apostle’s use of language. A somewhat vague and ambiguous term sometimes best expresses the fulness of his meaning. In English we might use the phrase “Christ’s gospel” to include at once “the gospel which proceeds from Christ,” and “the gospel which relates to Christ,” all, in fact, which makes it in any sense belong to Him and bear His name.

1:6-9 Those who would establish any other way to heaven than what the gospel of Christ reveals, will find themselves wretchedly mistaken. The apostle presses upon the Galatians a due sense of their guilt in forsaking the gospel way of justification; yet he reproves with tenderness, and represents them as drawn into it by the arts of some that troubled them. In reproving others, we should be faithful, and yet endeavour to restore them in the spirit of meekness. Some would set up the works of the law in the place of Christ's righteousness, and thus they corrupted Christianity. The apostle solemnly denounces, as accursed, every one who attempts to lay so false a foundation. All other gospels than that of the grace of Christ, whether more flattering to self-righteous pride, or more favourable to worldly lusts, are devices of Satan. And while we declare that to reject the moral law as a rule of life, tends to dishonour Christ, and destroy true religion, we must also declare, that all dependence for justification on good works, whether real or supposed, is as fatal to those who persist in it. While we are zealous for good works, let us be careful not to put them in the place of Christ's righteousness, and not to advance any thing which may betray others into so dreadful a delusion.Which is not another - There is also a great variety of views in regard to the meaning of this expression. Tyndale translates it: "which is nothing else but there be some that trouble you." Locke, "which is not owing to anything else but only this, that ye are troubled with a certain sort of people who would overturn the gospel of Christ." But Rosenmuller, Koppe, Bloomfield, and others, give a different view; and according to them the sense is, "which, however, is not another gospel, nor indeed the gospel at all, or true," etc. According to this, the design was to state, that what they taught had none of the elements or characteristics of the gospel. It was a different system, and one which taught an entirely different method of justification before God. It seems to me that this is the true sense of the passage, and that Paul means to teach them that the system, though it was called the gospel, was essentially different from that which he had taught, and which consisted in simple reliance on Christ for salvation. The system which they taught, was in fact the Mosaic system; the Jewish mode, depending on the rites and ceremonies of religion; and which, therefore, did not deserve to be called the gospel. It would lead them again with burdensome rites, and with cumbrous institutions, from which it was the great purpose of the gospel to relieve them.

But there be some that trouble you - Though this is most manifestly another system, and not the gospel at all, yet there are some persons who are capable of giving trouble and of unsettling your minds, by making it plausible. They pretend that they have come direct front the apostles at Jerusalem; that they have received their instructions from them, and that they preach the true gospel as they teach it. They pretend that Paul was called into the office of an apostle after them; that he had never seen the Lord Jesus; that he had derived his information only from others; and thus they are able to present a plausible argument, and to unsettle the minds of the Galatians.

And would pervert - That is, the tendency of their doctrine is wholly to turn away (μεταστρέψαι metastrepsai), to destroy, or render useless the gospel of Christ. It would lead to the denial of the necessity of dependence on the merits of the Lord Jesus for salvation, and would substitute dependence on rites and ceremonies. This does not of necessity mean that such was the design of their teaching, for they might have been in the main honest; but that such was the tendency and result of their teaching. It would lead people to rely on the Mosaic rites for salvation.

7. another—A distinct Greek word from that in Ga 1:6. Though I called it a gospel (Ga 1:6), it is not really so. There is really but one Gospel, and no other gospel.

but—Translate, "Only that there are some that trouble you," &c. (Ga 5:10, 12). All I meant by the "different gospel" was nothing but a perversion by "some" of the one Gospel of Christ.

would pervert—Greek, "wish to pervert"; they could not really pervert the Gospel, though they could pervert Gospel professors (compare Ga 4:9, 17, 21; 6:12, 13; Col 2:18). Though acknowledging Christ, they insisted on circumcision and Jewish ordinances and professed to rest on the authority of other apostles, namely, Peter and James. But Paul recognizes no gospel, save the pure Gospel.

