1 Chronicles 11:11
And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time.
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(11) And this is the number of the mighty men.—The heading of the catalogue in Samuel is merely, “These are the names of the warriors whom David had.” The chronicler resumes, after the parenthetic explanation of the last verse, with “These, the number of the warriors.” The word “number” (mispar) seems to refer to the fact that the corps was originally known as the Thirty (comp. 1Chronicles 11:12). In 1Chronicles 12:23, the plural (misperê) is used.

Jashobeam, an Hachmonite.—Literally, Jasho-beam, son of a Hakmonite; but ben may be spurious, as in 1Chronicles 9:7, and Nehemiah 11:10. The Hebrew of 2Samuel 23:8 has yoshebbashshebeth Tahkemoni, which has been supposed to be a corruption of Ishbosheth ha-hahmoni (“Ishbosheth the Hachmonite”). If this guess be right, the Jashobeam of our text may be a disguise of Eshbaal. This seems to be borne out by the readings of the Vatican LXX. here and at 1Chronicles 27:2 : Ἰεσεβαὅά and Ἰσβοάς. The Alex. MS., however, reads Ἰσβαάμ and Ἰσβοάμ, that is, Jashobeam.

The chief of the captains.—The Hebrew text has “head of the Thirty,” and so the LXX. and Syriac. “Captains” (“knights,” or “members of the royal staff.”) is the reading of Samuel and the Hebrew margin here. The corps of the Thirty may also have been called the Knights; but the two Hebrew words might easily be confused (shelâshîm, shalîshîm). It is possible that the original reading was “head of the Three” (shelôshah), as 1Chronicles 11:11-14 describe an exploit of three champions.

He lifted up his spear.—Literally, he it was who brandished his lance over three hundred slain in a single encounter. Samuel says eight hundred, but. the text there is otherwise very faulty. Yet as 1Chronicles 11:20 records that the lesser hero, Abishai, slew three hundred, the greater number may be correct here. (Comp. the like exploit of Shamgar (Judges 3:31), and the feats ascribed to Rameses II. and to the heroes of the Iliad.) A well-armed champion might cut down whole companies of ordinary fighting-men.

1 Chronicles 11:11. Jashobeam a Hachmonite — Called the Tachmonite, and Adino the Eznite, 2 Samuel 23:8. He lifted up his spear against three hundred slain, &c. — By his own hand, five hundred more being slain by others then joining with him, who pursued the victory, both which sums make up the eight hundred, numbered 2 Samuel 23:8. The slaughter of all is justly ascribed to him, because it was the effect of his valour.

11:10-47 An account is given of David's worthies, the great men who served him. Yet David reckoned his success, not as from the mighty men that were with him, but from the mighty God, whose presence is all in all. In strengthening him, they strengthened themselves and their own interest, for his advancement was theirs. We shall gain by what we do in our places for the support of the kingdom of the Son of David; and those that are faithful to Him, shall find their names registered much more to their honour, than these are in the records of fame.Chief of the captains - Or, "of the thirty," according to another and better reading (see 1 Chronicles 11:15, 1 Chronicles 11:25; compare 2 Samuel 23:8 note). Jashobeam was the commander of the first monthly course of 24,090 soldiers 1 Chronicles 27:2. He is probably the warrior of the name who joined David at Ziklag 1 Chronicles 12:6. 11-13. Jashobeam, an Hachmonite—or, "son of Hachmoni." He is called also son of Zabdiel (1Ch 27:2), so that, strictly speaking, he was the grandson of Hachmoni (compare 1Ch 27:32).

lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time—The feat is said (2Sa 23:8) to have been a slaughter of eight hundred in one day. Some endeavor to reconcile the statements in that passage and in this by supposing that he slew eight hundred on one occasion and three hundred on another; while others conjecture that he attacked a body of eight hundred, and, having slain three hundred of them, the rest fled [Lightfoot].

An Hachmonite; called the Tachmonite, and Adino the Eznite, 2 Samuel 23:8.

Slain by him, to wit, by his own hand, five hundred more being slain by others then joining with him, who pursued the victory that he alone got, and in the pursuit slew five hundred, both which sums make up the eight hundred numbered 2 Samuel 23:8, the slaughter of all which is justly ascribed to him, because it was the effect of his valour. But concerning that and other differences about these persons or things, see my notes on 2Sa 23.

