Deuteronomy 1:6
The LORD our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, You have dwelled long enough in this mount:
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(6) The Lord our God spake unto us in Horeb.—The “Lord our God,” “Jehovah our Elohim,” is the watchword of the whole book.

Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount.—From the beginning of the second month of the first year of the exodus (Exodus 19:1) to the twentieth day of the second month of the second year (Numbers 10:11). This was the period of organisation, in which the people received the Law and were organised as a church militant, an army encamped around the tabernacle of God. This year and its institutions fill up exactly one-third of the text of the Pentateuch.

Deuteronomy 1:6. Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount They had stayed at mount Sinai, or Horeb, almost a year, receiving the law, erecting the tabernacle, numbering the people, ranking them under their standards, &c. And so, being fitted for an orderly march, they were commanded to depart thence, and proceed to the nearest borders of Canaan.1:1-8 Moses spake to the people all the Lord had given him in commandment. Horeb was but eleven days distant from Kadesh-barnea. This was to remind them that their own bad conduct had occasioned their tedious wanderings; that they might the more readily understand the advantages of obedience. They must now go forward. Though God brings his people into trouble and affliction, he knows when they have been tried long enough. When God commands us to go forward in our Christian course, he sets the heavenly Canaan before us for our encouragement.The first and introductory address of Moses to the people is here commenced. It extends to Deuteronomy 4:40; and is divided from the second discourse by the Deuteronomy 1:4 :41-49. A summary of the address is given in the chapter-headings usually found in English Bibles. 6. The Lord our God spake unto us in Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount—Horeb was the general name of a mountainous district; literally, "the parched" or "burnt region," whereas Sinai was the name appropriated to a particular peak [see on [109]Ex 19:2]. About a year had been spent among the recesses of that wild solitude, in laying the foundation, under the immediate direction of God, of a new and peculiar community, as to its social, political, and, above all, religious character; and when this purpose had been accomplished, they were ordered to break up their encampment in Horeb. The command given them was to march straight to Canaan, and possess it [De 1:7]. Of Horeb, where they continued about a year’s space, Exodus 19:1 Numbers 10:11,12. The Lord our God spoke unto us in Horeb,.... The same with Sinai, as Aben Ezra observes; while the Israelites lay encamped near this mountain, the Lord spoke unto them:

saying, ye have dwelt long enough in this mount: or near it; for hither they came on the first day of the third month from their departure out of Egypt, and they did not remove from thence until the twentieth day of the second month in the second year, Exodus 19:1 so that they were here a year wanting ten days; in which space of time the law was given them, the tabernacle and all things appertaining to it were made by them, rulers both ecclesiastical and civil were appointed over them, and they were numbered and marshalled in order under four standards, and so ready to march; and all this being done, they must stay no longer, but set forward for the land of Canaan. It is well for persons that they are not to stay long under the law, and the terrors of it, but are directed to Mount Zion; Hebrews 12:18.

The LORD our God spake unto us in {f} Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount:

(f) In the second year and second month, Nu 10:11.

6–8. The Command to start from Ḥoreb for the Land

Jehovah spake: In Ḥoreb ye have dwelt enough (6); break up and march to the Mt of the Amorites and the parts adjacent as far as the Euphrates (7); I have set the land before you, enter and possess as Jehovah sware to the fathers to give it to them and their seed (8).—JE, Exodus 33:1 ff., narrates the order to depart to the land promised by oath to the fathers; the promise of an angel to drive out the six nations possessing it (probably a gloss, see Driver ib.): Jehovah’s refusal to go with them; and His consent after an argument by Moses (also held by some to be editorial); and adds, Numbers 10:29-32 (J), Moses’ appeal to Ḥobab to act as eyes1[109] to the host. The terms of the command differ from those in D. P, in harmony with its account of the procedure on the march (Numbers 9:15-22), gives the signal of departure from Ḥoreb as the lifting of the cloud above the Tabernacle, and dates it the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (Numbers 10:11). The contrast between the spoken command in JE and D, and the physical signal in P, is characteristic; note also the characteristically exact date in P.

[109] The same term, ‘uyûn is given to the scouts of Arab expeditions who seek out the ways, water and camping-places: Musil, Araóia Petraea, Ethn. Ber. iii. 376.

Deuteronomy 1:6. The Lord our God] Heb. Jehovah, our God: contrary to the usual syntax (cp. the parallel in JE, Exodus 33:1), this divine name is placed emphatically at the beginning of the sentence, as the proper start and motive of the whole discourse: for this form and its variants thy God and your God are characteristic of the style of D. J. our God, 23 times in D always from Moses to his fellow Israelites with the intimate accent of a common affection, and only 7 times in the rest of the Pent.; J. thy God, addressed to Israel 230 times in D, and only 9 times in JE (of which five are in additions to the Decalogue, Exodus 20:2-12, and at least two in verses with other marks of the deuteronomic style), and only once in P (Leviticus 21:8), though P has seven instances of somewhat variant forms; J. your God, 46 times in D, while in JE only in Pharaoh’s speeches to Israel, but in P over 30 times, attached to priestly institutions and laws. The enormous predominance of these titles in D is significant of the ardent, confident religion of the Book. We seem to touch in them the heart of the writers. Nor can we forget the echo of their wonderful repetition in the hearts of the Jewish and Christian Churches. Probably no phrases in the O.T. have been more helpful to piety in all generations. See further introd. to ch. 28

Horeb] Above, Deuteronomy 1:2.

Ye have dwelt long enough in this mountain] Heb. the stay in this Mt is much, i.e. enough, for you: the same idiom in Deuteronomy 2:3, Deuteronomy 3:26, also in P, Numbers 16:3; Numbers 16:7.

