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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

med-i-te-ra'-ne-an (he thalassa): To the Hebrews the Mediterranean was the sea, as was natural from their situation.

Hence, they speak of it simply as "the sea" (ha-yam), e.g. Genesis 49:13 Numbers 13:29; Numbers 34:5 Judges 5:17; or, again, it is "the great sea" (ha-yam ha-gadhol, e.g. Numbers 34:6, 7 Joshua 9:1; Joshua 15:12, 47 Ezekiel 47:10, 15, 19, 20; Ezekiel 48:28); or, because it lay to the West of Palestine, as "the great sea toward the going down or the sun" (Joshua 1:4; Joshua 23:4), and, since the west was regarded as the "back," in contrast to the east as the "front," as "hinder (or "western" the Revised Version (British and American), "uttermost" or "utmost" the King James Version) sea" (ha-yam ha-'acharon), Deuteronomy 11:24; Deuteronomy 34:2 Zechariah 14:8 Joel 2:20, in the last two passages contrasted with "the former (King James Version, "eastern" the Revised Version (British and American)) sea" ha-yam ha-qadhmoni), i.e. the Dead Sea. See FORMER. That portion of the Mediterranean directly West of Palestine is once (Exodus 23:31) referred to as "the sea of the Philis" yam pelishtim). the King James Version has "sea of Joppa" (Ezra 3:7) where the Revised Version (British and American) correctly renders "to the sea, unto Joppa" (compare 2 Chronicles 2:16). Similarly, the King James Version "the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia" (Acts 27:5) is better rendered "the sea which is off Cilicia and Pamphylia" (Revised Version).

In the New Testament, references to the Mediterranean are common, especially in the accounts of Paul's voyages, for which see PAUL. Jesus once (Mark 7:24) came to or near the sea.

The Mediterranean basin was the scene of most ancient civilizations which have greatly influenced that of the western world, except those whose home was in the valleys of the Tigris and the Euphrates; and even these continually thrust themselves into it, so far as they could. As its name implies, it is an inland area, united to the Atlantic only by the narrow Straits of Gibraltar. In comparatively recent geological time it was also joined to the Red Sea, the alluvial deposits of the Nile, which have extended the line of the Delta, having with the aid of drifting desert sands subsequently closed the passage and joined the continents of Asia and Africa. The total length of the Mediterranean is about 2,300 miles, its greatest breadth about 1,080 miles, and its area about 1,000,000 square miles. It falls naturally into the western and eastern (Levant) halves, dividing at the line running from Tunis to Sicily, where it is comparatively shallow; the western end is generally the deeper, reaching depths of nearly 6,000 ft. On the North it is intersected by the Italian and Balkan peninsulas, forming the Gulf of Lyons, the Adriatic and the Aegean. In ancient times these and other divisions of the Mediterranean bore specific names given by the Greeks and Romans, but from the nature of the case their limits were ill defined. The temperature of the Mediterranean is in summer warmer, in winter about the same as that of the Atlantic. Its water has a slightly greater specific gravity, probably because of a larger proportionate evaporation.

William Arthur Heidel



4499. Rhodos -- Rhodes, an island in the Mediterranean
... Rhodes, an island in the Mediterranean. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration:
Rhodos Phonetic Spelling: (hrod'-os) Short Definition: Rhodes Definition ...
// - 6k

2914. Krete -- Crete, an island in the Mediterranean
... Crete, an island in the Mediterranean. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration:
Krete Phonetic Spelling: (kray'-tay) Short Definition: Crete Definition ...
// - 6k

2954. Kupros -- Cyprus, an island at the east end of the ...
... Cyprus, an island at the east end of the Mediterranean Sea. Part of Speech: Noun,
Feminine Transliteration: Kupros Phonetic Spelling: (koo'-pros) Short ...
// - 6k

3194. Melite -- Melita (Malta), an island in the Mediterranean
... Melita (Malta), an island in the Mediterranean. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine
Transliteration: Melite Phonetic Spelling: (mel-ee'-tay) Short Definition: Melita ...
// - 6k

3963. Patmos -- Patmos, an island in the Aegean Sea
... Patmos. Of uncertain derivation; Patmus, an islet in the Mediterranean -- Patmos.
(patmo) -- 1 Occurrence. 3962, 3963. Patmos. 3964 . Strong's Numbers.
// - 6k

5508. Chios -- Chios, an island in the Aegean Sea
... Chios. Of uncertain derivation; Chios, an island in the Mediterranean -- Chios.
(chiou) -- 1 Occurrence. 5507, 5508. Chios. 5509 . Strong's Numbers.
// - 6k

99. Adrias -- the Adriatic, the name of a sea
... Sea Definition: the Hadria, a name given by sailors not merely to the Adriatic Sea,
to which it properly belonged, but also to the open Mediterranean to the ...
// - 6k

4543. Samothrake -- "Samos of Thrace," Samothrace, an island in ...
... Samothracia. From Samos and Thraike (Thrace); Samo-thrace (Samos of Thrace),
an island in the Mediterranean -- Samothracia. see GREEK Samos. ...
// - 6k