And inquired not of the Lord,.... For though he did inquire in some sense in an external, careless, and hypocritical manner, yet not done seriously, sincerely, and heartily, nor with constancy; it was accounted as if he inquired not at all, 1 Samuel 28:6 the Targum adds another reason of his death, because he killed the priests of Nob; but that is not in the text:

therefore he slew him; or suffered him to be slain:

and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse; translated the kingdom of Israel out of Saul's family, upon his death, into Jesse's, even unto David; for the sake of which observation this short account is given of the last end of Saul.

And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the {b} chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time.

(b) Meaning, the most excellent and best esteemed for his valiantry: some read, the chief of the princes.

11. this is the number] More suitably in Samuel, “These be the names.”

Jashobeam] Called “Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel” in 1 Chronicles 27:2. The name “Jashobeam” is however uncertain. In 2 Sam. (1 Chronicles 23:8, R.V.) it appears as “Josheb-basshebeth,” which is certainly wrong. LXX. (B) varies in reproducing the name, but it seems to have read “Ish-bosheth” in Samuel, and “Ish-baal” (Esh-baal) In both places of Chron. These readings are probably right. For the identity of the names “Ish-bosheth,” “Esh-baal” see 1 Chronicles 8:33, note.

a Hachmonite] R.V. the son of a Hachmonite; cp. 1 Chronicles 27:32. In Samuel (wrongly) “a Tahchemonite.”

chief of the captains] So Heb. (K’rî), but the C’thîb (which the R.V. follows) reads, chief of the thirty. Neither A.V. nor R.V. gives satisfactory sense. In 2 Samuel 23:8 the LXX. gives, chief of the third part [of the army], cp. ib. 2 Samuel 18:2; and this is perhaps right; the Heb. text of Sam. (if not faulty) probably bears the same sense.

he lift up his spear] Lit. “he aroused his spear” (a poetic expression). Lift is an obsolete form of the past tense.

against three hundred] Samuel “against eight hundred”; so Pesh. (good MSS.) of Chron. Some light is thrown on this exploit by 1 Samuel 18:25-27; the two hundred Philistines slain by David and his men were carefully counted and reckoned to the credit of David personally.

slain by him at one time] R.V. and slew them at out time.