Duet Deuteronomy 1:6 to Deuteronomy 3:29. Historical Part of the First Introductory Discourse

Spoken in the land of Moab (Deuteronomy 1:5) in the gai or glen, over against Beth Pe‘or (Deuteronomy 3:29), a review of Israel’s experiences since they left Ḥoreb. In the Plur. form of address except for the following fragments Deuteronomy 1:8; Deuteronomy 1:21; Deuteronomy 1:31 a, Deuteronomy 2:7; Deuteronomy 2:24 b, Deuteronomy 2:25; Deu 2:30 b, Deuteronomy 2:37[108]. We shall see how far these are detachable from the context, or give evidence of their later intrusion. There are, too, a number of parentheses, dealing with matters beyond Israel’s experience and therefore beyond the aim of the discourse: archaeological notes on the peoples who preceded Moab, Edom, Ammon, the Philistines and Israel, and on Ḥermon; Deuteronomy 2:10-12; Deuteronomy 2:10-23, Deuteronomy 3:9; Deuteronomy 3:11; Deuteronomy 3:13 b, 14. The contents of these notes are suitable neither to the voice of the Deity, to whose words some of them are attached, Deuteronomy 2:10-12; Deuteronomy 2:20-23, nor in the mouth of Moses whose purpose is to recall to Israel their own experience. They are notes or glosses, either by the author or an editor. All the rest (except perhaps Deuteronomy 3:15-17, which see) forms a unity, complete in itself.

[108] The Sing, in Deuteronomy 2:9 a (LXX Plur.) and even in Deuteronomy 2:19 may be due, as in Deuteronomy 3:27, to the fact that the address is to Moses himself.

The following are the divisions:—(1) Deuteronomy 1:6-8, order to depart from Horeb; (2) Deuteronomy 1:9-18, institution of Judges; (3) Deuteronomy 1:19, journey to Ḳadesh-Barnea‘, to which probably belong Deuteronomy 1:1 b, Deuteronomy 1:2 (see above); (4) Deuteronomy 1:20-25, mission of the spies; (5) Deuteronomy 1:26-43, consequent disaffection of the people; (6) Deuteronomy 1:34-40, wrath and judgement of God; (7) Deuteronomy 1:41-46, defeat of the attempt to enter the land from the south, and residence at Ḳadesh; (8) Deuteronomy 2:1-8 a, departure from Ḳadesh and circuit of Mt Se‘îr; (9) Deuteronomy 2:8-15, further march to Wâdy-Zered, which they cross 38 years after leaving Ḳadesh, when all the adult generation have died; (10) Deuteronomy 2:16-25, command to cross Arnon, the border of Moab, to avoid ‘Ammon and to fight Sîḥôn; (11) Deuteronomy 2:26-37, defeat of Sîḥôn; (12) Deuteronomy 3:1-7, defeat of ‘Ôg; (13) Deuteronomy 3:8-17, division of the conquered lands; (14) Deuteronomy 3:18-22, directions to the tribes left there and to Joshua; (15) Deuteronomy 3:23-29, Moses’ Prayer to cross Jordan and its rejection.

The same stretch of history from Ḥoreb to the Jordan is treated by JE, Exodus 33:1-17, and Numbers 10:29 onwards; and by P from Numbers 12 onwards. JE seems the basis of this deuteronomic review, even to the extent of supplying verbal details. But the review is not only written in a style peculiar to the deuteronomic writings; it adds some facts not found in JE and differs from JE in its presentation of others. On P the review shows no dependence, and P differs from it considerably both in the language used for the same events and in several matters of substance. On these see below.Verse 6. - With this verse begins Moses' first address to the people, which extends to the end of Deuteronomy 4. It is of an introductory character, and is occupied chiefly with a retrospective survey of the events that had occurred during the forty years of their wanderings. By this Moses reminded the people how God had fulfilled his promises to them, and at the same time, how they had by their rebellion drawn down on them his displeasure, which had caused their wanderings to be so much more protracted than they would otherwise have been. Verses 6-8. - The Lord's command to depart from Horeb, and his promise to the people. Verse 6. - The Lord our God - Jehovah our God. The use of this epithet implies the covenant union of Israel with Jehovah, and presupposes the existence of that covenant which was entered into at Sinai. In Horeb. This was the starting-point, so to speak, of Israel's being as the special people of God - his segullah (סְגֻּלָּה, Exodus 19:5), his special treasure. There he made himself known to them as Jehovah, the Eternal and Unchangeable, and entered into covenant with them; and there they received that Law, on the keeping of which depended their retention of the privileges to which they had been elected. At Horeb the Israelites had remained for about a year (comp. Exodus 19. I and Numbers 10:11, 12), and as the purpose for which they had been brought thither was answered, they were enjoined to move, not indeed by express command, but by the rising of the cloud from over the tabernacle, which was the signal of their march (Numbers 9:15, etc.; Numbers 10:11-13), preceded by the instructions they had received preparatory to their removal (Numbers 50:4-7). Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount. The Israelites remained at Sinai from the third month of the first year to the twentieth day of the second year after they came out of Egypt (cf. Exodus 19:1 and Numbers 10:11). The conclusion refers not merely to the laws and rights contained in Numbers 33:50-36:13, but includes the rest of the laws given in the steppes of Moab (ch. 25-30), and forms the conclusion tot he whole book, which places the lawgiving in the steppes of Moab by the side of the lawgiving at Mount Sinai (Leviticus 26:46; Leviticus 27:34) and bring sit to a close, though without in any way implying that the explanation (בּאר, Deuteronomy 1:5), further development, and hortatory enforcement of the law and its testimonies, statutes, and judgments (Deuteronomy 1:5; Deuteronomy 4:44., Numbers 12:1.), which follow in Deuteronomy, are not of Mosaic origin.
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