Romans 1:29
Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
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(29, 30) Whisperers, backbiters.—In the Greek the idea of secresy is contained chiefly in the first of these words. “Secret backbiters and slanderers of every kind.”

1:26-32 In the horrid depravity of the heathen, the truth of our Lord's words was shown: Light was come into the world, but men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil; for he that doeth evil hateth the light. The truth was not to their taste. And we all know how soon a man will contrive, against the strongest evidence, to reason himself out of the belief of what he dislikes. But a man cannot be brought to greater slavery than to be given up to his own lusts. As the Gentiles did not like to keep God in their knowledge, they committed crimes wholly against reason and their own welfare. The nature of man, whether pagan or Christian, is still the same; and the charges of the apostle apply more or less to the state and character of men at all times, till they are brought to full submission to the faith of Christ, and renewed by Divine power. There never yet was a man, who had not reason to lament his strong corruptions, and his secret dislike to the will of God. Therefore this chapter is a call to self-examination, the end of which should be, a deep conviction of sin, and of the necessity of deliverance from a state of condemnation.Being filled - That is, the things which he specifies were common or abounded among them. This is a strong phrase, denoting that these things were so often practiced as that it might be said they were full of them. We have a phrase like this still, when we say of one that he is full of mischief, etc.

Unrighteousness - ἀδικία adikia. This is a word denoting injustice, or iniquity in general. The particular specifications of the iniquity follow.

Fornication - This was a common and almost universal sin among the ancients, as it is among the moderns. The word denotes all illicit sexual intercourse. That this was a common crime among the ancient pagan, it would be easy to show, were it proper, even in relation to their wisest and most learned men. They who wish to see ample evidence of this charge may find it in Tholuck's "Nature and Moral Influence of Heathenism," in the Biblical Repository, vol. ii. p. 441-464.

Wickedness - The word used here denotes a desire of injuring others; or, as we should express it, malice. It is that depravity and obliquity of mind which strives to produce injury on others. (Calvin.)

Covetousness - Avarice, or the desire of obtaining what belongs to others. This vice is common in the world; but it would be particularly so where the other vices enumerated here abounded, and people were desirous of luxury, and the gratification of their senses. Rome was particularly desirous of the wealth of other nations, and hence, its extended wars, and the various evils of rapine and conquest.

Licentiousness - κακία kakia. This word denotes evil in general; rather the act of doing wrong than the desire which was expressed before by the word "wickedness."

Full of envy - "Pain, uneasiness, mortification, or discontent, excited by another's prosperity, accompanied with some degree of hatred or malignity, and often with a desire or an effort to depreciate the person, and with pleasure in seeing him depressed" (Webster). This passion is so common still, that it is not necessary to attempt to prove that it was common among the ancients. It seems to be natural to the human heart. It is one of the most common manifestations of wickedness, and shows clearly the deep depravity of man. Benevolence rejoices at the happiness of others, and seeks to promote it. But envy exists almost everywhere, and in almost every human bosom:

"All human virtue, to its latest breath,

Finds envy never conquered but by death."


Murder - "The taking of human life with premeditated malice by a person of a sane mind." This is necessary to constitute murder now, but the word used here denotes all manslaughter, or taking human life, except what occurs as the punishment of crime. It is scarcely necessary to show that this was common among the Gentiles. It has prevailed in all communities, but it was particularly prevalent in Rome. It is necessary only to refer the reader to the common events in the Roman history of assassinations, deaths by poison, and the destruction of slaves. But in a special manner the charge was properly alleged against them, on account of the inhuman contests of the gladiators in the amphitheaters. These were common at Rome, and constituted a favorite amusement with the people. Originally captives, slaves, and criminals were trained up for combat; but it afterward became common for even Roman citizens to engage in these bloody combats, and Nero at one show exhibited no less than four hundred senators and six hundred knights as gladiators.

The fondness for this bloody spectacle continued until the reign of Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, by whom they were abolished about six hundred years after the original institution. "Several hundred, perhaps several thousand, victims were annually slaughtered in the great cities of the empire." Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chapter xxx. 404 a.d. As an instance of what might occur in this inhuman spectacle, we may refer to what took place on such an occasion in the reign of Probus (281 a.d.). During his triumph, near 700 gladiators were reserved to shed each other's blood for the amusement of the Roman people. But "disdaining to shed their blood for the amusement of the populace, they killed their keepers, broke from their place of confinement, and filled the streets of Rome with blood and confusion." Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chapter 12. With such views and with such spectacles before them, it is not wonderful that murder was regarded as a matter of little consequence, and hence, this crime prevailed throughout the world.

