Psalm 23:5
Parallel Verses
New International Version
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.

New Living Translation
You prepare a feast for me in the presence of my enemies. You honor me by anointing my head with oil. My cup overflows with blessings.

English Standard Version
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.

New American Standard Bible
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You have anointed my head with oil; My cup overflows.

King James Bible
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.

International Standard Version
You prepare a table before me, even in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.

NET Bible
You prepare a feast before me in plain sight of my enemies. You refresh my head with oil; my cup is completely full.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
You have prepared tables in front of me opposite my enemies; you have anointed my head with oil and my cup overflows as if it were alive.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
You prepare a banquet for me while my enemies watch. You anoint my head with oil. My cup overflows.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Thou shalt prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup is running over.

King James 2000 Bible
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies: you anoint my head with oil; my cup runs over.

American King James Version
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies: you anoint my head with oil; my cup runs over.

American Standard Version
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: Thou hast anointed my head with oil; My cup runneth over.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thou hast prepared a table before me against them that afflict me. Thou hast anointed my head with oil; and my chalice which inebriateth me, how goodly is it!

Darby Bible Translation
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

English Revised Version
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

Webster's Bible Translation
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of my enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

World English Bible
You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil. My cup runs over.

Young's Literal Translation
Thou arrangest before me a table, Over-against my adversaries, Thou hast anointed with oil my head, My cup is full!
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

23:1-6 Confidence in God's grace and care. - "The Lord is my shepherd." In these words, the believer is taught to express his satisfaction in the care of the great Pastor of the universe, the Redeemer and Preserver of men. With joy he reflects that he has a shepherd, and that shepherd is Jehovah. A flock of sheep, gentle and harmless, feeding in verdant pastures, under the care of a skilful, watchful, and tender shepherd, forms an emblem of believers brought back to the Shepherd of their souls. The greatest abundance is but a dry pasture to a wicked man, who relishes in it only what pleases the senses; but to a godly man, who by faith tastes the goodness of God in all his enjoyments, though he has but little of the world, it is a green pasture. The Lord gives quiet and contentment in the mind, whatever the lot is. Are we blessed with the green pastures of the ordinances, let us not think it enough to pass through them, but let us abide in them. The consolations of the Holy Spirit are the still waters by which the saints are led; the streams which flow from the Fountain of living waters. Those only are led by the still waters of comfort, who walk in the paths of righteousness. The way of duty is the truly pleasant way. The work of righteousness in peace. In these paths we cannot walk, unless. God lead us into them, and lead us on in them. Discontent and distrust proceed from unbelief; an unsteady walk is the consequence: let us then simply trust our Shepherd's care, and hearken to his voice. The valley of the shadow of death may denote the most severe and terrible affliction, or dark dispensation of providence, that the psalmist ever could come under. Between the part of the flock on earth and that which is gone to heaven, death lies like a dark valley that must be passed in going from one to the other. But even in this there are words which lessen the terror. It is but the shadow of death: the shadow of a serpent will not sting, nor the shadow of a sword kill. It is a valley, deep indeed, and dark, and miry; but valleys are often fruitful, and so is death itself fruitful of comforts to God's people. It is a walk through it: they shall not be lost in this valley, but get safe to the mountain on the other side. Death is a king of terrors, but not to the sheep of Christ. When they come to die, God will rebuke the enemy; he will guide them with his rod, and sustain them with his staff. There is enough in the gospel to comfort the saints when dying, and underneath them are the everlasting arms. The Lord's people feast at his table, upon the provisions of his love. Satan and wicked men are not able to destroy their comforts, while they are anointed with the Holy Spirit, and drink of the cup of salvation which is ever full. Past experience teaches believers to trust that the goodness and mercy of God will follow them all the days of their lives, and it is their desire and determination, to seek their happiness in the service of God here, and they hope to enjoy his love for ever in heaven. While here, the Lord can make any situation pleasant, by the anointing of his Spirit and the joys of his salvation. But those that would be satisfied with the blessings of his house, must keep close to the duties of it.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 5. - Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies. Another transition. The danger of death is past. David reverts to the thought of the tranquil, happy, joyous time which God has vouchsafed to grant him. He has "adversaries," indeed, but they are powerless to effect anything against hint They have to look on with ill-concealed annoyance at his prosperity, to see his table amply spread; his condition such as men generally envy; his wealth typified by abundant oil - thou anointest (or, makest fat, marginal rendering) my head with oil - great, his whole life full to overflowing with blessedness. My cup runneth over, he declares - is not only full to the brim, but runs over the brim - an expressive metaphor, indicative of a state of bliss rarely experienced in this life.

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Thou preparest a table before me,.... In a providential way granting a sufficiency, and even an affluence of temporal good things; the providence of God lays and spreads a table for his people in the wilderness, and sets them down at it, and bids them welcome to it; see Psalm 78:19; and in a way of grace, the Lord making large provisions in his house for them, called the goodness and fatness of his house, and a feast of fat things; and under the Gospel dispensation, the table of the Lord, on which are set his flesh and blood for faith to feed upon; see Proverbs 9:2; and also in heaven, the joys of which are compared to a feast, and the enjoyment of them to sitting at a table, and which are prepared by the Lord for his people, from the foundation of the world; and of which they have some foresight and foretaste in this world; see Luke 22:30; and all this

