Matthew 19:28
And Jesus said to them, Truly I say to you, That you which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, you also shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(28) In the regeneration.—In the only other passage in the New Testament in which the word occurs, it is applied to baptism (Titus 3:5), as the instrument of the regeneration or new birth of the individual believer. Here, however, it clearly has a wider range. There is to be a “new birth” for mankind as well as for the individual. The sorrows through which the world was to pass were to be as the travail-pangs of that passage into a higher life. (See Note on Matthew 24:8.) Beyond them there lay, in the thoughts of the disciples, and, though after another pattern, in the mind of Christ, the times of the “restitution of all things” (Acts 3:21), the coming of the victorious Christ in the glory of His kingdom. In that triumph the Twelve were to be sharers. Interpreted as they in their then stage of progress would necessarily interpret them, the words suggested the idea of a kingdom restored to Israel, in which they should be assessors of the divine King, not only or chiefly in the great work of judging every man according to his works, but as “judging,” in the old sense of the word, the “twelve tribes of Israel,” redressing wrongs, guiding, governing. As the words that the Son of Man should “sit on the throne of His glory” recalled the vision of Daniel 7:14, so these assured them that they should be foremost among those of “the saints of the Most High,” to whom, as in the same vision, had been given glory and dominion (Daniel 7:27). The apocalyptic imagery in which the promise was clothed reappears in the vision of the four-and-twenty elders seated on their thrones in Revelation 4:4, in the sealing of the hundred and forty-four thousand of all the tribes of Israel in Revelation 7:4, and the interpretation of the words here is subject to the same conditions as that of those later visions. What approximations to a literal fulfilment there may be in the far-off future lies behind the veil. They receive at least an adequate fulfilment if we see in them the promise that, in the last triumphant stage of the redeeming work, the Apostles should still be recognised and had in honour, as guiding the faith and conduct of their countrymen; their names should be on the twelve foundations of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:14); they should be sharers in the throne and glory of its King. The thought on which St. Paul dwells, that the “saints shall judge the world” (1Corinthians 6:2), in like manner refers not only or chiefly to any share which the disciples of Christ shall have in the actual work of the final judgment, but to the assured triumph of the faith, the laws, the principles of action of which they were then the persecuted witnesses. We must not ignore the fact that, in at least one instance, the words, absolute as they were in their form, failed of their fulfilment. The guilt of Judas left one of the thrones vacant. The promise was given subject to the implied conditions of faithfulness and endurance lasting even to the end.

19:23-30 Though Christ spoke so strongly, few that have riches do not trust in them. How few that are poor are not tempted to envy! But men's earnestness in this matter is like their toiling to build a high wall to shut themselves and their children out of heaven. It should be satisfaction to those who are in a low condition, that they are not exposed to the temptations of a high and prosperous condition. If they live more hardly in this world than the rich, yet, if they get more easily to a better world, they have no reason to complain. Christ's words show that it is hard for a rich man to be a good Christian, and to be saved. The way to heaven is a narrow way to all, and the gate that leads into it, a strait gate; particularly so to rich people. More duties are expected from them than from others, and more sins easily beset them. It is hard not to be charmed with a smiling world. Rich people have a great account to make up for their opportunities above others. It is utterly impossible for a man that sets his heart upon his riches, to get to heaven. Christ used an expression, denoting a difficulty altogether unconquerable by the power of man. Nothing less than the almighty grace of God will enable a rich man to get over this difficulty. Who then can be saved? If riches hinder rich people, are not pride and sinful lusts found in those not rich, and as dangerous to them? Who can be saved? say the disciples. None, saith Christ, by any created power. The beginning, progress, and perfecting the work of salvation, depend wholly on the almighty power of God, to which all things are possible. Not that rich people can be saved in their worldliness, but that they should be saved from it. Peter said, We have forsaken all. Alas! it was but a poor all, only a few boats and nets; yet observe how Peter speaks, as if it had been some mighty thing. We are too apt to make the most of our services and sufferings, our expenses and losses, for Christ. However, Christ does not upbraid them; though it was but little that they had forsaken, yet it was their all, and as dear to them as if it had been more. Christ took it kindly that they left it to follow him; he accepts according to what a man hath. Our Lord's promise to the apostles is, that when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, he will make all things new, and they shall sit with him in judgement on those who will be judged according to their doctrine. This sets forth the honour, dignity, and authority of their office and ministry. Our Lord added, that every one who had forsaken possessions or comforts, for his sake and the gospel, would be recompensed at last. May God give us faith to rest our hope on this his promise; then we shall be ready for every service or sacrifice. Our Saviour, in the last verse, does away a mistake of some. The heavenly inheritance is not given as earthly ones are, but according to God's pleasure. Let us not trust in promising appearances or outward profession. Others may, for aught we know, become eminent in faith and holiness.Verily I say unto you - Jesus in this verse declares the reward which they would have.

