Genesis 2:14
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

New Living Translation
The third branch, called the Tigris, flowed east of the land of Asshur. The fourth branch is called the Euphrates.

English Standard Version
And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

New American Standard Bible
The name of the third river is Tigris; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

King James Bible
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The name of the third river is the Tigris, which runs east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

International Standard Version
The third river is named the Tigris— it flows to the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

NET Bible
The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

New Heart English Bible
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; this is the one which flows east of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Perath.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The name of the third river is Tigris. This is the one that flows east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

New American Standard 1977
And the name of the third river is Tigris; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; this is that which goes toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

King James 2000 Bible
And the name of the third river is Tigris: that is it which goes toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

American King James Version
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goes toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

American Standard Version
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth in front of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the name of the third river is Tigris: the same passeth along by the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Darby Bible Translation
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which flows forward toward Asshur. And the fourth river, that is Euphrates.

English Revised Version
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth in front of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Webster's Bible Translation
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: which floweth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

World English Bible
The name of the third river is Hiddekel: this is the one which flows in front of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

Young's Literal Translation
and the name of the third river is Hiddekel, it is that which is going east of Asshur; and the fourth river is Phrat.
Study Bible
The Planting of the Garden
13The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush. 14The name of the third river is Tigris; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. 15Then the LORD God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it.…
Cross References
Genesis 2:13
The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush.

Genesis 2:15
Then the LORD God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it.

Genesis 15:18
On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your descendants I have given this land, From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates:

Ezekiel 23:23
the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod and Shoa and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them; desirable young men, governors and officials all of them, officers and men of renown, all of them riding on horses.

Daniel 10:4
On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, while I was by the bank of the great river, that is, the Tigris,
Treasury of Scripture

And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goes toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

Hiddekel.

Daniel 10:4 And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by …

The Tigris. toward the east of. or, eastward to.

Genesis 10:11,22 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city …

Genesis 25:18 And they dwelled from Havilah to Shur, that is before Egypt, as you …

Euphrates.

Genesis 15:18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, To your …

Deuteronomy 1:7 Turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, …

Deuteronomy 11:24 Every place where on the soles of your feet shall tread shall be …

Revelation 9:14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels …

(14) Of the "Hiddekel" and "Euphrates" there is no doubt: the former is the Tigris, or Tigres, which is a mere Graecising of its Oriental name, Daglath in Arabic, and Deklath in Syriac, and in the Targum of Onkelos. The word Hiddekel is startling as being a quadriliteral, but the Samaritan Codex reads the Dehel, that is, it has the article instead of the Hebrew Kheth. Mr. Sayce accepts the uncertain reading Hiddekel, and says (Chald. Gen., p. 84) that Hid is the Accadian name for river. Dekel, Tigris, is said to mean an arrow. The Samaritan reading is probably right.

Euphrates.--No description is given of this as being the largest and best known of Asiatic rivers. Hence, probably, the Pison and Gihon were but small streams. Euphrates is the Greek manner of pronouncing the Hebrew Phrath, the first syllable being simply a help in sounding the double consonant. In Accadian it is called Purrat, and means "the curving water," being so named from its shape.

Verse 14. - And the name of the third river is the, Hiddekel, or "the darting," from חַד and דֶּקֶל, a sharp and swift arrow, referring to its rapidity. It is unanimously agreed that this must be identified with the Tigris; in the present language of the Persians designated tir, which signifies an arrow. It is styled in Aramaic diglath or diglah. That is it which goeth towards the east of Assyria. Its identity is thus placed beyond a question. And the fourth river is Euphrates, or "the sweet,' from an unused root, parath, signifying to be sweet, referring to the sweet and pleasant taste of its waters (Jeremiah 2:18). Further description of this great water was unnecessary, being universally known to the Hebrews as "the great river" (Deuteronomy 1:7; Daniel 10:4), and "the river" par excellence (Exodus 23:31; Isaiah 7:20). The river still bears its early name. In the cuneiform inscriptions deciphered by Rawlinson it is called "Ufrata." Recurring now to the site of Eden, it must be admitted that, notwithstanding this description, the whole question is involved in uncertainty. The two solutions of the problem that have the greatest claim on our attention are,