Debate - Our word debate does not commonly imply evil. It denotes commonly discussion for elucidating truth; or for maintaining a proposition, as the debates in Parliament, etc. But the word in the original meant also contention, strife, altercation, connected with anger and heated zeal; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 1:11; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20; Galatians 5:20; Philippians 1:15; 1 Timothy 6:4; Titus 3:9. This contention and strife would, of course, follow from malice and covetousness, etc.

Deceit - This denotes fraud, falsehood, etc. That this was common is also plain. The Cretans are testified by one of the Greek poets to have been always liars. Titus 1:12. Juvenal charges the same thing on the Romans. (Sat. iii. 41.) "What," says he, "should I do at Rome? I cannot lie." Intimating that if he were there, it would follow, of course, that he would be expected to be false. The same thing is still true. Writers on India tell us that the word of a Hindu even under oath is not to be regarded; and the same thing occurs in most pagan countries.


28-31. gave them over—or "up" (see on [2182]Ro 1:24).

to do those things which are not convenient—in the old sense of that word, that is, "not becoming," "indecorous," "shameful."

Now follow the sins against the second table, which reigned amongst the Gentiles; amongst which

unrighteousness is as the fountain, from whence the rest as streams do flow. This is the genus that comprehends all the evils hereafter enumerated. It is not to be supposed that all the following vices were found in every individual person; but the meaning is, that all were guilty of some, and some were guilty of all of them.

Fornication, wickedness; in the Greek there is all elegant paronomasia, porneia, ponhria. So there are two more in the following verses, fyonou, fonou, asunetoi, asunyetoi. The design of the apostle is, to set down a particular vice; therefore, instead of wickedness, some read troublesomeness, or a desire to procure trouble and molestation to another. The devil is called oo ponhrov, the troublesome one.

Maliciousness; or, mischievousness, the better to distinguish it from envy.

Malignity; or, morosity and churlishness, taking all things in the worser part.

Whisperers: whisperers speak evil privily of others; backbiters, openly.

Being filled with all unrighteousness,.... From hence, to the end of the chapter, follows a large and black list and catalogue of the sad characters of the Gentiles, and of the best men they had among them; for the apostle is all along speaking, not of the common people, but of their wise professors, and moral instructors; than which there never was a more wicked set of men that ever lived upon the face of the earth; who under the guise of morality were guilty of the greatest pride and covetousness, and of the most filthy debaucheries imaginable: they were "filled with all unrighteousness". This word includes in it all manner of sin and wickedness in general; fitly expresses the condition of fallen men, destitute of a righteousness; designs every violation of the law respecting our neighbour; and is opposed to that vain conceit of righteousness which these men had: particular branches of it follow; as,

fornication; which sometimes includes adultery and an unchastity; simple fornication was not reckoned a sin among the Gentiles:

wickedness; or mischief, which intends not so much the internal wickedness of the heart, as that particular vice, by which a man is inclined and studies to do hurt, to others, as Satan does:

covetousness; this may intend every insatiable lust, and particularly the sin which goes by this name, and is the root of all evil, and was a reigning sin among the Gentiles. Seneca, the famous moralist, was notoriously guilty of this vice, being one of the greatest usurers that ever lived:

maliciousness; the word denotes either the iniquity of nature in which men are conceived and born; or that desire of revenge in men, for which some are very notorious:

envy; at the superior knowledge and learning, wealth and riches, happiness, and outward prosperity of others:

murder: which sometimes arose from envy, wherefore they are put together. There is an elegant "paranomasia" in the Greek text:

debate; strife about words more than things, and more for vain glory, and a desire of victory, than for truth:

deceit; through their empty notions of philosophy; hence "philosophy and vain deceit" go together, Colossians 2:8; making large pretences to morality, when they were the vilest of creatures:

malignity; moroseness; having no courteousness nor affability in them, guilty of very ill manners; as particularly they were who were of the sect of the Cynics. Now they are said to be "filled with", and "full of", these things; not filled by God, but by Satan and themselves; and it denotes the aboundings of wickedness in them, and which was insatiable. The apostle goes on to describe them, as

whisperers; who made mischief among friends, by privately suggesting, and secretly insinuating things into the mind of one to the prejudice of another.

Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
Romans 1:29-31. Πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ] a more precise definition of ποιεῖν τὰ μὴ καθήκ.: as those who are full of every unrighteousness (Romans 1:18). This is the general statement, and all the points subsequently introduced are its several species, so that μεστοὺς φθόνου and then ψιθυριστὰς κ.τ.λ[536] are appositions to πεπληρ. π. ἀδικ. Similar catalogues of sins are 2 Corinthians 12:20; Galatians 5:19 ff.; Ephesians 5:3 f.; 1 Timothy 1:9 f.; 2 Timothy 3:2 ff.

πονηρίᾳ.… κακίᾳ] malignity (malice), comp Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; Titus 3:3.… vileness (meanness), the latter, in Aristotle and other writers, opposed to ἁρετή, and translated in Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, 34, by vitiositas. Comp 1 Corinthians 5:8.

φόνου] Conceived here as the thought which has filled the man, the μερμηρίζειν φόνον, Homer, Od. xix. 2, comp Acts 9:1. On the paronomasia with φθόνου comp Galatians 5:21. The latter is just the σημεῖον φύσεως παντάπασι πονηρᾶς, Dem. 499, 21.

κακοηθείας] malicious disposition, whose peculiarity it is ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον ὑπολαμβάνειν τὰ πάντα (Aristotle, Rhet. ii. 13). As the context requires a special vice, we may not adopt, with Erasmus, Calvin, and Homberg, the general signification perversitas, corruptio morum (Xen. Cyn. xiii. 16; Dem. 542, 11; Plat. Rep. p. 348 D). See regarding the word generally Homberg, Parerg. p. 196; Kypke, II. p. 155 f.

ψιθυρ.] whisperers, talebearers, consequently secret slanderers (Dem. 1358, 6); but κατάλαλοι, calumniators, detractors generally, not precisely open ones (Theophylact, Köllner, de Wette and others). Comp ψιθυρισμούς τε καὶ καταλαλιάς, Clem. Cor. i. 35. The construction of καταλάλους as an adjective with ψιθυρ. (Hofmann), must be rejected, because none of the other elements has an adjectival definition annexed to it, and because καταλάλ. would not add to the notion of ψιθυρ. anything characteristic in the way of more precise definition. ψιθυρ. would be better fitted to form a limiting definition of καταλ. But in 2 Corinthians 12:20 also, both ideas stand independently side by side.

θεοστυγεῖς] hated by God, Deo odibiles (Vulgate). This passive rendering of the word which belongs especially to the tragedians (Pollux, i. 21), so that it is equivalent to Θεῷ ἐχθαιρόμενος (comp Soph. Aj. 458), is clearly attested by the usus loquendi as the only correct one. See Eurip. Troad. 1213, Cycl. 395, 598, Neophr. ap. Stob. serm. 20, p. 172. Comp θεοστύγητος in Aesch. Choeph. 635, Fritzsche in loc[544], and Wetstein. Since no passage whatever supports the active signification, and since even Suidas and Oecumenius clearly betray that they knew the active meaning adopted by them to be a deviation from the usage of the ancient writers,[545] we must reject, with Koppe, Rückert, Fritzsche, de Wette, Philippi, Baumgarten-Crusius, and Hofmann, the interpretation, Dei osores, that has been preferred by the majority since the time of Theodoret.[546] Even the analogous forms that have been appealed to, θεομισής, βροτοστυγής (Aesch. Choeph. 51, Prom. 799), are to be taken as passives, and therefore testify against the active interpretation.[547] Comp θεοβλαβής, stricken of God, Herod. viii. 137, al[549] In particular, θεομισής is quite the same as θεοστυγής, the opposite of θεοφιλής, beloved of God. (See Plat. Rep. p. 612 E, Euth. p. 8 A; Dem. 1486, ult.; Arist. Ran. 443.) Comp θεῷ μισητοί, Wis 14:9; and, as regards the idea, the Homeric ὅς κε θεοῖσιν ἀπέχθηται μακάρεσσιν, Od. κ. 74. The accentuation θεοστύγης, approved of even by Grotius and Beza, to distinguish it from the passive θεοστυγης, is nothing but an ancient (Suidas) unsupported fiction. See Buttmann, II. p. 371, Winer, p. 53 [E. T. 61]. God-hating is expressed by μισόθεος, Lucian, Tim. 35, Aesch. Ag. 1090; comp φιλόθεος, God-loving. The adoption, nevertheless, of the active sense was occasioned by the consideration: “ut in passivo positum dicatur, nulla est ratio, quum P. hic homines ex vitiis evidentibus reos faciat,” Calvin; but even granting a certain unsuitableness in the passive sense, still we should not be justified in giving an explanation contrary to the usus loquendi; we should be obliged to abide by the view that Paul had mixed up a less suitable term among the others. But this objection is diminished, if we take θεοστ., in accordance with the idea of divine holiness, as a characteristic designation of infamous evil-doers in general. So Fritzsche, and also Philippi. Comp Plat. Legg. viii. p. 838 B: θεομισῆ.… καὶ αἰσχρῶν αἴσχιστα. And it vanishes altogether, if, leaving the word in its strict signification, hated of God, we recognise in it a summary judgment of moral indignation respecting all the preceding particulars; so that, looking back on these, it forms a resting point in the disgraceful catalogue, the continuation of which is then carried on by ὑβριστὰς κ.τ.λ[553] According to Hofmann, ΘΕΟΣΤΥΓ. is an adjective qualifying ὑβριστάς. But we do not see why precisely this single point[554] in the entire catalogue, insolence (the notion of which is not to be arbitrarily heightened, so as to make it denote “the man-despiser who treads upon his fellows”), among so many particulars, some of them even worse, should be accompanied by an epithet, and one, too, of so extreme severity.

