1 Kings 4:24
For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(24) Azzah is the well-known Philistine city, Gaza.

1 Kings 4:24. From Tiphsah even to Azzah — Either that Tiphsah (2 Kings 15:16) which was in the kingdom of Israel within Jordan; or, rather, another place of that name upon the Euphrates, even that eminent city which is mentioned by Ptolemy, and Strabo, and Pliny, called Thapsarum. And this best agrees with the following Azzah, which was the border of Canaan in the south and west, as Tiphsah was in the north and east. And so his dominion is described by both its borders. Over all kings — Who owned subjection, and payed tribute to him.4:20-28 Never did the crown of Israel shine so bright, as when Solomon wore it. He had peace on all sides. Herein, his kingdom was a type of the Messiah's; for to Him it is promised that he shall have the heathen for his inheritance, and that princes shall worship him. The spiritual peace, and joy, and holy security, of all the faithful subjects of the Lord Jesus, were typified by that of Israel. The kingdom of God is not, as Solomon's was, meat and drink, but, what is infinitely better, righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. The vast number of his attendants, and the great resort to him, are shown by the provision daily made. Herein Christ far outdoes Solomon, that he feeds all his subjects, not with the bread that perishes, but with that which endures to eternal life.On this side the river - i. e., the region west of the Euphrates.

Tiphsah, or Tiphsach, the place on the Euphrates called Thapsacus. The word means "ford," or "passage," being formed from פסח pâsach, "to pass over" (compare "paschal"). It is the modern Suriyeh, forty-five miles below Balls, at the point where the Euphrates changes its course from south to southeast by east. The stream is fordable here, and nowhere else in this part of its course. Solomon's possession of Thapsacus would have been very favorable to his schemes of land commerce 1 Kings 9:19.

To Azzah - i. e., Gaza.

All the kings - Compare Joshua 12:9-24. In Philistia, small as it was, there were five kings 1 Samuel 6:18. Syria was divided into numerous small states, as many as thirty-two kings being mentioned on one occasion 1 Kings 20:1. The Hittites were ruled by a great number of chieftains or princes 1 Kings 10:29; 2 Kings 7:6. twelve are mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions.

24. from Tiphsah—that is, Thapsacus, a large and flourishing town on the west bank of the Euphrates, the name of which was derived from a celebrated ford near it, the lowest on that river.

even to Azzah—that is, Gaza, on the southwestern extremity, not far from the Mediterranean.

Tiphsah; either that Tiphsah, 2 Kings 15:16, which was in the kingdom of Israel within Jordan; or rather, another place of that name upon the river now mentioned, to wit, Euphrates, even that eminent city which is mentioned by Ptolemy, and Strabo, and Pliny, called Thapsarum. And this best agrees with the following

Azzah, which was the border of Canaan in the south and west, Genesis 10:19 Deu 2:23, as Tiphsah was in the north and east. And so his dominion is described by both its borders.

All the kings on this side the river; who owned subjection and paid tribute to him. For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river,.... Or beyond the river Euphrates, in the sense before given, 1 Kings 4:21; which accounts for the plenty of provisions he had, and the revenue with which he supported such a table he kept:

from Tiphsah even to Azzah; or Gaza, one of the five principalities of the Philistines. Tiphsah is thought to be the Thapsacus of Pliny (d) which both he and Ptolemy (e) place near the river Euphrates, since called Amphipolis; the former places it in Syria, the latter in Arabia Deserta; and which Strabo (f), from Eratosthenes, describes as 4800 furlongs or six hundred miles from Babylon, and from the place where Mesopotamia begins not less than two thousand furlongs or two hundred and fifty miles:

over all the kings on this side the river; the river Euphrates, or beyond it, in the sense before explained, as the kings of Syria, Arabia, &c.

and he had peace on all sides round about him; in which he was a type of Christ, the Prince of peace.

(d) Nat. Hist. l. 5. c. 24. (e) Geograph. l. 5. c. 19. (f) Geograph. l. 16. p. 514.

For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the {h} kings on this side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him.

(h) For they were all tributaries to him.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
24. on this side the river] The side intended is of course here quite plain. It is the country west of the Euphrates towards Palestine. But the same Hebrew came to be used by those who were dwelling east of the Euphrates (cp. Ezra 4:6; Ezra 6:6; Ezra 7:21; Ezra 7:25; Ezra 8:36; Nehemiah 2:7) when they spake of Palestine. So Cisalpina was used of Gaul south of the Alps, not only by those living there, but by those who lived on the other side of the Alpine range.

Tiphsah] i.e. Thapsacus on the west side of the river Euphrates. It was here that Cyrus crossed the river in the expedition of the Ten Thousand.

to Azzah] i.e. Gaza, one of the five famous cities of the Philistines toward the south of the Holy Land.

and he had peace on all sides] According to the promise implied in his name. See 1 Chronicles 22:9 ‘His name shall be Solomon and I will give peace (shalom) and quietness unto Israel in his days.’Verse 24. - For [the connexion seems to be: Solomon could well support such lavish expenditure, because] he had dominion over all the region on this side [בְּעֵבֶר strictly means, on the other side, beyond (עָבַר transiit). But here it must obviously mean on the west side, for Solomon's rule did not extend east of the Euphrates. The use of this word in this sense (Joshua 5:1; Joshua 9:1; Joshua 12:7; 1 Chronicles 26:30; Ezra 8:36; Nehemiah 2:7) is generally accounted for on the supposition that the writers were living in Babylon in the time of the captivity; but this appears to be by no means certain. (See, e.g., Ezra 4:10, 11.) The truth seems to be, not that "the expression belonged to the time of the captivity, but was retained after the return and without regard to its geographical signification, just, for instance, like the expression, Gallia Trans-alpina" (Bahr), but that from the first it was employed, now of one side, now of the other, of the Jordan; of the west in Genesis 1:10, 11; Joshua 9:1, etc.; of the east in Numbers 22:1; Numbers 32:32; "and even in the same chapter is used first of one and then of the other Deuteronomy 3:8, 20, 25" (Spk. Comm. on Deuteronomy 1:1), and that it was subsequently applied, with similar variations of meaning, to the Euphrates. See Introduction, sect. 5.] from Tiphsah [cf. 2 Kings 15:16, apparently the town on the west bank of the Euphrates, known to the Greeks as Thapsacus. It derived its name from the fact that the river at that point was fordable פָּסַח = pass over; תִּפְסַה = crossing. A bridge of boats was maintained here by the Persians. It was here that the river was forded by Cyrus and the Ten Thousand, and was crossed by the armies of Darius Codomannus and Alexander] to Azzah [i.e., Gaza, now called Guzzeh, the southernmost city of Philistia, ten miles from the Mediterranean, and the last town in Palestine on the Egyptian frontier. Cf. ver. 21], over an the kings on this side the river ["Petty kings were numerous at this time in all the countries dependent upon Judaea" (Rawlinson). Cf. 1 Samuel 6:16; 2 Samuel 8:3-10; 1 Kings 20:1. The "kings on this side the river" were those of Syria (2 Samuel 8:6. Cf. 10:19) conquered by David, and of Philistia, 2 Samuel 8:1]: and he had peace on all sides [Heb. from all his servants] round about him [in fulfilment of 1 Chronicles 22:9. The objection of Thenius that this statement contradicts that of ch. 11:23, sqq., is hardly deserving of serious notice. The reign of Solomon, on the whole, was undoubtedly a peaceful one. Shimei the son of Elah, possibly the one mentioned in 1 Kings 1:8, in Benjamin.
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