Revelation 22:1
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb

New Living Translation
Then the angel showed me a river with the water of life, clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb.

English Standard Version
Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb

New American Standard Bible
Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb,

King James Bible
And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then he showed me the river of living water, sparkling like crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb

International Standard Version
Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal. It was flowing from the throne of God and the lamb.

NET Bible
Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life--water as clear as crystal--pouring out from the throne of God and of the Lamb,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he showed me a river of the water of life, pure and clear as crystal, and it went out from the throne of God and of the Lamb.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The angel showed me a river filled with the water of life, as clear as crystal. It was flowing from the throne of God and the lamb.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

King James 2000 Bible
And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

American King James Version
And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

American Standard Version
And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Darby Bible Translation
And he shewed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, going out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

English Revised Version
And he shewed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,

Webster's Bible Translation
And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Weymouth New Testament
Then he showed me the river of the Water of Life, bright as crystal, issuing from the throne of God and of the Lamb.

World English Bible
He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,

Young's Literal Translation
And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, bright as crystal, going forth out of the throne of God and of the Lamb:
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

22:1-5 All streams of earthly comfort are muddy; but these are clear, and refreshing. They give life, and preserve life, to those who drink of them, and thus they will flow for evermore. These point to the quickening and sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit, as given to sinners through Christ. The Holy Spirit, proceeding from the Father and the Son, applies this salvation to our souls by his new-creating love and power. The trees of life are fed by the pure waters of the river that comes from the throne of God. The presence of God in heaven, is the health and happiness of the saints. This tree was an emblem of Christ, and of all the blessings of his salvation; and the leaves for the healing of the nations, mean that his favour and presence supply all good to the inhabitants of that blessed world. The devil has no power there; he cannot draw the saints from serving God, nor can he disturb them in the service of God. God and the Lamb are here spoken of as one. Service there shall be not only freedom, but honour and dominion. There will be no night; no affliction or dejection, no pause in service or enjoyment: no diversions or pleasures or man's inventing will there be wanted. How different all this from gross and merely human views of heavenly happiness, even those which refer to pleasures of the mind!