The continuation begins with a threefold description of self-exaltation, and that in a descending climax. Regarding the distinction between ὑβρισταί, the insolent (qui prae superbia non solum contemnunt alios, sed etiam contumeliose tractant, comp 1 Timothy 1:13), ὑπερήφανοι, the proud (who, proud of real or imaginary advantages, despise others), and ἀλαζόνες (boasters, swaggerers, without exactly intending to despise or insult others with their vainglory), see Tittmann, Synon. N. T. p. 73 f. Comp Grotius and Wetstein; on ἀλαζ. especially Ruhnk. a[557] Tim. p. 28, Ast, a[558] Theophr. Char. 23. If ὑπερηφ. be taken as adjective with the latter (Hofmann), then the vice, which is invariably and intrinsically immoral,[559] would be limited merely to a particular mode of it.

ἐφευρ. κακῶν] devisers (Anacr. xli. 3) of evil things, quite general; not to be limited to things of luxury, with Grotius; nor, with Hofmann, to evils which they desire to do to others. Comp 2Ma 7:31, and the passages from Philo in Loesner; also Tacit. Ann. iv. 11, and Virg. Aen. ii. 161.

ἀσυνέτους] irrational, unreflecting, who, in what they do and leave undone, are not determined by the σύνεσις, by morally intelligent insight. Luther rightly says: “Mr. Unreason going rashly to work [Hans Unvernunft, mit dem Kopfe hindurch].” So also Sir 15:7. The rendering devoid of conscience (according to Suidas) deviates from the proper signification of the word.

ἀσυνθέτους] makes a paronomasia with the foregoing, and means, not unsociable (Castalio, Tittmann, Ewald, comp Hofmann), for which there is no warrant of usage, but covenant-breakers (Jeremiah 3:8; Jeremiah 3:10 f.; Suidas, Hesychius; see also Dem. 383, 6). On ἀστόργ. (without the natural affection of love) and ἈΝΕΛΕΉΜ. (unmerciful), see Tittmann, Synon. p. 69.

The succession of the accumulated particulars is not arranged according to a systematic scheme, and the construction of such a scheme leads to arbitrary definition of the import of individual points; but still their distribution is so far in accordance with approximate categories, that there are presented:—1st, The general heathen vices, πεπληρωμένους.… κακίᾳ; 2nd, dispositions inimical to others, μεστοὺς.… κακοηθείας, and calumniatory speeches, ψιθυρ., καταλάλ.; both series concluding with the general ΘΕΟΣΤΥΓΕῖς; then, 3rd, The arrogant character, ὑβριστὰς.… ἀλαζόνας; and finally, 4th, A series of negative particulars (all with a privative), but headed by the positive, general ἐφευρ. κακῶν. This negative series portrays the want of dutiful affection in family life (ΓΟΝ. ἈΠΕΙΘ.), of intelligence (ἈΣΥΝΈΤ.), fidelity (ἈΣΥΝΘ.), and love (ἈΣΤΌΡΓ. ἈΝΕΛ.),—consequently the want of every principle on which moral action is based.

