Romans 8:20
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope

New Living Translation
Against its will, all creation was subjected to God's curse. But with eager hope,

English Standard Version
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope

Berean Study Bible
For the creation was subjected to futility, not by its own will, but because of the One who subjected it, in hope

Berean Literal Bible
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of the One having subjected it, in hope

New American Standard Bible
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it, in hope

King James Bible
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
For the creation was subjected to futility--not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it--in the hope

International Standard Version
because the creation has become subject to futility, though not by anything it did. The one who subjected it did so in the certainty

NET Bible
For the creation was subjected to futility--not willingly but because of God who subjected it--in hope

New Heart English Bible
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
For the creation has been subjected to futility, not by its choice, but because of him who subjected it upon hope.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Creation was subjected to frustration but not by its own choice. The one who subjected it to frustration did so in the hope

New American Standard 1977
For the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will, but because of Him who subjected it, in hope

Jubilee Bible 2000
For the creatures were subjected to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected them,

King James 2000 Bible
For the creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope,

American King James Version
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope,

American Standard Version
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of him who subjected it, in hope

Douay-Rheims Bible
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that made it subject, in hope:

Darby Bible Translation
for the creature has been made subject to vanity, not of its will, but by reason of him who has subjected [the same], in hope

English Revised Version
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of him who subjected it, in hope

Webster's Bible Translation
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope:

Weymouth New Testament
For the Creation fell into subjection to failure and unreality (not of its own choice, but by the will of Him who so subjected it)

World English Bible
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope

Young's Literal Translation
for to vanity was the creation made subject -- not of its will, but because of Him who did subject it -- in hope,
Study Bible
Future Glory
19The creation waits in eager expectation for the revelation of the sons of God. 20For the creation was subjected to futility, not by its own will, but because of the One who subjected it, in hope 21that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.…
Cross References
Genesis 3:17
Then to Adam He said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, 'You shall not eat from it'; Cursed is the ground because of you; In toil you will eat of it All the days of your life.

Genesis 5:29
Now he called his name Noah, saying, "This one will give us rest from our work and from the toil of our hands arising from the ground which the LORD has cursed."

Psalm 39:5
"Behold, You have made my days as handbreadths, And my lifetime as nothing in Your sight; Surely every man at his best is a mere breath. Selah.

Ecclesiastes 1:2
"Vanity of vanities," says the Preacher, "Vanity of vanities! All is vanity."

Romans 8:24
For in this hope we were saved; but hope that is seen is no hope at all. Who hopes for what he can already see?
Treasury of Scripture

For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope,

the creature.

Romans 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together …

Genesis 3:17-19 And to Adam he said, Because you have listened to the voice of your …

Genesis 5:29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning …

Genesis 6:13 And God said to Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for …

Job 12:6-10 The tabernacles of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are …

Isaiah 24:5,6 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because …

Jeremiah 12:4,11 How long shall the land mourn, and the herbs of every field wither, …

Jeremiah 14:5,6 Yes, the hind also calved in the field, and forsook it, because there …

Hosea 4:3 Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwells therein …

Joel 1:18 How do the beasts groan! the herds of cattle are perplexed, because …

(20) For the creature.--The Apostle gives the reason for this earnest expectation in the present state of nature; pointing out what creation is. If creation were perfect, and were fulfilling the noblest possible purpose, there would be no cause for looking forward hopefully to the future.

Was made subject to vanity.--"Vanity" = "emptiness" or "nothingness." Creation is fulfilling an unworthy instead of a worthy and noble end. (Comp. Genesis 3:17-18.) It was made subject to this "not willingly," i.e., by its own act or with its own concurrence, but "by reason of Him who hath subjected the same," i.e., in pursuance of the sovereign purpose and counsel of God. The one thing which takes out the sting from this impoverished and degraded condition is Hope.

It is needless to say that this is not Darwinism, but it is easily reconcilable with evolution. Indeed, such a theory seems to give it additional force and emphasis. It helps to bring out both the present "vanity" and hope for the future, and to show both as parts of one "increasing purpose" widening through the ages. "Allowing for irregularities and fluctuations, on the whole, higher and higher forms of life have appeared. There has been unquestionably an enormous advance between the times of the Eozoon Canadense and our own. And, further, we have to notice that a new kind of progress, of far greater intrinsic importance than mere physical improvement, has of late appeared. I mean intellectual and moral progress, as it is seen in man. . . . And this progress, I would say, is most important in our argument as to the character of God, for it is full of promise of far better things than this sad world has ever seen. It points most decidedly to a supremacy of the power for good, and a great hope of final happiness for our race." (Rev. S. T. Gibson, Religion and Science, p. 34.)