in the presence of my enemies; they seeing and envying the outward prosperity of the saints, whenever they enjoy it, and their liberty of worshipping God, hearing his word, and attending on his ordinances, none making them afraid; as they will see, and envy, and be distressed at a more glorious state of the church yet to come, Revelation 11:12; and even, as it should seem from the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, the glory and happiness of the saints in the other world will be seen, or by some way or other known, by wicked men; which will be an affliction to them, and an aggravation of their misery; though here it seems chiefly to regard the present life. Some have thought there is an allusion to princes, who, having conquered others, eat and feast at a well spread table in the presence of the conquered, and they being under it; see Judges 1:7;

thou anointest my head with oil; giving him an abundance of good things, not only for necessity, but for pleasure and delight; especially pouring out largely upon him the oil of gladness, the Spirit of God and his graces, the anointing which teaches all things, and filling him with spiritual joy and comfort; for this refers not to the anointing of David with material oil for the kingdom, by Samuel, while Saul was living, or by the men of Judah, and afterwards by all the tribes of Israel, when Saul was dead. The allusion is to the custom of the eastern countries, at feasts, to anoint the heads of the guests with oil; see Ecclesiastes 9:7. It was usual to anoint the head, as well as other parts of the body, on certain occasions; hence that of Propertius (y): and in the times before Homer (z) it was usual both to wash and anoint before meals, and not the head only, but the feet also; which, though Pliny (a) represents as luxurious, was in use in Christ's time, Luke 7:38; and spoken of as an ancient custom by Aristophanes (b) his Scholiast for daughters to anoint the feet of their parents after they had washed them; which may serve to illustrate the passage in the Gospel; see Ecclesiastes 9:8;

my cup runneth over; denoting an affluence of temporal good things, and especially of spiritual ones, which was David's case. Such who are blessed with all spiritual blessings in Christ, to whom the grace of the Lord has been exceeding abundant, and the Lord himself is the portion of their cup, their cup may be said to run over indeed.

(y) "Terque lavet nostras spica cilissa comas", l. 4. eleg. 6. v. 74. (z) Iliad. 10. v. 577, 578. Odyss. l. 3. v. 466. & l. 8. v. 454. & l. 10. v. 450. (a) Nat. Hist. l. 13. c. 3.((b) Vespes, p. 473, 516, 517.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

5, 6. Another figure expresses God's provided care.

a table—or, "food," anointing

oil—the symbol of gladness, and the overflowing

cup—which represents abundance—are prepared for the child of God, who may feast in spite of his enemies, confident that this favor will ever attend him. This beautiful Psalm most admirably sets before us, in its chief figure, that of a shepherd, the gentle, kind, and sure care extended to God's people, who, as a shepherd, both rules and feeds them. The closing verse shows that the blessings mentioned are spiritual.

Psalm 23:5 Additional Commentaries
Context
The Lord is My Shepherd
4Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me; Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me. 5You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You have anointed my head with oil; My cup overflows. 6Surely goodness and lovingkindness will follow me all the days of my life, And I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever.
Cross References
Luke 7:46
You did not put oil on my head, but she has poured perfume on my feet.

Psalm 16:5
LORD, you alone are my portion and my cup; you make my lot secure.

Psalm 31:19
How abundant are the good things that you have stored up for those who fear you, that you bestow in the sight of all, on those who take refuge in you.

Psalm 73:10
Therefore their people turn to them and drink up waters in abundance.

Psalm 78:19
They spoke against God; they said, "Can God really spread a table in the wilderness?

Psalm 92:10
You have exalted my horn like that of a wild ox; fine oils have been poured on me.

Psalm 104:15
wine that gladdens human hearts, oil to make their faces shine, and bread that sustains their hearts.

Psalm 141:5
Let a righteous man strike me--that is a kindness; let him rebuke me--that is oil on my head. My head will not refuse it, for my prayer will still be against the deeds of evildoers.

Proverbs 27:9
Perfume and incense bring joy to the heart, and the pleasantness of a friend springs from their heartfelt advice.

Ecclesiastes 9:8
Always be clothed in white, and always anoint your head with oil.

Isaiah 61:3
and provide for those who grieve in Zion-- to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of joy instead of mourning, and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair. They will be called oaks of righteousness, a planting of the LORD for the display of his splendor.
Treasury of Scripture

You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies: you anoint my head with oil; my cup runs over.

preparest

Psalm 22:26,29 The meek shall eat and be satisfied: they shall praise the LORD that …

Psalm 31:19,20 Oh how great is your goodness, which you have laid up for them that fear you…

Psalm 104:15 And wine that makes glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face …

Job 36:16 Even so would he have removed you out of the strait into a broad …

Isaiah 25:6 And in this mountain shall the LORD of hosts make to all people a …

John 6:53-56 Then Jesus said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, Except you eat …

John 10:9,10 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and …

John 16:22 And you now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again, and …

thou anointest [heb.] makest fat

Psalm 45:7 You love righteousness, and hate wickedness: therefore God, your …

Psalm 92:10 But my horn shall you exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall …

Amos 6:6 That drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments: …

Matthew 6:17 But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face;

2 Corinthians 1:21 Now he which establishes us with you in Christ, and has anointed us, is God;

1 John 2:20,27 But you have an unction from the Holy One, and you know all things…

my cup

Psalm 16:5 The LORD is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup: you maintain my lot.

Psalm 116:13 I will take the cup of salvation, and call on the name of the LORD.

1 Corinthians 10:16 The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the …

Ephesians 3:20 Now to him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that …

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