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 1. - And he showed me a pure river. Omit "pure." "And" connects this part of the vision with what precedes (Revelation 21:9-27). It would have been better, perhaps, if the twenty-first chapter had included the first five verses of the twenty-second, so as to take in the whole of the description of the heavenly Jerusalem. But there is a break at this point, as is indicated by the repetition of "And he showed me," which points to a new phase or section of the vision. In the previous section (Revelation 21:9-27) the angel had showed St. John the city and its wails with their gates and foundations; in this section he shows him the river of the water of life, and the tree of life. The latter part of each section is occupied with the evangelist's own observations (Revelation 21:22-27; Revelation 22:3-5), for we cannot suppose that the phrase, "these words," in ver. 6, is intended to apply specially to anything in these particular sections. He is the angel mentioned in ver. 9, and again referred to in vers. 10, 15, 16, 17. Most probably the pronoun "he" in ver. 6 does not refer to the same angel as this one. River. The source of this stream, its course or channel, and its fertile banks, are mentioned or implied in what follows; but there is no reference to any estuary or mouth: eternity is the ocean in which this river is lost. Of water of life. Ὕδωρ ζωῆς is perhaps identical in meaning with "living water," ὕδωρ ζῶν, but is properly distinguished from it in translation. The two expressions are peculiar to St. John's writings in the New Testament; the genitival form, which is the more Hebraizing, only occurs in this book in Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, 17; whereas the participial and more classical form is confined to the Gospel (John 4:10; John 7:38). "Living water," in its simplest literalness, means such water as is pure, flowing, clear, fresh, and wholesome; not stagnant, or turbid, or salt. Hence it is a proper term for the water of a beautiful and fertilizing river. Here, however, the genitival form reminds us of the familiar expression, similarly moulded, "the tree of life," which inclines us to think that" water of life" signifies water possessing life giving powers, water which restores, refreshes, supports life, and is therefore to be compared with "living water" taken in its spiritual sense. Of this whosoever drinketh shall never thirst again; when it has been once received within the soul, it becomes a well of water springing up into everlasting life (John 4:14). Clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; clear, or transparent. We seldom use the rendering of the Revised Version, bright, as an epithet of water. As crystal (see note on Revelation 4:6, the only other place in the New Testament where the word occurs). The source of the river was in the Divine throne, the seat of the Triune God and the crucified Saviour. All eternal life is derived from our heavenly Father by the Holy Spirit for the sake of the Redeemer.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And he showed me a pure river of water of life,.... Not baptism, which used to be administered in rivers and pools of water; and which engaged to purity of life; and, the power and authority of administering which was from God and Christ; but in this Jerusalem state there will be no use nor need of ordinances; for Revelation 22:1 belongs to the preceding chapter, and is a continuation of the same account, this being not a new vision, but a part of the former, which the same angel, as in Revelation 21:9 proceeds to show to John: nor is the Holy Ghost intended by this river, whose gifts and graces are sometimes, for their plenty, purity, and quickening virtue, compared to rivers of living water; and who is a pure and holy Spirit, and proceeds from the Father and the Son: nor the doctrine of the Gospel, which comes from the blessed God, and is the Gospel of Christ; and, when purely and faithfully preached, is clear as crystal; and is the means of conveying spiritual life to men, and of supporting it in them: nor the ultimate joys of heaven, which may be called a river of pleasure, for the fulness and variety of delight; pure, and clear as crystal, for the holiness and perfect knowledge of that state; and be said to proceed from the throne of God and the Lamb, being the free gift of God through Christ; but this state is not designed here: rather, therefore, by this river is meant the everlasting love of God, which may be compared to a river for its largeness and abundance, its height and depth, its length and breadth; and for the large displays of it in this state, when its waters will increase, and be a broad river to swim in, and be unpassable; and for the streams of it in election, redemption, calling, justification, pardon, adoption, and eternal life, which make glad the city of God; and for the pleasure it yields, and the fruitfulness it gives to those who drink of it: it may be called a river "of water of life", because in the present state of things it quickens such who are dead in trespasses and sins; revives the saints when dead and lifeless, supports their spirits, and is a cordial that preserves from fainting; it keeps and secures from dying the second death and is the spring and source of eternal life; and that itself will last and flow for ever, it is ever running water, it is everlasting love: and it may be said to be pure and

clear as crystal, it being free from all hypocrisy and dissimulation, being real, hearty, and sincere, both in the Father and in Christ, of which the fullest proofs and demonstrations are given; and being clear of all motives and conditions in the creature, by which it might be influenced; and it engaging to purity and holiness of life and conversation; for the doctrine, which brings the account of it, and the inward principle of grace, which is the fruit of it, and every discovery of it, have a tendency hereunto:

proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; not taking its rise from man's obedience, nor from his love to God, nor from his faith in Christ; for the love of God is prior to all these, and is the spring and cause of them, and therefore cannot be moved and influenced by them; but it has its origin from the sovereignty of God and of Christ, signified by the throne of both, who will be gracious to whom they will be gracious; nor can any reason be given why they love any of the sons of men, but their own sovereign will and pleasure; this is the sole motive, spring, and cause of their love; and God and the Lamb being mentioned together, shows both the equal dignity of their persons, being on the same throne, and the equality of their love to the inhabitants of the new Jerusalem: and thus, as a river adds to the pleasure, use, convenience, and wholesomeness of a city, this glorious city is commended by such a river running by it, or in the midst of it: there may be an allusion to the river which ran out of the garden of Eden, for this will be a paradisiacal state, Genesis 2:9 or rather to the waters in Ezekiel 47:1 which came from under the threshold of the Sanctuary; though this river proceeds not from the temple, there being no temple in this state, but from the throne of God and the Lamb, which is instead of it.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

CHAPTER 22

Re 22:1-21. The River of Life: The Tree of Life: The Other Blessednesses of the Redeemed. John Forbidden to Worship the Angel. Nearness of Christ's Coming to Fix Man's Eternal State. Testimony of Jesus, His Spirit, and the Bride, Any Addition to Which, or Subtraction from Which, Shall Be Eternally Punished. Closing Benediction.