[536] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[544] n loc. refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[545] Suidas says: Θεοστυγεῖς θεομίσητοι, οἱ ὑπὸ Θεοῦ μισούμενοι καὶ οἱ Θεὸν μισοῦντες· παρὰ δὲ τῷ ἀποστόλῳ θεοστυγεῖς οὐχὶ οἱ ὑπὸ Θεοῦ μισοῦμενοι, ἀλλʼ οἱ μισοῦντες τὸν Θεὸν. Oecumenius: Θεοστυγεῖς δὲ οὐ τοὺς ὑπὸ Θεοῦ μισουμένους, οὐ γὰρ αὐτῷ τοῦτο δεῖξαι πρόκειται νῦν, ἀλλὰ τοὺς μισοῦντας Θεὸν. These negative definitions, which both give, manifestly point to the use of the word in other authors, from which Paul here departs. It is doubtful whether Clement, Cor. I. 35, where there is an echo of our passage, had in view the active or the passive sense of θεοστυγεῖς. He uses indeed the evidently active θεοστυγία, but adds at the close of the list of sins: ταῦτα οἱ πράσσοντες στυγητοὶ τῷ Θεῷ ὑπάρχουσιν. Chrysostom does not express his opinion regarding the word.

[546] The Dei osores was taken to refer to the heathen vice of wrath against the gods conceived as possessing human passions. See Grotius and Reiche. Others have understood it variously. Tholuck thinks of accusers of providence, Promethean characters; Ewald, of blasphemers of God; Calvin, of those who have a horror of God on account of His righteousness. Thus there is introduced into the general expression what the context gives no hint of. This applies also to Luther’s gloss: “the real Epicureans, who live as if there were no God.”

[547] Even in Clem. Hom. i. 12, there is nothing whatever in the connection opposed to the passive rendering of θεοστυγεῖς.

[549] l. and others; and other passages; and other editions.

[553] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[554] For neither καταλάλ. nor ὑπερηφ. are to be taken as adjectives. See on those words. Hofmann seems to have adopted such a view, merely in order to gain analogies in the text for his inappropriate treatment of the objectionable θεοστυγεῖς as an adjective.

[557] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[558] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[559] See Xen. Mem. i. 7, 1 ff., where ἀλαζονεία is the antithesis of ἀρετή. It belongs to the category of the ψεύδεσθαι, Aesch. adv. Ctesiph. 99; Plat. Lys. p. 218 D. Compare also 2 Timothy 3:2; Clem. Cor. I. 35.

29. fornication] This word is to be omitted.

maliciousness] Same word as 1 Peter 2:1, (where E. V. “malice,”) 16. The Gr. is a wider word than these English words; evil in its largest sense, but specially, moral evil.

full of envy] Lit. brimful; a word as strong as possible.

malignity] Our “ill-nature” exactly.

Romans 1:29. Πεπληρωμένους) a word of large meaning; μεστοὺς follows presently after.—ἀδικίᾳ, with unrighteousness) This word, the opposite of righteousness, is put in the first place; unmerciful is put in the last [Romans 1:31]. Righteousness has [as its necessary fruit], life; unrighteousness, death, Romans 1:32. The whole enumeration shows a wise arrangement, as follows: nine members of it respecting the affections; two in reference to men’s conversation; three respecting God, a man’s own self, and his neighbour; two regarding a man’s management of affairs; and six respecting relative ties. Comp. as regards the things contrary to these, ch. Romans 12:9, etc.—πορνέιᾳ) I have now, for a long time, acknowledged that this word should be retained.[16] It does not appear certain, that it was not read by Clemens Romanus.—πονηρίᾳκακίᾳ)[17] ΠΟΝΗΡΊΑ is the perverse wickedness of a man, who delights in injuring another, without any advantage to himself: κακία is the vicious disposition, which prevents a man from conferring any good on another.—πλεονεξια denotes avarice, properly so called, as we often find it in the writings of Paul: otherwise [were πλεονεξία not taken in the sense avarice] this sin would be blamed by him rather rarely. But he usually joins it with impurity; for man [in his natural state] seeks his food for enjoyment, outside of God, in the material creature, either in the way of pleasure, or else avarice; he tries to appropriate the good that belongs to another.—κακοηθείας), ΚΑΚΟΉΘΕΙΑ, ΚΑΚΊΑ ΚΕΚΡΥΜΜΈΝΗ. Ammonius explains this as “wickedly inveighing against all that belongs to others; exhibiting himself troublesome to another.”