Which is not another; another doctrine it is, but another doctrine or glad tidings of salvation, or another gospel of Christ, it is not; for there is no other. In and by the new notions they bring they do but

trouble you, and pervert the true doctrine of the gospel; though they use the name of Christ, and of his gospel, they do it falsely; for by making the works of the law, and the observance of them, necessary to be by you observed in order to your salvation, they quite destroy and pervert the glad tidings of salvation; viz. that we are saved by Christ alone and faith in him, and by a righteousness without these works. Which is not another,.... It is no Gospel, no joyful sound, no good news, and glad tidings; the doctrine which attributes justification to the works of the law, or mixes grace and works in the business of salvation, which was the doctrine of these false teachers, is no Gospel; not truly so, however it may be called; nor does it bring any solid peace and joy to distressed minds. There is but one pure Gospel of the grace of God, and Christ, and his apostles; there is not one and another; there is but one faith, one doctrine and scheme of faith; the Gospel is single and uniform, all of a piece, has no yea and nay, or contradiction in it; this trumpet gives no uncertain sound, nor any dreadful, but a joyful one:

but there be some that trouble you; meaning the false apostles, whose names he does not think fit to mention, as being unworthy to be named, and to have their names transmitted to posterity. These troubled the churches with their doctrines and principles, by raising disputes and controversies among them, injecting doubts and scruples into their minds, which puzzled and confounded them, and made them uneasy, and which broke in upon that peace of soul which the Gospel brings and establishes; for no true solid peace is attained to, and enjoyed, but by the doctrine of justification by the righteousness of Christ, pardon by his blood, and atonement by his sacrifice, which the doctrine of justification by works, &c. tends to destroy.

And would pervert the Gospel of Christ; which has Christ for its author, subject, and preacher; and particularly the doctrine of justification by his righteousness, which they sought to change, to throw into a different shape and form, to adulterate by mixing it with the works of the law, and so, if possible, destroy it: to this they showed a good will, but were not able to effect, for the Gospel is an everlasting one; it is immovable, and so is that particular doctrine of it; it remains, and will remain in spite of opposition to it. Thus the apostle prudently lays the blame of the Galatians removing from the Gospel to another upon the false teachers, hoping he should be able to reclaim them by solid arguments, and gentle methods.

{4} Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would {f} pervert the gospel of Christ.

(4) He warns them in time to remember that there are not many Gospels; and therefore whatever these false apostles pretend who had the Law, Moses, and the fathers in their mouths, yet these ones had indeed corrupted the true Gospel. And he himself, indeed, also the very angels themselves (and therefore much more these false apostles) ought to be held accursed, if they go about to change the least thing that may be in the Gospel that he delivered to them before.

(f) For there is nothing more contrary to faith or free justification, than justification by the Law or by deeds.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Galatians 1:7. The expression just used, εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον, was a paradoxical one, for in the true sense there is only one gospel: it seems to presuppose the existence of several εὐαγγέλια, but only serves to bring into clearer light the misleading efforts of the Judaists, and in this sense the apostle now explains it.

