Deuteronomy 21:10
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
When you go to war against your enemies and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands and you take captives,

New Living Translation
"Suppose you go out to war against your enemies and the LORD your God hands them over to you, and you take some of them as captives.

English Standard Version
“When you go out to war against your enemies, and the LORD your God gives them into your hand and you take them captive,

New American Standard Bible
"When you go out to battle against your enemies, and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands and you take them away captive,

King James Bible
When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God hath delivered them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When you go to war against your enemies and the LORD your God hands them over to you and you take some of them prisoner, and

International Standard Version
"If you go to battle against your enemies, and the LORD your God delivers them into your control, you may take some prisoners captive.

NET Bible
When you go out to do battle with your enemies and the LORD your God allows you to prevail and you take prisoners,

New Heart English Bible
When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands, and you carry them away captive,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
When you go to war with your enemies and the LORD your God hands them over to you, you may take them captive.

JPS Tanakh 1917
When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive,

New American Standard 1977
“When you go out to battle against your enemies, and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands, and you take them away captive,

Jubilee Bible 2000
When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God has delivered them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive,

King James 2000 Bible
When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the LORD your God has delivered them into your hands, and you have taken them captive,

American King James Version
When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the LORD your God has delivered them into your hands, and you have taken them captive,

American Standard Version
When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and Jehovah thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive,

Douay-Rheims Bible
If thou go out to fight against thy enemies, and the Lord thy God deliver them into thy hand, and thou lead them away captives,

Darby Bible Translation
When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and Jehovah thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou hast taken captives of them,

English Revised Version
When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thine hands, and thou carriest them away captive,

Webster's Bible Translation
When thou goest forth to war against thy enemies, and the LORD thy God hath delivered them into thy hands, and thou hast taken them captive,

World English Bible
When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and Yahweh your God delivers them into your hands, and you carry them away captive,

Young's Literal Translation
'When thou goest out to battle against thine enemies, and Jehovah thy God hath given them into thy hand, and thou hast taken captive its captivity,
Study Bible
Marrying a Captive Woman
9"So you shall remove the guilt of innocent blood from your midst, when you do what is right in the eyes of the LORD. 10"When you go out to battle against your enemies, and the LORD your God delivers them into your hands and you take them away captive, 11and see among the captives a beautiful woman, and have a desire for her and would take her as a wife for yourself,…
Cross References
Deuteronomy 21:11
and see among the captives a beautiful woman, and have a desire for her and would take her as a wife for yourself,

Joshua 21:44
And the LORD gave them rest on every side, according to all that He had sworn to their fathers, and no one of all their enemies stood before them; the LORD gave all their enemies into their hand.
Treasury of Scripture

When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the LORD your God has delivered them into your hands, and you have taken them captive,

thou goest

Deuteronomy 20:10-16 When you come near to a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace to it…

Deuteronomy 21:10-14. MARRIAGE OF CAPTIVE WOMEN.

(10, 11) When thou . . . seest among the captives a beautiful woman.--This could not be among the seven nations, of whom it is said (Deuteronomy 20:1-6), "thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth." But it may well apply to the recent case of the Midianitish maidens (Numbers 31:15-18), who had been taken captive in great numbers, and would naturally be reduced to slavery. It is clear from this passage that they could not be treated as concubines.

(12) Shall shave her head, and pare her nails.--Rashi's view is that the object of this order is to spoil the beauty of the captive. The long hair is to be cut off, and the nails pared. On this last point the Targums differ; one taking the view that they are to be left to grow and the other the opposite interpretation. In 2Samuel 19:24, there are two examples of the use of the word in the sense of attending to the person. The correct interpretation in this place depends upon the purpose for which the thing was to be done. If the intention was any kind of purification, and long or taper nails were considered an ornament (as by some Eastern nations), it is more probable that the nails were to be cut short.

(13) The raiment of her captivity.--Rashi takes this to mean the beautiful raiment put on for the purpose of attracting her captors. (Compare Jezebel's attempt to captivate Jehu, 2Kings 9:30.) Whatever may be the precise intent of these several instructions, it is clear that the law is intended to encourage lawful marriage, and no other form of union. In this view it throws an important light upon the treatment of the Midianitish captives in Numbers 31

(14) Thou shalt not make merchandise of her.--This shows that, in ordinary cases, these captives would be sold as slaves, without the restrictions imposed on Israelitish slavery. (See Leviticus 25:44-46.)

Verses 10-14. - If an Israelite saw among captives taken in war a woman, fair of aspect, and loved her, and took her to be his wife, he was to allow her a full month to mourn her lost kindred, and become accustomed to her new condition, before he consummated his union with her. This refers to captives from other nations than those of Canaan, with whom the Israelites were to form no alliance, and whom they were not to take captive, but either wholly destroy or render tributary (cf. Deuteronomy 7:3; Numbers 21:1, etc.; Joshua 11:19). When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies,.... This refers to an arbitrary war, as Jarchi remarks, which they entered into of themselves, of choice, or through being provoked to it by their enemies; and not a war commanded by the Lord, as that against the seven nations of Canaan, and against Amalek; since there were to be no captives in that war, but all were to be destroyed:

and the Lord thy God hath delivered them into thine hands; given them the victory over their enemies, so that they were obliged to surrender themselves to them prisoners of war:

and thou hast taken them captive, or "led his or their captivity (b) captive"; led them captive who used to lead others, denoting their conquest of victorious nations; see a like phrase in Psalm 68:18.

(b) "et captivam duxerit captivitatem ejus", Pagninus, Montanus, Vatablus. De 21:10-23. The Treatment of a Captive Taken to Wife.

10-14. When thou goest to war … and seest among the captives a beautiful woman … that thou wouldest have her to thy wife—According to the war customs of all ancient nations, a female captive became the slave of the victor, who had the sole and unchallengeable control of right to her person. Moses improved this existing usage by special regulations on the subject. He enacted that, in the event that her master was captivated by her beauty and contemplated a marriage with her, a month should be allowed to elapse, during which her perturbed feelings might be calmed, her mind reconciled to her altered condition, and she might bewail the loss of her parents, now to her the same as dead. A month was the usual period of mourning with the Jews, and the circumstances mentioned here were the signs of grief—the shaving of the head, the allowing the nails to grow uncut, the putting off her gorgeous dress in which ladies, on the eve of being captured, arrayed themselves to be the more attractive to their captors. The delay was full of humanity and kindness to the female slave, as well as a prudential measure to try the strength of her master's affections. If his love should afterwards cool and he become indifferent to her person, he was not to lord it over her, neither to sell her in the slave market, nor retain her in a subordinate condition in his house; but she was to be free to go where her inclinations led her.21:10-14 By this law a soldier was allowed to marry his captive, if he pleased. This might take place upon some occasions; but the law does not show any approval of it. It also intimates how binding the laws of justice and honour are in marriage; which is a sacred engagement.
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Deuteronomy 21:9
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