They were not to look for it now, but in a future period.

That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration - This word occurs but once elsewhere in the New Testament, Titus 3:5. It literally means a new birth, or being born again. Applied to man, it denotes the great change when the heart is renewed, or when the sinner begins to be a Christian. This is its meaning, clearly, in the passage referred to in Titus; but this meaning cannot be applied here. Christ was not born again, and in no proper sense could it be said that they had followed him in the new birth; but the word also means any great change, or a restoration of things to a former state or to a better state. In this sense it is probably used here. It refers to that great revolution - that restoration of order in the universe - that universal new birth which will occur when the dead shall rise, and all human things shall be changed, and a new order of things shall start up out of the ruins of the old, when the Son of man shall come to judgment. The passage, then, should be read, "Ye which have followed me shall, as a reward in the great day of the resurrection of the dead, and of forming the new and eternal order of things - the day of judgment, the regeneration - be signally honored and blessed.

When the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory - That is, to judge the world. "Throne of glory" means glorious throne or a splendid throne. It is not to be taken literally, but is used to denote his character as a king and judge, and to signify the great dignity and majesty which will be displayed by him. See Matthew 24:30; Matthew 26:64; Acts 1:11; Acts 17:31.

Sit upon twelve thrones - This is figurative. To sit on a throne denotes power and honor, and means here that they would be distinguished above others, and be more highly honored and rewarded.

Judging the twelve tribes of Israel - Jesus will be the Judge of quick and dead. He only is qualified for it, and the Father hath given all judgment to the Son, John 5:22. To be a judge denotes rank, authority, power. The ancient judges of Israel were people of distinguished courage, patriotism, honor, and valor. Hence, the word comes to denote not so much an actual exercise of the power of passing judgment, as the honor attached to the office; and as earthly kings have those around them dignified with honors and office - counselors and judges, so Christ says that his apostles will occupy the same relative station in the great day. They will be honored by him, and by all, as apostles, as having, in the face of persecution, left all; as having laid the foundations of his church, and endured all the persecutions of the world.

The twelve tribes of Israel - This was the number of the ancient tribes. By this name the people of God were denoted. By this name Jesus here denotes his redeemed people. See also James 1:1, where Christians are called the twelve tribes. Here it means also, not the Jews, not the world, not the wicked, not that the apostles are to pronounce sentence on the enemies of God, but the people of God, the redeemed. Among them Jesus says his apostles will be honored in the day of judgment, as earthly kings place in posts of office and honor those who have signally served them. Compare the notes at 1 Corinthians 6:2.

Mt 19:16-30. The Rich Young Ruler. ( = Mr 10:17-31; Lu 18:18-30).

For the exposition, see on [1330]Lu 18:18-30.

Ver. 27,28. Mark and Luke repeateth the words of Peter in part, but neither of them have this part of our Lord’s answer, particularly respecting his apostles. We heard before, Matthew 4:18-22, of Peter, and Andrew, and James, and John, forsaking all and following of Christ, when he called them; the others doubtless did the same. Peter observing that our Saviour laid not the stress of men’s salvation either upon riches or poverty, but upon the frame of men’s spirits, their humility, self-denial, their obedience to and readiness to follow him; rejoins these words, and saith,

We have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have? Some think that he had an expectation of something in this life, according to the notion which the other Jews had, and it is apparent the disciples had some tincture of a secular kingdom, which the Messias should exercise. But considering our Lord’s former discourse could not be so interpreted, and the disciples question, Who then can be saved? I cannot agree that. And for the same reason I cannot agree, that the coming of the Son of man in his glory, mentioned Matthew 19:28, should be understood of his coming in his mediatory kingdom, (as some would have it), but of his last coming, which is most properly called the coming of the Son of man in his glory, mentioned 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 Judges 1:14; and that the thing here promised to the apostles, is not a preference in the church, but a further degree of honour and glory in the day of judgment.

Ye which have followed me in the regeneration; that is, at this time, while I have been by my doctrine reforming the word; in the regeneration of my church, while I have been putting it into a new state. Some make those words, in the regeneration, to refer to the next words.