ὅ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο, εἰ μή κ.τ.λ.] which ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον, to which ye have fallen away, is not another, not a second gospel, alongside of that by means of which ye were called (ἄλλο, not ἕτερον again), except there are certain persons who perplex you, etc. That is, this ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον is not another by the side of the former, only there are certain persons who perplex you; so that in this respect only can we speak of ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον as if it were an ἄλλο. So in substance Wieseler and Hofmann; comp. Matthias. It must be observed that the emphasis is laid first on οὐκ and then on ἄλλο; so that, although Paul has previously said εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον, he yet guards the oneness of the gospel, and represents that to which he applied the words ἕτερον εὐαγγ. as only the corruption and perversion of the one (of the εὐαγγ. τοῦ καλέσαντος ὑμᾶς ἐν χάριτι Χριστοῦ). Thus εἰ μή retains its general meaning nisi, without any need to assume (with Matthies) an abbreviation for εἰ μὴ ἄλλο ἐστὶ διὰ τοῦτο, ὅτι τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες κ.τ.λ.[18] The two emphatic words ἕτερον and ἌΛΛΟ preserve, however, their difference in sense: ἌΛΛΟ meaning absolutely another, that is, a second likewise existing (besides the one gospel); and ἕτερον one of another kind, different (ἕτερον καὶ ἀνόμοιον Plat. Conv. p. 186 B). Dem. 911. 7; Soph. Phil. 501, O. C. 1446; Xen. Anab. vi. 4. 8 (and Krüger in loc.); Wis 7:5; Jdt 8:20. In the N.T., comp. especially 1 Corinthians 12:8-10; 1 Corinthians 15:40; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Acts 4:12; also 1 Corinthians 14:21; Romans 7:23; Mark 16:12; Luke 9:29. Comp. also the expression ἕτερον παρά τι, Stallbaum, ad Plat. Phaed. p. 71 A., Rep. p. 337 E. The interpretation most generally received (Peschito, Chrysostom, Oecumenius, Theodoret, Erasmus, Luther, Castalio, Beza, Wolf, Bengel, and many others; also Morus, Koppe, Borger, Flatt, Usteri, de Wette, Hilgenfeld) connects ὅ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο merely with ΕὐΑΓΓΈΛΙΟΝ,[19] and for the most part understands εἰ μή adversatively, “Neque tamen est ulla alia doctrina de Jesu Christo vera; sunt vero homines,” etc., Koppe. Against this interpretation may be urged, first, the fact that ἝΤΕΡΟΝ previously had the chief emphasis laid on it, and is therefore quite unwarrantably excluded from the reference of the relative which follows; secondly, that Paul must have logically used some such expression as ΜῊ ὌΝΤΟς ἈΛΛΟῦ; and lastly, that ΕἸ ΜΉ never means anything else than nisi, not even in passages such as Galatians 2:16; Matthew 12:4 (see on this passage); Luke 4:26; 1 Corinthians 7:17; and Revelation 9:4; Revelation 21:27. Comp. Hom. Od. xii. 325 f., οὐδέ τις ἄλλος γίγνετʼ ἔπειτʼ ἀνέμων, εἰ μὴ Εὐρός τε Νότος τε, and the passages in Poppo, ad Thuc. III. 1, p. 216. Others, as Calvin, Grotius (not Calovius), Homberg, Winer, Rückert, Olshausen, refer to the whole contents of ὍΤΙ ΟὝΤΩ ΤΑΧΈΩςΕὐΑΓΓΈΛΙΟΝ, “quod quidem (sc. vos deficere a Christo) non est aliud, nisi, etc., the case is not otherwise than” (Winer). But by this interpretation the whole point of the relation, so Pauline in its character, which ὅ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο bears to ἝΤΕΡΟΝ, is lost; and why should the more special explanation of the deficere a Christo be annexed in so emphatic a form, and not by a simple γάρ or the like? Lastly, Schott (so also Cornelius a Lapide) looks upon Ὅ ΟὐΚ ἜΣΤΙΝ ἌΛΛΟ as a parenthesis, and makes ΕἸ ΜΉ ΤΙΝΕς Κ.Τ.Λ. depend on ΘΑΥΜΆΖΩ Κ.Τ.Λ.; so that that, which is expressed in the words ΘΑΥΜΆΖΩ Κ.Τ.Λ., by ΕἸ ΜΉ ΤΙΝΕς Κ.Τ.Λ.limitibus circumscribatur proferenda defectionis causa, qua perpendenda illud θαυμάζειν vel minuatur vel tollatur.” This is incorrect, for logically Paul must have written ἐθαύμαζον ἄνεἰ μή τινες ἦσαν; and with what arbitrary artifice Ὅ ΟὐΚ ἜΣΤΙΝ ἌΛΛΟ is thus set aside and, as it were, abandoned, and yet the reference of the to the emphatic ἝΤΕΡΟΝ is assumed!

ΟἹ ΤΑΡΆΣΣΟΝΤΕς ὙΜᾶς] The participle with the article designates the ΤΙΝΈς as those whose characteristic was the ΤΑΡΆΣΣΕΙΝ of the Galatians, as persons who dealt in this, who were occupied with it. Comp. the very usual ΕἸΣῚΝ ΟἹ ΛΈΓΟΝΤΕς; also Luke 18:9; Colossians 2:8. See generally Winer, p. 104 [E. T. 136]; Krüger, § 50. 4. 3; Fritzsche, Quaest. Luk. p. 18; Dissen, ad Dem. de Cor. p. 238. On ταράσσειν, in the sense of perplexing the faith and principles, comp. here and Galatians 5:10, especially Acts 15:24; Sir 28:9.

ΚΑῚ ΘΈΛΟΝΤΕς ΜΕΤΑΣΤΡΈΨΑΙ] “re ipsa non poterant, volebant tamen obnixe,” Bengel; “volunt … sed non valent,” Jerome. On the other hand, the ταράσσειν of the Galatians actually took place.

The article before ταρ. refers to ΘΈΛΟΝΤΕς as well. See Seidler, ad Eur. El. 429; Fritzsche, ad Matth. p. 52; Kühner, ad Xen. Mem. i. 1. 19.

μεταστρέψαι, to pervert, that is, to alter so that it acquires an entirely opposite nature. Comp. LXX. 1 Samuel 10:9; Sir 11:31; Hom. Il. xv. 203; Dem. 1032. 1.

τὸ εὐαγγ. τοῦ Χ.] see generally on Mark 1:1. The genitive is here not auctoris, but, as expressing the specific characteristic of the one only gospel in contradistinction to those who were perplexing the Galatians, objecti (concerning Christ). This is evident from Galatians 1:6, where ἐν χάριτι Χριστοῦ indicates the contents of the gospel.