2957. Kurene -- Cyrene, a city in N. Africa
... Kurene Phonetic Spelling: (koo-ray'-nay) Short Definition: Cyrene Definition: Cyrene,
a district west of Egypt on the Mediterranean coast, forming with Crete a ...
// - 6k

4544. Samos -- Samos, an island in the Aegean
... Samos. Of uncertain affinity; Samus, an island of the Mediterranean -- Samos. (samon) --
1 Occurrence. 4543, 4544. Samos. 4545 . Strong's Numbers.
// - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
8659. Tarshish -- a son of Javan, his desc. and their land, also a ...
... 8658, 8659. Tarshish. 8660 . a son of Javan, his desc. and their land, also
a port on the Mediterranean, also a Benjamite, also a Pers. ...
/hebrew/8659.htm - 6k

895. Babel -- an E. Mediterranean empire and its capital city
... 894, 895. Babel. 896 . an E. Mediterranean empire and its capital city.
Transliteration: Babel Phonetic Spelling: (baw-bel') Short Definition: Babylon. ...
/hebrew/895.htm - 6k

6721. Tsidon -- a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast, also ...
... a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast, also a son of Canaan. Transliteration:
Tsidon or Tsidon Phonetic Spelling: (tsee-done') Short Definition: Sidon. ...
/hebrew/6721.htm - 6k

8289. Sharon -- a plain on the Mediterranean Sea, perhaps also a ...
... a plain on the Mediterranean Sea, perhaps also a region East of the Jordan.
Transliteration: Sharon Phonetic Spelling: (shaw-rone') Short Definition: Sharon. ...
/hebrew/8289.htm - 6k

5761. Avvim -- a city in Benjamin, also a people on the SW coast ...
... a city in Benjamin, also a people on the SW coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Transliteration: Avvim Phonetic Spelling: (av-veem') Short Definition: Avvim. ...
/hebrew/5761.htm - 6k

894. Babel -- an E. Mediterranean empire and its capital city
... 893, 894. Babel. 895 . an E. Mediterranean empire and its capital city.
Transliteration: Babel Phonetic Spelling: (baw-bel') Short Definition: Babylon. ...
/hebrew/894.htm - 6k

3760. Karmel -- a mountain promontory on the Mediterranean, also a ...
... a mountain promontory on the Mediterranean, also a city near Hebron. Transliteration:
Karmel Phonetic Spelling: (kar-mel') Short Definition: Carmel. ...
/hebrew/3760.htm - 6k

6429. Pelesheth -- a territory on the S. Mediterranean coast of ...
... Pelesheth. 6430 . a territory on the S. Mediterranean coast of Isr. ... Word Origin
from palash Definition a territory on the S. Mediterranean coast of Isr. ...
/hebrew/6429.htm - 6k

3220. yam -- sea
... a sea, the Mediterranean Sea; From an unused root meaning to roar; a sea (as
breaking in noisy surf) or large body of water; specifically ...
/hebrew/3220.htm - 6k


Herodotus and Xenophon.
... The intercourse of nations was, in those days, mainly carried on over the waters
of the Mediterranean Sea; and in times of peace, almost the only mode of ...
/.../abbott/cyrus the great/chapter i herodotus and xenophon.htm

He Division of the Land.
... Heathen cities were on that western coast; but seeing they lay within the ancient
bounds of the land, namely, the 'lip of the Mediterranean sea,'"they could ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 1 he division of.htm

Egypt and Greece.
... By referring to the map, the reader will see that, as the Persian empire extended
westward to Asia Minor and to the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, the great ...
// ii egypt and greece.htm

... of those April days, that are well known and appreciated by those who have been
fortunate enough to travel around the purple bathed Mediterranean coast, that ...
/.../conversion of a high priest into a christian worker/chapter i farewell.htm

The Epistles of Dionysius.
... present case. This city (whose original name was Hesperides) lay on the
Mediterranean some six hundred miles west of Alexandria. [2368 ...
/.../pamphilius/church history/chapter xxvi the epistles of dionysius.htm

The Kingdom Conquering the World
... X. Full-page Map of Paul's First Missionary Journey: Draw map of Mediterranean
Sea and surrounding countries. Locate the provinces ...
/.../palmer/a birds-eye view of the bible/ix the kingdom conquering the.htm

A Clearing-Up Storm in the Realm
... The old common point of contact between Orient and Occident was the strip of land
forming the western edge of the Orient at the eastern end of the Mediterranean ...
/.../vi a clearing-up storm in the.htm

The Angel of the Everlasting Gospel.
... all the world," Rom.1:8. The apostle had then "fully preached the gospel of Christ"
from Jerusalem "round about [the coast of the Mediterranean] unto Illyricum ...
/.../bliss/a brief commentary on the apocalypse/the angel of the everlasting.htm

... It was the outpost of western Asia on the side of the Mediterranean, as England
is the outpost of Europe on the side of the Atlantic; and just as the Atlantic ...
/.../sayce/early israel and the surrounding nations/introduction.htm

The End
... This was a Roman city on the Mediterranean coast; it was the residence of the Roman
governor of Palestine and the headquarters of the Roman garrison; and in it ...
// life of st paul/chapter x the end.htm

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (a.) Enclosed, or nearly enclosed, with land; as, the Mediterranean Sea, between Europe and Africa.