[16] Although the margin of the larger edition (A. 1734), contains the opinion, that it should be omitted. The 2d ed. corresponds with the Gnomon and the German Version.—E.B. [AC, and apparently B, Memph. Version, omit πορνέιᾳ. But ΛGfg Vulg. insert it.—ED.]

[17] πονηρία Th. ὁ παρέχων πόνους, “one who puts others to trouble,” aptness in mischief. κακία is the evil habit of mind; πονηρία, the outcoming of it: Opp. to χρηστός; as κακός to ἀγαθός. Κακοήθεια, as distinct from these, is not, as Engl. Vers. ‘malignity,’ but taking everything in the evil part; Arist. Rhet. ii. 13; arising from a baseness or evil ἦθος in the man himself.—See Trench’s Gr. Test. Syn.—ED.

Verses 29-31. - Being filled with all unrighteousness, [fornication], wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; whisperers, backbiters, hated of God, despiteful (rather, insolent), proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection [implacable], unmerciful. Here not personal uncleanness only, but general and utter disregard of moral restraints and obligations (too prevalent, doubtless, at that time in civilized heathendom), is pointed out as the final judicial issue. The words used do not seem to be arranged on any exact system, but to have been written down as they occurred to the writer, being intended to be as comprehensive as possible. Among them those put above within brackets rest on weak authority. Πλεονεξία, translated here, as usually elsewhere, "covetousness," means generally "inordinate desire," not necessarily of riches; and St. Paul seems generally to use it with reference to inordinate lust (cf. Ephesians 4:19; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:3; also 1 Thessalonians 4:6 and 2 Peter 2:14; and, for πλεονέκτης, Ephesians 5:5, The word θεοστυγεῖς, both from its formation (compare θεοφιλὴς and φιλόθεος, with other instances), and its ordinary use in classical Greek (it occurs here only in the New Testament) must certainly be taken to mean "God-hated," not "God-haters." It seems suggested here by the previous καταλάλους, being (we may suppose) used commonly of the delatores who are known to have been a special pest of society at that period of Roman history. Alford quotes Tacitus, 'Ann.,' 6:7, where they are called "Principi quidem grati, et Deo exosi;" also Philo, 'Ap Damascen.,' Διάβολοι καὶ θείας ἀποπέμπτοι χάριτος οἱ τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκέινω διαβολικὴν νοσοῦντες κακοτεχνίαν θεοστυγεῖς τε καὶ θεομισεῖς πάντη. In ver. 31 the collocation of ἀσυνέτους and ἀσυνθέτους seems to have been suggested by similarity of sound, there being no apparent link of ideas. The latter word is rightly translated in the Authorized Version, as is also ἀσόνδους; ἀσυνθέτους being one who breaks treaties, "faithless;" ἀσπονδους, one who refuses to enter into a truce or treaty, "implacable." Romans 1:29Filled

The retribution was in full measure. Compare Proverbs 1:31; Revelation 18:6.

Wickedness (πονηρίᾳ)

See on Mark 7:22.

Covetousness (πλεονεξίᾳ)

Lit., the desire of having more. It is to be distinguished from φιλαργυρία, rendered love of money, 1 Timothy 6:10, and its kindred adjective φιλάργυρος, which A.V. renders covetous Luke 16:14; 2 Timothy 3:2; properly changed by Rev. into lovers of money. The distinction is expressed by covetousness and avarice. The one is the desire of getting, the other of keeping. Covetousness has a wider and deeper sense, as designating the sinful desire which goes out after things of time and sense of every form and kind. Hence it is defined by Paul (Colossians 3:5) as idolatry, the worship of another object than God, and is so often associated with fleshly sins, as 1 Corinthians 5:11; Ephesians 5:3, Ephesians 5:5; Colossians 3:5. Lightfoot says: "Impurity and covetousness may be said to divide between them nearly the whole domain of selfishness and vice." Socrates quotes an anonymous author who compares the region of the desires in the wicked to a vessel full of holes, and says that, of all the souls in Hades, these uninitiated or leaky persons are the most miserable, and that they carry water to a vessel which is full of holes in a similarly holey colander. The colander is the soul of the ignorant (Plato, "Gorgias," 493). Compare, also, the description of covetousness and avarice by Chaucer, "Romaunt of the Rose," 183-246.


That eggeth folk in many a guise

To take and yeve (give) right nought again,

And great treasoures up to laine (lay).


And that is she that maketh treachours,

And she maketh false pleadours.



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