1. pure—A, B, Vulgate, and Hilary 22, omit.

water of life—infinitely superior to the typical waters in the first Paradise (Ge 2:10-14); and even superior to those figurative ones in the millennial Jerusalem (Eze 47:1, 12; Zec 14:8), as the matured fruit is superior to the flower. The millennial waters represent full Gospel grace; these waters of new Jerusalem represent Gospel glory perfected. Their continuous flow from God, the Fountain of life, symbolizes the uninterrupted continuance of life derived by the saints, ever fresh, from Him: life in fulness of joy, as well as perpetual vitality. Like pure crystal, it is free from every taint: compare Re 4:6, "before the throne a sea of glass, like crystal."

clear—Greek, "bright."

Revelation 22:1 Additional Commentaries
Context
The River of Life
1Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb, 2in the middle of its street. On either side of the river was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.…
Cross References
Psalm 36:8
They feast on the abundance of your house; you give them drink from your river of delights.

Psalm 46:4
There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God, the holy place where the Most High dwells.

Ezekiel 47:1
The man brought me back to the entrance to the temple, and I saw water coming out from under the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east). The water was coming down from under the south side of the temple, south of the altar.

Zechariah 14:8
On that day living water will flow out from Jerusalem, half of it east to the Dead Sea and half of it west to the Mediterranean Sea, in summer and in winter.

John 4:10
Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water."

John 4:11
"Sir," the woman said, "you have nothing to draw with and the well is deep. Where can you get this living water?

Revelation 1:1
The revelation from Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

Revelation 4:6
Also in front of the throne there was what looked like a sea of glass, clear as crystal. In the center, around the throne, were four living creatures, and they were covered with eyes, in front and in back.

Revelation 7:17
For the Lamb at the center of the throne will be their shepherd; 'he will lead them to springs of living water.' 'And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.'"

Revelation 21:9
One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb."

Revelation 22:6
The angel said to me, "These words are trustworthy and true. The Lord, the God who inspires the prophets, sent his angel to show his servants the things that must soon take place."

Revelation 22:17
The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" And let the one who hears say, "Come!" Let the one who is thirsty come; and let the one who wishes take the free gift of the water of life.
Treasury of Scripture

And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

A pure.

Psalm 36:8 They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of your house; …

Psalm 46:4 There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of …

Isaiah 41:18 I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the middle of …

Isaiah 48:18 O that you had listened to my commandments! then had your peace been …

Isaiah 66:12 For thus said the LORD, Behold, I will extend peace to her like a …

Ezekiel 47:1-9 Afterward he brought me again to the door of the house; and, behold, …

Zechariah 14:8 And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from …

John 7:38,39 He that believes on me, as the scripture has said, out of his belly …

water.

Revelation 7:17 For the Lamb which is in the middle of the throne shall feed them, …

Revelation 21:6 And he said to me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning …

Psalm 36:9 For with you is the fountain of life: in your light shall we see light.

Jeremiah 2:13 For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the …

Jeremiah 17:13 O LORD, the hope of Israel, all that forsake you shall be ashamed, …

John 4:10,11,14 Jesus answered and said to her, If you knew the gift of God, and …

clear. See on ch.

Revelation 21:11 Having the glory of God: and her light was like to a stone most precious, …

proceeding.

Revelation 3:21 To him that overcomes will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even …

Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightning and thunder and voices: …

Revelation 5:6,13 And I beheld, and, see, in the middle of the throne and of the four …

Revelation 7:10,11,17 And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sits …

John 14:16-18 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, …

John 15:26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send to you from the …

John 16:7-15 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I …

Acts 1:4,5 And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they …

Acts 2:33 Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received …

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