In the regeneration; that is, in the day of judgment, when Christ shall come in his glory. The apostle indeed, Acts 3:21, calleth that day, the times of restitution of all things. And the prophet speaks of it as the time of the new heavens and new earth, Isaiah 66:22. So doth the apostle, 2 Peter 3:13; and John, in Revelation 21:1. It is not much material to which part we apply the term.

Ye which have followed me; that is, who have followed and shall go on and follow me, for this promise cannot belong to Judas, the son of perdition.

Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones. Judges and princes use to have assessors, that sit with them in judgment. He mentions twelve thrones, because he had now twelve disciples, his apostles; and though afterward Judas fell away, yet Matthias succeeded, Acts 1:26; so as the twelve thrones shall not be empty, but filled up with twelve that followed Christ, for such a one was Matthias, Acts 1:21.

Judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Though the tribes were thirteen, yet they usually went under the notion of twelve, because Levi was not counted, as having no particular possession. That is, judging the Jews for their unbelief, and not reception of me: judging others also; but judgment shall begin at the house of God. Doubtless this promise imports, that the apostles shall have a higher place in glory at the great day than ordinary believers: yet the apostle saith the saints shall judge the world, 1 Corinthians 6:2. And Jesus said unto them,.... To all the disciples whom Peter represented;

verily I say unto you: the thing being something very considerable, and of great moment, Christ uses the asseveration he sometimes does in such cases:

that ye which have followed me. Christ does not deny that they had forsaken all for his sake, nor does he despise it, because it was but little they left, though he does not repeat it; but only takes notice of their following him, which, including their faith in him, their profession of him, and subjection to him, was a much greater action, and of more importance that the other, and therefore is only mentioned, and which our Lord confirms:

in the regeneration. This clause is so placed, that it may be read in connection with the preceding words, and be understood of the disciples following Christ in the regeneration; meaning, not the grace of regeneration, in which they could not be said, with propriety, to follow Christ; and one of them was never a partaker of it: but the new state of things, in the church of God, which was foretold, and is called the time of reformation, or setting all things right, which began upon the sealing up the law, and the prophets, and the ministry of John the Baptist, and of Christ; who both, when they began to preach, declared, that this time, which they call the kingdom of heaven, was at hand, just ushering in. Now the twelve apostles followed Christ herein: they believed, and professed him to be the Messiah; they received, what the Jews called, his new doctrine, and preached it to others; they submitted to the new ordinance of baptism, and followed Christ, and attended him wherever he went, working miracles, preaching the Gospel, and reforming the minds and manners of men. Now this new dispensation is called the regeneration, and which more manifestly took place after our Lord's resurrection, and ascension, and the pouring down of the Spirit; wherefore the phrase may be connected with the following words,

when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory in the regeneration; not in the resurrection of the dead, or at the last judgment, but in this new state of things, which now began to appear with another face: for the apostles having a new commission to preach the Gospel to all the world; and being endued with power from on high for such service, in a short time went every where preaching the word, with great success. Gentiles were converted, as well as Jews, and both brought into a Gospel church state; the ceremonies of the old law being abolished, were disused; and the ordinances of baptism, and the Lord's supper, every where practised; old things passed away, and all things became new: agreeably to this the Syriac version renders the phrase, , "in the new world"; and so the Persic. The Arabic reads it, "in the generation", or "age to come"; which the Jews so often call the world, or age to come, the kingdom of the Messiah, the Gospel dispensation.

When the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, or glorious throne; as he did when he ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God; and was then exalted as a prince, and made, or declared to be Lord and Christ; and was crowned in human nature, with honour, and glory, and angels, principalities, and powers, made subject to him:

ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones: for though Judas fell from his apostleship, yet Matthias was chosen in his room, and took his place, and made up the number twelve; a metaphorical phrase, setting forth the honour, dignity, and authority of their office and ministry, by which they should be

judging the twelve tribes of Israel; doctrinally and practically; by charging them with the sin of crucifying Christ, condemning them for their unbelief, and rejection of him, denouncing the wrath of God, and the heaviest judgments that should fall upon them, as a nation, for their sin; and by turning from them to the Gentiles, under which judgment they continue to this day. So the doctors among the Jews are represented as sitting and judging others: of "the potters", in 1 Chronicles 4:23 they say (l),

"these are the disciples of the law, or the lawyers, for whose sake the world is created, "who sit in judgment", and establish the world; and build, and perfect the ruins of the house of Israel.''