Verse 11. - This is the number. The Hebrew has," These are the number." The sentence should probably be, "These are the names" (2 Samuel 23:8). Jashobeam. In the parallel passage, this name is supplied by the words "The Tachmonite ישֵׁב בַּשֶּׁבָת, Authorized Version, "that sat in the seat" (see the previous verse), probably in error for our יָשָׁבְעָם (see Kennicott's 'Dissert.,' 82). His immediate paternal ancestor seems to have been Zabdiel (1 Chronicles 27:2). The only other notices of him are in 1 Chronicles 12:6; 1 Chronicles 27:2, in which latter passage he is mentioned as "over the first course for the first month and in his course were twenty and four thousand." The chief of the captains. The Authorized Version follows the Keri (which is distinguished from the Chethiv by a yod in place of a vau), and translates captains. It seems better (vers. 15, 25; 1 Chronicles 12:1, 18; 1 Chronicles 27:6) to abide by the Chethiv, and translate "the chief of the thirty." He lifted up his spear. Notice the probable error in Samuel, occasioned by some similarity in the Hebrew letters. "The same was Adino the Eznite." The number of Jashobeam's victims is stated at "eight hundred" in the parallel passage (2 Samuel 23:8). (For analogous idioms, see Exodus 7:20; Exodus 20:25; Deuteronomy 27:5; Joshua 8:31; Psalm 41:9; Psalm 74:5; Isaiah 2:4; Ezekiel 26:28.) 1 Chronicles 11:11A register of the heroes who stood by him in the establishment of his kingdom. The greater part of this register is found in 2 Samuel 23:8-39 also, though there are many divergences in the names, which for the most part have found their way into one or other of the texts by errors of transcription. The conclusion (1 Chronicles 11:41-47 of the Chronicle) is not found in 2 Samuel 23, either because the author of the Chronicle followed another and older register than that used by the author of the book of Samuel, or because the latter has not communicated all the names contained in his authority. The former of these is the more probable supposition. In the Chronicle the superscription of the register is enlarged by the insertion in 1 Chronicles 11:10, before the simple superscription in 1 Chronicles 11:11, cf. 2 Samuel 23:8, of a further superscription informing us of the design which the chronicler had in introducing the register at this place. "These are the chiefs of David's heroes who stood by him strongly (עם התחזּק, as Daniel 10:21) in his kingdom, with the whole of Israel to make him king, according to the word of Jahve, over Israel." The collocation הגּבּרים ראשׁי is accounted for by the fact that הגּבּור is a designation of a valiant or heroic man in general, without reference to his position, whether co-ordinate with or subordinate to others. Among David's גּבּרים who helped to establish his kingdom, are not merely those who are mentioned by name in the following register, but also, as we learn from 1 Chronicles 12, the great number of valiant men of all the tribes, who, even during his persecution by Saul, crowded round him, and immediately after Saul's death came to him in Hebron to hail him king. The enumeration in our passage contains only the chiefs, ראשׁים, of those valiant men, i.e., those who held the first rank among them, and who were in great part leaders in the army of David, or became so. להמליכו is not to be confined to the mere appointment to the kingship, but includes also his establishment in it; for there follows an account of the heroic deeds which the men enumerated by name performed in the wars which David waged against his enemies in order to maintain and increase his kingly power. יהוה דּבר יהוה .rewop concerning Israel is the word of the Lord, the import of which is recorded in 1 Chronicles 11:3, that David should feed His people Israel, and be ruler over them. The ipsissima verba are not found in the earlier history of David, but the substance of them has been deduced from 1 Samuel 16:13 and 1 Samuel 15:28; cf. herewith the remarks on 2 Samuel 3:18. The enumeration of these heroes is introduced in 1 Chronicles 11:11 by a short supplementary superscription, "these the number of the heroes." That מספּר should be used instead of the שׁמות of Samuel is surprising, but is explained by the fact that these heroes at first constituted a corps whose designation was derived from their number. They originally amounted to thirty, whence they are still called the thirty, השּׁלשׁים; cf. 1 Chronicles 11:12, and the discussion on 2 Samuel 23:8. In both narratives three classes are distinguished.

Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah hold the first place, and specially bold and heroic deeds performed by them are recorded, 1 Chronicles 11:11-14, and 2 Samuel 23:8-12. For details as to themselves and their deeds, see on the last cited passage. There we have already remarked, that in 1 Chronicles 11:13 of the text of the Chronicle, the three lines which in Samuel come between שׁם נאספוּ בּפּלשׁתּים (2 Samuel 23:9) and פלשׁתּים ויּעספוּ, 1 Chronicles 11:11, have been, through wandering of the copyist's eye, omitted; and with them the name of the third hero, שׁמּה, has also been dropped, so that the heroic deed done by him, 1 Chronicles 11:13, 1 Chronicles 11:14, appears, according to our present text, to have been performed by Eleazar. In place of the words, "And the Philistines had gathered themselves together there to battle, and there was a parcel of ground full of barley," 1 Chronicles 11:13, the text, according to the narrative in 2 Samuel 23:11, must have stood originally thus: "The Philistines had gathered themselves together there to battle, and the men of Israel went up (sc., retreating from the Philistines up the mountain); he, however, stood firm, and smote the Philistines till his hand was wearied, and cleaved unto the sword (i.e., clung crampedly to his sword through fatigue): there wrought Jahve a great deliverance on that day, and the people returned (from their flight) behind him only to spoil. And after him was Shammah the son of Aga the Hararite, and the Philistines had gathered themselves together to battle," etc. In 1 Chronicles 11:14 the plural forms יתיצּבוּ, ויּצּילוּה, ויּכּוּ, are incorrect, and should be changed into singulars, as in 2 Samuel 23:12, since only the deed of the hero Shammah is here spoken of. The plurals were probably introduced into the text after the missing lines had been dropped out by a reader or copyist, who, on account of the דּייד עם היה הוּא (1 Chronicles 11:13), understood the three clauses of 1 Chronicles 11:14 to refer to Eleazar and David. ויּושׁע, on the contrary, is here perfectly appropriate, and is not to be altered to suit the ויּעשׂ of Samuel, 1 Chronicles 11:14, for the καὶ ἐποίησε of the lxx is not of itself a sufficient reason for doing so.

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