[18] Fritzsche, ad Marc. vi. 5, takes εἰ μή ironically, and τινές in the well-known sense, people of importance (see on Acts 5:36, and Hermann, ad Viger. p. 731): “nisi forte magni est facienda eorum auctoritas, qui,” etc. But the article which follows renders this interpretation not at all necessary (see below). Besides, in this sense Paul uses only the neuter (see Galatians 2:6, Galatians 6:3; 1 Corinthians 3:7). Lastly, he is fond of designating false teachers, adversaries, etc., as τινές, that is, quidam, quos nominare nolo (Hermann, ad Viger. l.c.). See 1 Corinthians 4:18; 2 Corinthians 3:1; Galatians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 15:12; 1 Timothy 1:3.

[19] So already the Marcionites, who proved from our passage that there was no other gospel than theirs! See Chrysostom in loc.Galatians 1:7. ὃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο. The translation of this clause in A.V. and R.V. (which is not another) has caused great embarrassment by its apparent identification of the spurious Gospel with the true. Lightfoot pleads ingeniously that ἄλλο may mean another besides the true Gospel, and so interprets the clause to mean that it is no Gospel at all; but this will hardly be accepted by most other scholars. The American revisers suggest the rendering which is nothing else than. But these difficulties arise from making the subject of the sentence: surely it is in fact a connecting adverb (touching which, as to which, whereas), as it is again in Galatians 2:10, and probably in Galatians 2:20. If the clause be rendered, whereas there is no other Gospel (i.e., than the true), the sense becomes perfectly clear, and it forms an appropriate introduction to the succeeding anathemas by its emphatic testimony to the one true Gospel.—εἰ μή … This clause qualifies the former “there is no other Gospel,” only a spurious semblance (on the use of εἰ μή see note on Galatians 1:19).—τινές. There is a studied vagueness in this and other references to the agitators. They were evidently not Galatian Christians, but strangers from abroad, whom the Apostle treats with real or affected contempt.7. but there be some that trouble … Christ] Only so far can it be called another gospel, as it is a perversion of the Gospel of Christ. It does not profess to be a distinct revelation; it claims to be ‘the Gospel’, Just as we might speak of spurious coin, though it was not issued from the mint.

some that trouble you] The Judaizing teachers (ch. Galatians 5:10) who were drawing them away from their allegiance, and raising factions among them.

and would pervert] ‘Would’ is not a mere auxiliary. Their desire and determination are to ‘reverse, to change to the opposite, and so stronger than to pervert or distort’ (Lightfoot). St Paul regarded the new doctrine as subversive of the truth and utterly incompatible with the Gospel which he preached.

the gospel of Christ] Christ is at once its Author, its theme, its substance. Elsewhere it is termed the ‘Gospel of God’ (Romans 1:1), and the ‘Gospel of His Son’ (Romans 1:9).Galatians 1:7. ‘O, which) This word relates to the Gospel, not to the words a different gospel.—οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο, is not another) ἄλλο [aliud] another differs from ἕτερον, [alterum] a second and different.[2] Paul not merely rejects that so-called Gospel, which the Galatians had allowed to be thrust upon them, but any other whatever.—τινές, some) unhappy persons, Galatians 1:8, ch. Galatians 5:10; Galatians 5:12.—ταράσσοντες, that trouble) ch. Galatians 5:10.—θέλοντες, wishing) They really were not able, but yet they were earnestly wishing to do it. Paul often glances at the Galatians and their seducers by this expression; ch. Galatians 4:9; Galatians 4:17; Galatians 4:21, Galatians 6:12-13. So Colossians 2:18.—μεταστρέψαι) הפך is frequently translated by this word.—τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the Gospel of Christ.) Those, who troubled them, did not quite deny Jesus Christ; but Paul acknowledges nothing but the pure Gospel.

[2] ἄλλος, one of many; ἓτερος, one of two. Diversity is more strongly expressed in ἔτερος than ἄλλος.—ED.Verse 7. - Which is not another (ο{ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο). Already, in these very words, the apostle means to assert that essential unalterableness of the gospel, which, with solemn emphasis, he in the two following verses more fully affirms. Thus much seems plain. But, owing probably to the impassioned eagerness of the moment, he here, as not unfrequently elsewhere from the like cause, expresses himself in language, the grammatical analysis of which is obscure and in some degree uncertain. For

(1) the relative "which" may be taken as reciting the term "gospel" only, that is, the gospel which is properly so called; in which case we may read the sentence thus: "But the gospel is not ['never can be] other" - other, i.e. than it is as already preached to you;

