These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)X list of the warriors who helped David to win and maintain his kingdom. This catalogue answers to that of 2Samuel 23:8-39, which, however, breaks off with Uriah the Hittite; whereas our text communicates sixteen additional names. This fact proves that the chronicler had either a fuller source, or a different recension of Samuel. The numerous variant spellings are in general mistakes of transcription.
(10) These also are the chief of the mighty men.—Rather, And these were the heads of the warriors (i.e., the chief warriors, other warriors of lower rank being enumerated in 1 Chronicles 12) who showed themselves strong in his support (with him, Daniel 10:21; Psalm 12:4), in the matter of his kingdom, in common with all Israel, in order to make him king (and maintain him as such: comp. their exploits, noticed below). This description of the heroes is not given in Samuel, the connection there being different.
According to the word of the Lord concerning Israel.—Comp. Note on 1Chronicles 11:3. David was made king (1) for his own sake. It was work for which he was best fitted, and a reward of his faithfulness. (2) For Israel’s sake: “So he led them with a faithful and true heart” (Psalm 78:70-72).1 Chronicles 11:10. The chief of the mighty men — Who helped with all their might to settle him in his kingdom. With all Israel — In conjunction with all those loyal Israelites who joined with David. Yet David ascribed his success, not to the hosts he had, but to the Lord of hosts: not to the mighty men that were with him, but to the mighty God, whose presence with us is all in all.2 Samuel 23:8-39.
10. These … are the chief of the mighty men—(See on 2Sa 23:8). They are here described as those who held strongly with him (Margin) to make him king, &c. In these words the sacred historian assigns a reason for introducing the list of their names, immediately after his account of the election of David as king, and the conquest of Jerusalem; namely, that they assisted in making David king. In the original form of the list, and the connection in which it occurs in Samuel, there is no reference to the choice of a king; and even in this passage it is only in the clause introduced into the superscription that such a reference occurs [Keil].Who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom; who helped him with all their might to settle him in his kingdom.
With all Israel; in conjunction with all those loyal Israelites who joined with David; of whom see the next chapter. 1 Samuel 28:6 the Targum adds another reason of his death, because he killed the priests of Nob; but that is not in the text:
therefore he slew him; or suffered him to be slain:
and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse; translated the kingdom of Israel out of Saul's family, upon his death, into Jesse's, even unto David; for the sake of which observation this short account is given of the last end of Saul.These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. These also] R.V. Now these. This verse is the Chronicler’s own heading which he prefixes to the list of heroes taken from Sam., while retaining (in 1 Chronicles 11:11) the original heading given in Sam.
who strengthened themselves with him] Render with R.V. mg., who held strongly with him. Cp. 1 Chronicles 12:23.
and with all Israel] R.V. together with all Israel.
10–41a (= 2 Samuel 23:8-39). David’s Mighty Men and their Deeds
(The names of twelve of these heroes reappear in chap. 27 as the commanders of David’s twelve “courses.”)
This section seems to consist of elements drawn from different sources and brought together (probably by the author of Samuel) in order to give as complete a list as possible of the heroes who at different times in David’s career did good service to Israel.
1 Chronicles 11:11-14 (= 2 Samuel 23:8-12) deal with two (in Sam. three) heroes otherwise unknown.
1 Chronicles 11:15-19 (= 2 Samuel 23:13-17) are independent of the foregoing and narrate an exploit of three unnamed heroes.
1 Chronicles 11:20-25 (= 2 Samuel 23:18-23) seem in turn to be independent of 15–19, and 1 Chronicles 11:21; 1 Chronicles 11:25 in particular seem to be quoted from some lost poem. These verses contain the eulogy of Abishai and Benaiah.
1 Chronicles 11:26-41 a (= 2 Samuel 23:24-39) contain thirty names of heroes whose exploits are not recorded. It is to be noted that Chron., 1 Chronicles 11:41 b–47, adds some sixteen names at the end which are not given in Samuel.
Joab is not included in the formal list because he has been already mentioned (1 Chronicles 11:6).
Lists of names are favourite features in Oriental Histories. Thus ibn Hishâm in his life of Mohammed gives a list of the 83 Moslems who took refuge in Abyssinia from the persecution of the Koreish, of the 75 inhabitants of Medina who swore allegiance to the Prophet before the Hegira, and even of the 314 Moslems who were present at the battle of Bedr.Verses 10-25. - This list of chiefs of David's "mighty men' finds a more appropriate position where it is placed here, than where it is found, after the close of the very dying speech of David, in 2 Samuel 23:8-23. It plainly belongs to the time of the establishment of David's sway over the whole people. The different position of the list here is itself an indication of some force, that the writers of the work of Samuel and of Chronicles availed them- selves independently of the common source, and that the latter did not take through the former. 2 Samuel 5:6-10, and the commentary on this section at that place. - יחיּה, 1 Chronicles 11:8, to make alive, is used here, as in Nehemiah 4:2, of the rebuilding of ruins. The general remark, 1 Chronicles 11:9, "and David increased continually in might," etc., opens the way for the transition to the history of David's reign which follows. As a proof of his increasing greatness, there follows in
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