(l) Targuru in 1 Chron. 23.

{7} And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the {q} regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

(7) It is not lost, that is neglected for God's sake.

(q) The regeneration is understood to mean that day when the elect will begin to live a new life, that is to say, when they will enjoy the heavenly inheritance, both in body and soul.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Matthew 19:28. This part of the promise is omitted in Mark, but comp. Luke 22:30.

In answer to the question concerning the reward, Jesus, in the first place, promises a special recompense to His disciples, namely, that they should have the honour of being associated with Him in judging the nation at the second coming; then, in Matthew 19:29 (comp. Mark 10:29; Luke 18:29), He adds the general promise of a reward to be given to those who for His sake have sacrificed their worldly interests; and finally, in Matthew 19:30, He makes a statement calculated to rebuke everything in the shape of false pretensions, and which is further illustrated by the parable in Matthew 20:1 ff.

There is no touch of irony throughout this reply of Jesus (in answer to Liebe in Winer’s exeget. Stud. I. p. 73). Comp. Fleck, de regno div. p. 436 ff.

ἐν τῇ παλιγγενεσίᾳ] in the regeneration, does not belong to ἀκολουθήσαντές μοι (Hilary, explaining the words by baptismal regeneration (Titus 3:5); also Calvin, who understands by παλιγγενεσία the renovation of the world begun in Christ’s earthly ministry), for the disciples could only have conceived of the renovation of the world as something that was to take place contemporaneously with the actual setting up of the kingdom; the ἀποκατάστασις, Acts 3:21, does not represent quite the same idea as the one at present in question. Neither are we, with Paulus, to insert a point after παλιγγεν., and supply ἐστε (“you are already in the position of those who have been regenerated,” spiritually transformed), which would have the effect of introducing a somewhat feeble and irrelevant idea, besides being incompatible with the abruptness that would thus be imparted to the ὅταν (otherwise one should have expected ὅταν δέ). The words belong to καθίσεσθε, and signify that change by which the whole world is to be restored to that original state of perfection in which it existed before the fall, which renewal, restitutio in integrum, is to be brought about by the coming Messiah (חדוש העולם). See Buxtorf, Lex Talm. p. 712; Bertholdt, Christol. p. 214 f.; Gfrörer, Jahrh. d. Heils, II. p. 272 ff. Comp. Romans 8:19 ff; 2 Peter 3:13. When the resurrection is over, and the last judgment is going on (and it is to this part of the scene that the Lord is here referring), this renovation will have already begun, and will be in the course of development, so that Jesus can say with all propriety: ἐν τῇ παλιγγ. “Nova erit genesis, cui præerit Adamus secundus,” Bengel. Comp. παλιγγενεσία τῆς πατρίδος in Joseph. Antt. xi. 3. 9; παλιγγεν. τῶν ὅλων in Anton. xi. 1. Philo, de mund. p. 1165 C.; leg. ad Caj. p. 1037 B. Augustine, Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Fritzsche, interpret the expression of the resurrection, in favour of which such passages might be quoted as Long. iii. 4; Lucian, Musc. enc. 7; but this would be to understand it in too restricted a sense, besides being contrary to regular New Testament usage (ἀνάστασις).

ὅταν καθίσῃ, κ.τ.λ.] as judge.

δόξης αὐτοῦ] the throne, that is, on which the Messiah shows Himself in His glory, Matthew 25:31.

καὶ αὐτοί (see critical notes): likewise, just as the Messiah will sit on His throne.

καθίσεσθε] you will take your seats upon. Christ, then, is to be understood as already sitting. Moreover, though the promise applies, in a general way, to the twelve disciples, it does not preclude the possibility of one of them failing, through his apostasy, to participate in the fulfilment of the promise; “thronum Judae sumsit alius, Acts 1:20,” Bengel.