2. (a.) Inland; remote from the ocean.

3. (a.) of or pertaining to the Mediterranean Sea; as, Mediterranean trade; a Mediterranean voyage.

... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (a.) Enclosed, or nearly enclosed, with land;
as, the Mediterranean Sea, between Europe and Africa. ...
/m/mediterranean.htm - 11k

Salim (1 Occurrence)
... hin'-der; ut'-most; ut'-er-most; wes'-tern. See MEDITERRANEAN SEA. SEA, THE. ... See ,
/s/salim.htm - 15k

Quit (12 Occurrences)
/q/quit.htm - 13k

Lebanon (66 Occurrences)
... es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the
ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as ...
/l/lebanon.htm - 45k

Nile (37 Occurrences)
... These unite at the town of Khartoum, whence it pursues its course for 1,800 miles,
and falls into the Mediterranean through its two branches, into which it is ...
/n/nile.htm - 29k

Whale (2 Occurrences)
... This fish may have been, therefore, some great shark. The white shark is known to
frequent the Mediterranean Sea, and is sometimes found 30 feet in length. ...
/w/whale.htm - 13k

Fish (66 Occurrences)
... Fish abounded in the Mediterranean and in the lakes of the Jordan, so that
the Hebrews were no doubt acquainted with many species. ...
/f/fish.htm - 38k

Kittim (8 Occurrences)
... to the descendants of Javan, and indicates, therefore, the Greek-Latin races, whose
territory extended along the coasts of the Mediterranean, and included its ...
/k/kittim.htm - 15k

... It will be seen by the map that the Crystalline rocks are nowhere adjacent to the
Mediterranean, but that they touch the Nile at Acwan, where the river in ...
/g/geology.htm - 16k

... The land as a whole belongs to the botanical area known as the "Mediterranean region,"
a region characterized climatically by very dry, hot summers and fairly ...
/b/botany.htm - 38k



Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea: Mentioned in Scripture As "The Great Sea"

Mediterranean Sea: Sea of Joppa

Mediterranean Sea: Sea of the Philistines

Mediterranean Sea: The Hinder Sea

Mediterranean Sea: The Utmost Sea

Mediterranean Sea: The Uttermost Sea

Related Terms

Salim (1 Occurrence)

Quit (12 Occurrences)

Lebanon (66 Occurrences)

Nile (37 Occurrences)

Whale (2 Occurrences)

Fish (66 Occurrences)

Kittim (8 Occurrences)



Nehelamite (4 Occurrences)

Languages (36 Occurrences)

Tyre (59 Occurrences)


Ebal (8 Occurrences)

Melita (1 Occurrence)

Minor (2 Occurrences)


Printed (2 Occurrences)


Print (3 Occurrences)

Phenicia (1 Occurrence)


Cilicia (8 Occurrences)

Cyprus (12 Occurrences)

Crete (7 Occurrences)

Army (401 Occurrences)

Pharaoh-necoh (3 Occurrences)

Shore (45 Occurrences)

Sponge (3 Occurrences)

Sharon (9 Occurrences)

Palestine (1 Occurrence)

Commerce (3 Occurrences)

Cush (31 Occurrences)

Lead (192 Occurrences)

Wanderings (7 Occurrences)

Asia (22 Occurrences)

Hethlon (2 Occurrences)

Red (124 Occurrences)

Syria (73 Occurrences)

Dead (580 Occurrences)

Locust (25 Occurrences)

Nazareth (29 Occurrences)

Jordan (188 Occurrences)

Great (10383 Occurrences)

Mount (311 Occurrences)


Phoenicia (6 Occurrences)

Gilead (130 Occurrences)

Malchiel (3 Occurrences)

Assyria (124 Occurrences)

Medium (4 Occurrences)

Galilee (73 Occurrences)


Nations (683 Occurrences)

Plain (113 Occurrences)

Boats (11 Occurrences)

Ships (46 Occurrences)

Zephaniah (11 Occurrences)

Egypt (596 Occurrences)

Table (125 Occurrences)

Philistines (224 Occurrences)

Sea (4178 Occurrences)

Quails (4 Occurrences)

Viper (8 Occurrences)

Zidon (25 Occurrences)

Zebulun (46 Occurrences)

Karkaa (1 Occurrence)

Kedar (11 Occurrences)

Kanah (3 Occurrences)

Kishon (6 Occurrences)

Negeb (37 Occurrences)

Nineveh (23 Occurrences)

Negev (39 Occurrences)

Utmost (21 Occurrences)

Uttermost (48 Occurrences)

Jehoahaz (22 Occurrences)

Jogbehah (2 Occurrences)

Jackal (3 Occurrences)

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