Matthew Poole's Commentary
Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh.David made king at Hebron; by Joab’s valour winneth the castle of Zion from the Jebusites; repaireth the city of Jerusalem, 1 Chronicles 11:1-9. A catalogue of his mighty men, 1 Chronicles 11:10-47.
All Israel, i.e. all the tribes of Israel, as it is expressed, 2 Samuel 5:1, i.e. their elders, as it is there said, 2 Samuel 5:3, and officers, and a great multitude of the soldiers and people.
And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel.God said unto thee, or, concerning thee; for it is apparent that they knew of it; and therefore many of them opposed David hitherto against their own consciences.
Therefore came all the elders of Israel to the king to Hebron; and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.No text from Poole on this verse.
And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is Jebus; where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.Of this and the three following verses See Poole "2 Samuel 5:6", &c.
And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come hither. Nevertheless David took the castle of Zion, which is the city of David.No text from Poole on this verse.
And David said, Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah went first up, and was chief.Before this he was one of David’s chief captains, 2 Samuel 3:22,23, and general of the forces of Judah; but now he is made captain-general of all the forces of Israel and Judah.
And David dwelt in the castle; therefore they called it the city of David.No text from Poole on this verse.
And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about: and Joab repaired the rest of the city.No text from Poole on this verse.
So David waxed greater and greater: for the LORD of hosts was with him.No text from Poole on this verse.
These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.Who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom; who helped him with all their might to settle him in his kingdom.
With all Israel; in conjunction with all those loyal Israelites who joined with David; of whom see the next chapter.
And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time.An Hachmonite; called the Tachmonite, and Adino the Eznite, 2 Samuel 23:8.
Slain by him, to wit, by his own hand, five hundred more being slain by others then joining with him, who pursued the victory that he alone got, and in the pursuit slew five hundred, both which sums make up the eight hundred numbered 2 Samuel 23:8, the slaughter of all which is justly ascribed to him, because it was the effect of his valour. But concerning that and other differences about these persons or things, see my notes on 2Sa 23.
And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighties.No text from Poole on this verse.
He was with David at Pasdammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley; and the people fled from before the Philistines.No text from Poole on this verse.
And they set themselves in the midst of that parcel, and delivered it, and slew the Philistines; and the LORD saved them by a great deliverance.No text from Poole on this verse.
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.No text from Poole on this verse.
And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' garrison was then at Bethlehem.No text from Poole on this verse.
And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, that is at the gate!No text from Poole on this verse.
And the three brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: but David would not drink of it, but poured it out to the LORD,No text from Poole on this verse.
And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for with the jeopardy of their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.Heb. these three mighties, to wit, last mentioned, whereof one was Abishai, 1 Chronicles 11:20; for the acts of two of the first three are here passed over, being recorded 2Sa 23.
And Abishai the brother of Joab, he was chief of the three: for lifting up his spear against three hundred, he slew them, and had a name among the three.He slew them; he vanquished them all, and slew a great number of them; though it be not said that he slew them all at one time, as it is said of Jashobeam, above, 1 Chronicles 11:11.
Of the three, he was more honourable than the two; for he was their captain: howbeit he attained not to the first three.He did not equal them in valiant exploits.
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel, who had done many acts; he slew two lionlike men of Moab: also he went down and slew a lion in a pit in a snowy day.No text from Poole on this verse.
And he slew an Egyptian, a man of great stature, five cubits high; and in the Egyptian's hand was a spear like a weaver's beam; and he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.No text from Poole on this verse.
These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among the three mighties.Had a name, i.e. was greatly reputed; for though he did not equal Abishai, one of these three, as appears by 1 Chronicles 11:20,21, yet he did excel the third of them, and all the thirty here following.
Behold, he was honourable among the thirty, but attained not to the first three: and David set him over his guard.Heb. his hearing, or obedience, i.e. those that were always ready to hear and obey or execute his commands, to wit, the guards of his body.
Also the valiant men of the armies were, Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,No text from Poole on this verse.
Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, Abiezer the Antothite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Sibbecai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Maharai the Netophathite, Heled the son of Baanah the Netophathite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Ithai the son of Ribai of Gibeah, that pertained to the children of Benjamin, Benaiah the Pirathonite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hurai of the brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,Of the brooks, or of the valleys, i.e. of one of them; the plural number for the singular; so called because he was born or bred there.
Azmaveth the Baharumite, Eliahba the Shaalbonite,No text from Poole on this verse.
The sons of Hashem the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shage the Hararite,Hashem, or Jashem, to wit,
Jonathan here following, and Shammah here omitted, but expressed 2 Samuel 23:32,33.
Ahiam the son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of Ur,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hepher the Mecherathite, Ahijah the Pelonite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai,No text from Poole on this verse.
Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Haggeri,Joel the brother of Nathan; either,
1. The same who is called Jaal the son of Nathan of Zobah, being possibly his brother by birth and nature, and called his son by adoption, or right of succession to his estate, or called his brother at large for his near kinsman, and his son for his nephew. Or,
2. Another, who, upon the death of the former, was put in his stead.
Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Berothite, the armourbearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah,No text from Poole on this verse.
Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Uriah the Hittite, Zabad the son of Ahlai,Uriah the Hittite; the last of that catalogue in 2 Samuel 23:39. But here some others are added to the number, because though they were not of the thirty, yet they were men of great valour and renown amongst David’s commanders.
Adina the son of Shiza the Reubenite, a captain of the Reubenites, and thirty with him,Thirty captains, who were under him at their colonel
Hanan the son of Maachah, and Joshaphat the Mithnite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Uzzia the Ashterathite, Shama and Jehiel the sons of Hothan the Aroerite,The Aroerite; so called possibly because his station and quarters were upon the river Aroer beyond Jordan, being placed there for the defence of those parts.
Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite,No text from Poole on this verse.
Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai, and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite,So called, either because he was by birth a Moabite, though now proselyted to the true religion, or from some eminent service done by him against the Moabites, as among the Romans Scipio was called Asiatic and African, because of his great achievements and victories over those parts and people.
Eliel, and Obed, and Jasiel the Mesobaite.No text from Poole on this verse.