(1) that which places Eden near the head of the Persian Gulf, and

(2) that which looks for it in Armenia. The latter is favored by the close proximity to that region of the sources of both the Euphrates and the Tigris; but, on the other hand, it is hampered by the difficulty of discovering other two rivers that will correspond with the Gihon and the Pison, and the almost certainty that Cush and Havilah are to be sought for in the vicinity of the Persian Gulf. The former (Calvin, Kalisch, T. Lewis) is supported by this last consideration, that Cush and Havilah are not remote from the locality, though it too has its encumbrances. It seems to reverse the idea of לֺיּעֵא, which according to Le Clerc indicates the direction of the stream. Then its advocates, no more than the supporters of the alternate theory, are agreed upon the Gihon and the Pison: Calvin finding them in the two principal mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris, which Sir Charles Lyell declares to be of comparatively recent formation; Kalisch identifying them with the Indus and the Nile; and Taylor Lewis regarding them as the two sides of the Persian Gulf. Sir H. Rawlinson, from a study of the Assyrian texts, has pointed out the coincidence of the Babylonian region of Karduniyas or Garduniyas with the Eden of the Bible; and the late George Smith finds in its four rivers, Euphrates, Tigris, Surappi, and Ukui, its known fertility, and its name, Gandunu, so similar to Ganeden (the garden of Eden), "considerations all tending towards the view that it is the paradise of Genesis" ('Chald. Genesis,' pp. 3-305). The name of the third river is Hiddekel,.... A river which ran by Shushan in Persia, and retained its name in the times of Daniel, Daniel 10:4 where it is called the great river; and it seems it bears the same name now among the Persians; at least it did an hundred and fifty years ago, when Rauwolff (m) travelled in those parts. The Targum of Jonathan here calls it Diglath, the same with the Diglito of Pliny (n); and according to him it is called Tigris, from its swiftness, either from the tiger, a swift creature, or from "to dart", in the Chaldee language; and so Curtius (o) says, that in the Persian language they call a dart "tigris": and with this agrees the word "Hiddekel", which in the Hebrew language signifies sharp and swift, as a polished arrow is; and Jarchi says it is so called, because its waters are sharp and swift: though this is contradicted by some modern travellers (p) who say it is a slower stream than the Euphrates, and is not only very crooked, and full of meanders, but also choked up with islands, and great banks of stone:

that is it which goeth towards the east of Assyria: a country which had its name from Ashur, a son of Shem, Genesis 10:11 it became a famous kingdom and monarchy, Nineveh was the metropolis of it, which was built on the river Tigris or Hiddekel; and, as before observed, it ran by Shushan in Persia; and so, as Diodorus Siculus (q) says, it passed through Media into Mesopotamia; and which very well agrees with its being, according to Moses, one of the rivers of Eden. Twelve miles up this river, from Mosul, near which Nineveh once stood, lies an island, called the island of Eden, in the heart of the Tigris, about ten English miles in circuit, and is said to be undoubtedly a part of paradise (r):

and the fourth river is Euphrates: or "Phrat", as in the Hebrew tongue. Reland (s) seems rightly to judge, that the syllable "eu", prefixed to it, is the Persian "au" or "cu", which in that language signifies "water"; so that "Euphrates" is no other than "the water of Phrat", so called from the fruitfulness of it; for its waters, as Jarchi says, fructify, increase, and fatten the earth; and who rightly observes that these names, and so those of other rivers, and of the countries here mentioned, are named by a prolepsis or anticipation, these being the names they bore when Moses wrote; unless it may be thought to be the Hebrew "Hu, the, that Phrat"; and which the Greeks have made an "eu" of. (After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of these rivers could be determined with any degree of certainty today. Ed.)

(m) Travels, part. 2. c. 9. p. 159. ed. Ray. (n) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 27. (o) Hist. l. 4. c. 9. (p) De la Valle & Thevenot, apud Universal History, vol. 4. p. 248. (q) Bibliothec. l. 2. p. 99. (r) Cartwright's Preacher's Travels, p. 91. (s) Ut supra, (De Situ Paradisi) p. 45. 2:8-14 The place fixed upon for Adam to dwell in, was not a palace, but a garden. The better we take up with plain things, and the less we seek things to gratify pride and luxury, the nearer we approach to innocency. Nature is content with a little, and that which is most natural; grace with less; but lust craves every thing, and is content with nothing. No delights can be satisfying to the soul, but those which God himself has provided and appointed for it. Eden signifies delight and pleasure. Wherever it was, it had all desirable conveniences, without any inconvenience, though no other house or garden on earth ever was so. It was adorned with every tree pleasant to the sight, and enriched with every tree that yielded fruit grateful to the taste and good for food. God, as a tender Father, desired not only Adam's profit, but his pleasure; for there is pleasure with innocency, nay there is true pleasure only in innocency. When Providence puts us in a place of plenty and pleasure, we ought to serve God with gladness of heart in the good things he gives us. Eden had two trees peculiar to itself. 1. There was the tree of life in the midst of the garden. Of this man might eat and live. Christ is now to us the Tree of life, Re 2:7; 22:2; and the Bread of life, Joh 6:48,51. 2. There was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, so called because there was a positive revelation of the will of God about this tree, so that by it man might know moral good and evil. What is good? It is good not to eat of this tree. What is evil? It is evil to eat of this tree. In these two trees God set before Adam good and evil, the blessing and the curse.
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