(2) the relative may recite the "other [or, 'new'] sort of gospel" of ver. 6; and then we should have "But this other-fashioned gospel is not another gospel really," or, "is not the real gospel reappearing in another form." The former method presents undoubtedly, of the two, the harsher way of construing; but constructions as harsh do occasionally present themselves in the apostle's style when writing under strong emotion. The exact analysis, however, is merely a matter of grammatical nicety; the substance of the thought is quite clear. But there be (εἰ μή ... εἰσιν); only there are. This construction, of εἰ μὴ followed by a finite verb, is found also in Mark 6:5, Αἰ μὴ... ἐθεράπευσε, "Save that... he healed them." The force of εἰ μή, "except," in this passage as well as in some others, may be described as partially exceptive; that is, it denotes an exception taken, not to the entire foregoing sentence, but to part of it only. Thus in Luke 4:27, "There were many lepers in Israel... and none of them was cleansed, save Naaman the syrian:" where the pronoun "them" recites the "lepers in Israel," but the "save" refers to "lepers" only; Revelation 9:4, "That they should not hurt the grass, neither any green thing, neither any tree, save the men who," etc.: where the "save" points back only to the words, "that they should not hurt;" so again Revelation 21:27, "Save they which are written in the Lamb's book of life," points back only to the words, "there shall in no wise enter into it." In all such cases the rendering "only" or "but only" would exhibit just the amount of exception which appears intended. In the present instance the most probable explanation is this: the gospel can never be ether than it is; except that among (i.e. only among) those who proclaim it (i.e. profess to proclaim it) there are some who so misrepresent its import as to completely reverse its character. There be some that trouble you (τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς); there are certain who are disquieting you. The form of expression is the same as in Colossians 2:8, "Take heed lest there shall be any one that maketh spoil of you." The sentence as it stands differs from the supposable substitute, "certain persons are disquieting you," by directing attention me, re to the persons referred to than merely to their action viewed in itself; it marks them out as meriting strong censure, or (in Colossians, loc. cit.) as persons to be carefully guarded against. Who these troublers were and where they came from is uncertain (see note on ver. 2). The verb ταράσσειν frequently means "to alarm" or "disquiet," as Matthew 2:3; Matthew 14:26; Luke 1:12; Luke 24:38; John 14:1; 1 Peter 3:14. And this is probably the sense in which it is used here and in the similar passages, Galatians 5:10; Acts 15:24. It describes the action of those who came to believers reposing in a sense of acceptance with God through Christ; and filled their minds with uneasiness and apprehension, by telling them that they were not safe as they were, but must do something else if they wished to really possess the Divine favour. Others, however, connect the verb with the notion of civil disturbance, as in Acts 17:8, and thus with raising seditions and shaking men's allegiance, in conformity with the metaphor of μετατίθεσθε in ver. 6. And would pervert the gospel of Christ (καὶ θέλοντες μεταστρώψαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Ξριστοῦ); and would fain turn into its clean contrary the gospel of Christ. The verb μεταστρέφειν is an appropriate one to use with reference to such a misrepresentation of the gospel as the one now in the apostle's view; for this converted it from a doctrine of emancipation into a doctrine of renewed bondage (comp. ch. 5:1-4). So the verb is used in the only other passages in which it is found in the New Testament, Acts 2:20, "The sun shall be turned into darkness;" James 4:9, "Let your laughter be turned into mourning." So in Sirach 11:31, "Turning good things into evil." Liddell and Scott ('Lexicon') cite μεταστρέψας = "contrariwise," Plato, 'Gorg.,' 456 E; 'Rep' 587, D. In the phrase τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Ξριστοῦ, the addition of the genitive, "of Christ," with the twofold article, marks the words with a stately emphasis. It was no less than THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST that these men were tampering with. "The gospel of Christ" means here the gospel of which Christ is the Author, as in "the gospel of God" (Romans 1:1). and which he had sent forth his apostles to proclaim. The peculiar emphasis and the connection forbid our taking the genitive as denoting merely the subject-matter. Another (ἄλλο)

A different gospel is not another gospel. There is but one gospel.

But (εἰ μὴ)

Rev. only. As if he had said, "there is no other gospel, but there are some who trouble you with a different kind of teaching which they offer as a gospel."

Some that trouble (οἱ ταράσσοντες)

The article with the participle marks these persons as characteristically troublesome - the troublers. Comp. Luke 18:9, of those who were characteristically self-righteous. For trouble in the sense of disturbing faith and unsettling principle, see Galatians 5:10; Acts 15:24. Not necessarily, as Lightfoot, raising seditions.

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