Verses 20, 21. - For the creature (or, creation, as before) was subjected to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who subjected it in hope. Because (or, that; i.e. in hope that) the creature (or, creation) also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the sons of God. The aorist ὑπετάγη ("was subjected") seems to imply that the present "vanity" and "bondage of corruption" were not inherent in the original Creation, or of necessity to last for ever. Thus the assertions of Genesis 1: and 31, stand unshaken, viz. that in the beginning God created all things, and that all at first was "very good." The ideas, resorted to in order to account for existing evil, of matter (ὕλη) being essentially evil, and of a δημιουργός, other than the Supreme God, having made the world, are alike precluded. It might serve as an answer to the argument of Lucretius against a Divine origin of things-

"Nequaquam nobis divinius esse paratam
Naturam rerum, tanta star praedita culpa"
Why the "creature" was thus "subjected" is not here explained. No solution of the old insoluble problem of τοθὲν τὸ κακὸν is given. All that is, or could be, said is that it was διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα, meaning God. It was his will that it should be so; this is all we know; except that we find the beginning of evil, so far as it affects man, attributed in Scripture to human sin. But he so subjected his creation in hope. This expression may refer to the protoevangelium of Genesis 3:15, or to the never-dying hope in the human heart; to either or to both. The latter idea is expressed in the myth of Pandora's box. Further, the creature is said to have been so subjected "not willingly" (οὐχ ἑκοῦσα). No sentient beings acquiesce in suffering; they resent evil, and would fain flee from it. Man especially unwillingly submits to his present bondage. When in ver. 21 the hope is expressed of the creature (or creation) itself being eventually freed from the present bondage of corruption, it may be that the human part of creation only is in the writer's eye; but it may be also (there being still no expressed limitation of the word κτίσις) that he conceives a final emancipation of the whole creation from evil (cf. Ephesians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 15:23-27; 2 Peter 3:13). But if so, it is not said that the peculiar glory of the sons of God will extend to all creation, but only that all will be freed into the freedom of their glory; which may mean that the day of the revelation of the sons of God in glory will bring with it a general emancipation of all creation from its present bondage. Such a great final hope finds expression in the verse -

"That God, which ever lives and loves,
One God, one law, one element,
And one far-off Divine event,
To which the whole creation moves."


(In Memoriam.') The present condition of things is in ver. 20 denoted by ματαιότης, and in ver. 21 by τῆς δουλειάς τῆς φθορᾶς. The first of these words is the equivalent in the LXX. of the Hebrew XXX, which means properly "breath," or "vapour," and is used metaphorically for anything frail, fruitless, evanescent, vain. It is often applied to idols, and it is the word in Ecclesiastes where it is said that "all is vanity" (cf. also Psalm 39:5, 6). It seems here to denote the frailty, incompleteness, transitoriness, to which all things are now subject. "Ματαιότης sonat frustatio, quod creatura interim non assequatur quod utcunque contendit efficere" (Erasmus). Φθορᾶς intimates corruption and decay. For the creature was made subject to vanity,.... This designs the vanity and emptiness of the minds of the Gentiles, who were without God and Christ, and the Holy Spirit, without the law and Gospel, and grace of God; also the vain conceits they had of themselves, of their wisdom, knowledge, learning, and eloquence; likewise their vain philosophy, particularly their gross idolatry, their polytheism, or worshipping of many gods; together with their divers lusts and vices, to which they were addicted, to such a degree, that they might be truly said to be made subject thereunto, being under the government of these things, slaves unto them, and in such subjection, as that they could not deliver themselves from it; though it is said,

not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope. Though they were willingly vain, yet they were not willingly made subject to vanity; they willingly went into idolatrous and other evil practices, but the devil made them subject, or slaves unto them; he led them captive at his will, and powerfully worked in them, by divine permission, so that they became vassals to him, and to their lusts; for he seems to be designed, "by him who hath subjected the same", and not Adam, by whom sin entered into the world. 20. For the creature—"the creation."

was made subject to vanity, not willingly—that is, through no natural principle of decay. The apostle, personifying creation, represents it as only submitting to the vanity with which it was smitten, on man's account, in obedience to that superior power which had mysteriously linked its destinies with man's. And so he adds

but by reason of him who hath subjected the same—"who subjected it."

in hope—or "in hope that."8:18-25 The sufferings of the saints strike no deeper than the things of time, last no longer than the present time, are light afflictions, and but for a moment. How vastly different are the sentence of the word and the sentiment of the world, concerning the sufferings of this present time! Indeed the whole creation seems to wait with earnest expectation for the period when the children of God shall be manifested in the glory prepared for them. There is an impurity, deformity, and infirmity, which has come upon the creature by the fall of man. There is an enmity of one creature to another. And they are used, or abused rather, by men as instruments of sin. Yet this deplorable state of the creation is in hope. God will deliver it from thus being held in bondage to man's depravity. The miseries of the human race, through their own and each other's wickedness, declare that the world is not always to continue as it is. Our having received the first-fruits of the Spirit, quickens our desires, encourages our hopes, and raises our expectations. Sin has been, and is, the guilty cause of all the suffering that exists in the creation of God. It has brought on the woes of earth; it has kindled the flames of hell. As to man, not a tear has been shed, not a groan has been uttered, not a pang has been felt, in body or mind, that has not come from sin. This is not all; sin is to be looked at as it affects the glory of God. Of this how fearfully regardless are the bulk of mankind! Believers have been brought into a state of safety; but their comfort consists rather in hope than in enjoyment. From this hope they cannot be turned by the vain expectation of finding satisfaction in the things of time and sense. We need patience, our way is rough and long; but He that shall come, will come, though he seems to tarry.
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