κρίνοντες] not: ruling over (Grotius, Kuinoel, Neander, Bleek), but, as the word means and the context requires: judging. As believers generally are to be partakers of the glory and sovereignty of Christ (Romans 8:17; 2 Timothy 2:12), and are to be associated with Him in judging the non-Christian κόσμος (1 Corinthians 6:2), so here it is specially promised to the disciples as such that they shall have the peculiar privilege of taking part with Him in judging the people of Israel. But it is evident from 1 Corinthians 6:2 that the people of Israel is conceived of as still forming part of the κόσμος, therefore it will be so far still unconverted, which coincides with the view that the second coming is near at hand, Matthew 10:23. It is a mistake, therefore, to take the people of Israel as intended to represent the people of God in the Christian sense (de Wette, Bleek); but it is no less so to suppose that the judging in question is merely of an indirect character, such as that which in Matthew 12:41 is ascribed to the queen of the south and the Ninevites (Chrysostom, Euthymius Zigabenus, Erasmus, Maldonatus),—a view which does not at all correspond with the picture of the judgment given in the text, although those expositors correctly saw that it is the unbelieving Israel that is meant. This sitting upon twelve thrones belongs to the accidental, Apocalyptic form in which the promise is embodied, though it is not so with regard either to the judging itself or its special reference to the δωδεκάφυλον of Israel (Acts 26:7), to which latter the number of the apostles expressly corresponds; for the second coming, instead of subverting the order of things here indicated, will only have the effect of exhibiting it in its perfection, and for the apostles themselves in its glory. It is therefore too rash to infer, as has been done by Hilgenfeld, that this passage bears traces of having been based upon an original document of a strictly Judaeo-Christian character. Even the Pauline Luke (Matthew 22:30) does not omit this promise, although he gives it in connection with a different occasion,—a circumstance which by Schneckenburger, without sufficient reason, and by Volkmar, in the most arbitrary way possible, is interpreted to the disadvantage of Matthew. It is not the case that Matthew 19:28 interferes with the connection (Holtzmann), although Weizsäcker also is disposed to regard it as “a manifest interpolation.”Matthew 19:28. ἀμὴν: introducing a solemn statement.—ὑμεῖς οἱ ἀκ.: not a nominative absolute (Palairet, Observ.), but being far from the verb, ὑμεῖς is repeated (with καὶ) after καθίσεσθε.—ἐν τ. παλινγενεσίᾳ to be connected with καθίσεσθε following. This is a new word in the Gospel vocabulary, and points to the general renewal—“re-genesis (nova erit genesis cui praeerit Adamus ii., Beng.)”—in the end of the days, which occupied a prominent place in Jewish apocalyptic hopes. The colouring in this verse is so strongly apocalyptic as to have suggested the hypothesis of interpolation (Weizsäcker), or of a Jewish-Christian source (Hilgenfeld). It is not in the parallels, but something similar occurs in Luke 22:30. Commentators translate this promise, so strongly Jewish in form, into Christian ideas, according to their taste, reading into it what was not there for the disciples when it was spoken.28. the regeneration] “The renewal of things,” “the return to a perfect state,” otherwise called “the restitution of all things,” nearly= the Kingdom of God. Cp. ch. Matthew 17:11.Matthew 19:28. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, κ.τ.λ., but Jesus said unto them, etc.) Peter had joined together we have left all, and we have followed Thee. Our Lord replies to these things separately; for the latter (Matthew 19:28) was peculiar to the apostles; the former (Matthew 19:29) common to them with others. See Psalm 45:10-11.—ὑμεῖςκαὶ ὑμεῖς, ye—ye also) sc. you Twelve.—ἐν τῇ παλιγγενεσίᾳ, in the regeneration) This is to be construed with the following, not the preceding words: for the following after Jesus is usually mentioned alone, without this addition: by which the time of the session, which is immediately spoken of, is suitably marked. There will be a new creation, over which the second Adam will preside, when the whole microcosm of human nature, by means of the resurrection, and also the macrocosm of the universe, will be born again (genesin iteratam habebit). Cf. Acts 3:21; Revelation 21:5; Matthew 26:29.—Regeneration (παλιγγενεσία) and renovation (ἀνακαίνωσις) are joined together in Titus 3:5.—Then we shall be sons; see Luke 20:36; Romans 8:23; 1 John 3:2.—καθίσεσθε, ye shall sit) The middle voice is used in the case of the disciples, the active, καθίσῃ, in that of the Lord. At the beginning of the judgment the disciples will stand; see Luke 21:36; 2 Corinthians 5:10; afterwards, having been absolved from all charges against them, they will sit with Him; see 1 Corinthians 6:2.—θρόνους, thrones) Another has taken the throne of Judas; see Acts 1:20. Concerning the thrones, cf. Revelation 20:4.—κρίνοντες, judging) In the time of the Judges there was a theocracy, concerning which see my exposition of the Apocalypse, p. 553. Thus, in the first millennium, restored Israel, its enemies having been destroyed, will have judges again; see Isaiah 1:26. The promise, however, given to the apostles, refers to a still more distant period.