Matthew Poole's Commentary
Now the Philistines fought against Israel; and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in mount Gilboa.Saul’s overthrow and death, 1 Chronicles 10:1-7. The Philistines triumph over Saul, 1 Chronicles 10:8-10. The kindness of Jabesh-gilead towards Saul and his sons: his sin, 1 Chronicles 10:11-14.
Of this and the following verses till 1 Chronicles 10:13, see my notes on 1Sa 31, where we have the same thing expressed almost in thee same words.
And the Philistines followed hard after Saul, and after his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchishua, the sons of Saul.No text from Poole on this verse.
And the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers hit him, and he was wounded of the archers.No text from Poole on this verse.
Then said Saul to his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.No text from Poole on this verse.
And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on the sword, and died.No text from Poole on this verse.
So Saul died, and his three sons, and all his house died together.All his house, i.e. all his children, to wit, then present with him, namely,
his three sons, as it is expressed, 1 Samuel 31:6. For it is evident that Ish-bosheth and Mephibosheth were not slain. But nothing is more common in Scripture and all authors, than to understand all of a great and most considerable part.
And when all the men of Israel that were in the valley saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, then they forsook their cities, and fled: and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.In the valley; which was beneath Mount Gilboa, where the fight was, 1 Chronicles 10:1.
And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen in mount Gilboa.No text from Poole on this verse.
And when they had stripped him, they took his head, and his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to carry tidings unto their idols, and to the people.No text from Poole on this verse.
And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.And his body severed from his head to the wall of Beth-shan, 1 Samuel 31:10.
And when all Jabeshgilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul,No text from Poole on this verse.
They arose, all the valiant men, and took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.To wit, every day till evening, after the manner of the Jewish fasts.
So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it;Saul died for his transgression: the sense is, Wonder not that Saul fell by the hands of the Philistines, who were armed against him by his own sin and by God’s vengeance for it.
Against the word of the Lord; against God’s express, and plain, and positive command; which is a great aggravation of any sin.
For asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit; which also was contrary to a manifest command, Leviticus 19:31, and moreover, contrary to his own conscience, which was so fully convinced hereof, that he had endeavoured the utter extirpation of all such persons, in pursuance of God’s law. See 1 Samuel 28:9.
To inquire of it, concerning the event of the approaching battle.
And inquired not of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.Inquired not of the Lord.
Object. Saul inquired of the Lord, 1 Samuel 28:6.
Answ. He did so, but not in a right manner, not humbly and penitently, not diligently and importunately, not patiently and perseveringly; but when God would not answer him speedily, he gives it over, and goes from God to the devil. Compare 1 Samuel 14:18,19. Such an inconsiderable and trifling inquiry as Saul made, is justly accounted to be no inquiry at all; as they are said not to eat the Lord’s supper, 1 Corinthians 11:20, who did eat it in a sinful and irregular manner.