—δώδεκα, twelve) The number of princes in Numbers 8:2, etc., and of apostles in Revelation 21:12; Revelation 21:14, corresponds with that of the tribes of Israel.—φυλὰς, κ.τ.λ., tribes, etc.) to which the apostles had, in the first instance, been sent.Verse 28. - Verily I say unto you. Christ does not reprove the apostle for his seemingly bold self-assertion, but, replying to Peter's question, he gives a grand promise to him and his fellow disciples. Ye which have followed me, excluding all the half-hearted, the self-seeking, the Judaizers. In the regeneration (τῇ παλιγγενεσίᾳ). The word means "new birth," or "renovation, renewal." It occurs in Titus 3:15 in reference to baptism," through the washing [laver] of regeneration." It has been variously interpreted in the present passage. Some have connected it with the participle preceding, "ye who have followed me in the regeneration," and explained it to mean the reformation and spiritual renovation commencing with the preaching of John the Baptist, and carried on by the ministry of Christ. But more generally and correctly it is taken with what follows, Ye shall sit, etc. The meaning, however, is still disputed. Some say that the Christian dispensation is intended, and an intimation is given of the work of the apostles in the unseen world in directing and guarding the Church. But this seems hardly to satisfy the language of the promise. Others regard the term as signifying the resurrection, when the mortal shall put on immortality, and we shall be changed, remade, reconstituted. This is true; but it seems more suitable to refer the term to the new creation, the new heaven and the new earth spoken of by Isaiah (Isaiah 65:17) and by St. John (Revelation 21:12; cf. 2 Peter 3:10, 13); This is the reparation of the whole creation described by St. Paul (Romans 8:19, etc.), which is to take place at the great consummation, and which, remedying all the evils which sin has impressed on the material and spiritual world, on man and his habitation, may well be called new birth. This is the mysterious period when Christ's promise shall be accomplished. Shall sit. It is not "when he shall come," but when he shall have taken his seat (ἐπὶ, with genitive) as Judge upon his glorious throne. Ye also (ὑμεῖς... καὶ ὑμεῖς). The pronoun is repeated to give greater emphasis to the amazing assertion. Shall sit upon (καθίσεσθε ἐπὶ, with accusative); shall be promoted to, taken and placed upon. Twelve thrones. Judas forfeited his position; Matthias and Paul and Barnabas were afterwards added to the apostolic band; so that the number twelve must not be pressed as defining and limiting. Rather it expresses the completeness of the judicial body, regarding not so much the persons as the position of its members. With reference to papal claims, it may be observed that Peter has no pre-eminence here, no throne to himself; he merely shares with his colleagues in the session. The apostles and those who have been proved to be of like mind with them (for the number is not limited) shall be assessors with Christ, as in an earthly court, where the judge or the prince sits in the centre, and on either side of him are posted his councillors and ministers. Judging. So in Daniel we hear of thrones being placed, and judgment given to the saints (Daniel 7:9, 22); "Know ye not," says St. Paul (1 Corinthians 6:2, 3), "that the saints shall judge the world... that we shall judge angels?" (comp. Revelation 20:4). Of course, the great Judge is Christ himself. What part his assessors shall take is not revealed. The verb "judge" sometimes signifies "govern or direct," and perhaps may be here used to denote that the saints shall, in the new Messianic kingdom, be Christ's vicegerents and exercise his authority. The twelve tribes of Israel. There is considerable difficulty in interpreting this portion of the promise. If it means that the beatified apostles shall judge the actual descendants of Abraham, then we must believe that the distinction between Jew and Gentile will be maintained in this regeneration - an opinion which seems to be opposed to other texts of Scripture (see 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28, etc.). The judging in this case would be condemnation of them for not receiving the gospel. One does not see how this can be held forth as a great and happy reward, however high a position it may imply. More probably Israel means the spiritual Israel, or the whole body of the Church; and the number twelve (as above) imports the complete number of those who are to be judged. They who have followed Christ devotedly and sincerely, as his disciples, shall be placed next to him in his glory, shall have pre-eminence over all others, and be associated with him in assigning their due portion to all believers, or in governing the Church. Nothing is here said about the final judgment of unbelievers and heathen. Have followed

"Peter had said together the words we have left, we have followed. Jesus replies to them separately; for the latter was peculiar to the apostles, the former common to them with others" (Bengel).

In the regeneration

The final restitution of all things. To be construed with ye shall sit.

Shall sit (καθίσῃ)

Or shall have taken his seat, which brings out more vividly the solemn inauguration of Christ's judgment.

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