Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Haters of God.—Rather, perhaps, hated by God. There seem to be no examples of the active sense. The Apostle apparently throws in one emphatic word summing up the catalogue as far as it has gone; he then resumes with a new class of sins. Hitherto he has spoken chiefly of sins of malice, now he turns to sins of pride.
Despiteful, proud, boasters.—The three words correspond to the distinction between act, thought, and word. The first implies distinctly insolence in outward bearing; it is the word translated “injurious” in 1Timothy 1:13. The second is a strong self-esteem mixed with contempt for others. (See 2Timothy 3:2.) The third is used especially of boastfulness or braggadocio in language.
Haters of God - There is no charge which can be brought against people more severe than this. It is the highest possible crime; yet it is a charge which the conduct of people will abundantly justify, and the truth of which all those experience who are brought to see their true character. To an awakened sinner there is often nothing more plain and painful than that he is a hater of God. His heart rises up against Him, and his Law, and his plan of saving people; and he deeply feels that nothing can subdue this but the mighty power of the Holy One. This is a charge which is not unfrequently brought against people in the Bible; see John 7:7; John 15:18, John 15:24-25; John 3:19-20. Surely, if this be the native character of man, then it is "far gone from original righteousness." No more striking proof of depravity could be given; and in no creed or confession of faith is there a more painful and humiliating representation given of human wickedness, than in this declaration of an inspired apostle, that people are by nature haters of God.
Despiteful - This word denotes those who abuse, or treat with unkindness or disdain, those who are present. Whisperers and backbiters are those who calumniate those who are absent.
Proud - Pride is well understood. It is an inordinate self-esteem; an unreasonable conceit of one's superiority in talents, beauty, wealth, accomplishments, etc. (Webster). Of the existence of this everywhere, there is abundant proof. And it was particularly striking among the ancients. The sect of the Stoics was distinguished for it, and this was the general character of their philosophers. People will be proud where they suppose none are superior; and it is only the religion that reveals a great and infinite God, and that teaches that all blessings are his gift, and that he has given us the station which we occupy, that will produce true humility. We may add, that the system of paganism did not disclose the wickedness of the heart, and that rids was a main reason why they were elevated in self-esteem.
Boasters - Those who arrogate to themselves what they do not possess, and glory on it. This is closely connected with pride. A man who has an inordinate self-conceit, will not be slow to proclaim his own merits to those around him.
Inventors of evil things - This doubtless refers to their seeking to find out new arts or plans to practice evil; new devices to gratify their lusts and passions; new forms of luxury, and vice, etc. So intent were they on practicing evil, so resolved to gratify their passions, that the mind was excited to discover new modes of gratification. In cities of luxury and vice, this has always been done. Vices change their form, people become satiated, and they are obliged to resort to some new form. The passions cease to be gratified with old forms of indulgence, and consequently people are obliged to resort to new devices to pamper their appetites, and to rekindle their dying passions to a flame. This was eminently true of ancient Rome; a place where all the arts of luxury, all the devices of passion, all the designs of splendid gratification, were called forth to excite and pamper the evil passions of people. Their splendid entertainments, their games, their theaters, their sports - cruel and bloody - were little else than new and ever-varying inventions of evil things to gratify the desires of lust and of pride.
Disobedient to parents - This expresses the idea that they did not show to parents that honor, respect, and attention which was due. This has been a crime of paganism in every age; and though among the Romans the duty of honoring parents was enjoined by the laws, yet it is not improbable that the duty was often violated, and that parents were treated with great neglect and even contempt. "Disobedience to parents was punished by the Jewish Law with death, and with the Hindus it is attended with the loss of the child's inheritance. The ancient Greeks considered the neglect of it to be extremely impious, and attended with the most certain effects of divine vengeance. Solon ordered all persons who refused to make due provision for their parents to be punished with infamy, and the same penalty was incurred for personal violence toward them." Kent's Commentaries on American Law, vol. ii. p. 207; compare Virg. AEniad, ix. 283. The feelings of pride and haughtiness would lead to disregard of parents. It might also be felt that to provide for them when aged and infirm was a burden; and hence, there would arise disregard for their wants, and probably open opposition to their wishes, as being the demands of petulance and age. It has been one characteristic of paganism every where, that it leaves children to treat their parents with neglect. Among the Sandwich islanders it was customary, when a parent was old, infirm, and sick beyond the hope of recovery, for his own children to bury him alive; and it has been the common custom in India for children to leave their aged parents to perish on the banks of the Ganges.Haters of God; the original word hath a passive termination, and therefore some read it, hated of God. But words passive are sometimes actively taken: see 2 Peter 1:3. And the apostle here intendeth a catalogue of the Gentiles’ sins, whereof this was one: see Psalm 81:15.
Despiteful; or, injurious.
Inventors of evil things; they were not contented with old usual evils, but they invented new; whether we refer this to evils of pain, or evils of sin, we may find examples thereof amongst the heathen. Phalaris propounded a reward to him that could devise a new torment; and Sardanapalus offered rewards to such as could find out new venereal pleasures.
Disobedient to parents, either natural or political.
haters of God; some read it, "hated of God"; as all workers of iniquity are; but rather this expresses their sin, that they were deniers of the being and providence of God, and showed themselves to be enemies to him by their evil works:
despiteful; both by opprobrious words, and injurious actions:
proud; of their natural knowledge, learning, eloquence and vain philosophy:
boasters: of their parts, abilities, wisdom and works; all which they attributed to themselves, and to the sharpness of their wit, their sagacity and industry:
inventors of evil things; of evil schemes of morality and philosophy, and of evil practices, as well as principles:Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)30. backbiters] Rather, evil speakers, without the special notion of speaking in the absence of the person attacked.
haters of God] The Gr., by formation and classical usage, should rather mean hateful to God; men whose character is peculiarly abhorrent to Him. Similar words or phrases were familiar at Athens to denote defiant evil; and this would well suit the two words here following.
disobedient to parents] A symptom of deep moral and social disorder. Parental authority stands in the Decalogue among the great foundations of virtue and duty; and our Lord Himself is significantly said (Luke 2:51) to have been “subject” to Joseph and Mary.Romans 1:30. ψιθυριστάς, whisperers), who defame secretly.—καταλάλους, back-biters), who defame openly.—θεοστυγεῖς) men who show themselves to be haters of God—ὑβριστὰς) those who insolently drive away from themselves all that is good and salutary.—ὑπερηφάνους) those who exalt themselves above others. On this vice, and others which are here noticed, see 2 Timothy 3:2, etc.—ἀλαζόνας) [‘boasters,’ Engl. vers.], assuming, in reference to things great and good.—ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, inventors of evil things) of new pleasures, of new methods of acquiring wealth, of new modes of injuring others, for example in war, 2Ma 7:31. Antiochus is said to have been πάσης κακίας εὑρετής [an inventor of every kind of evil] against the Hebrews.
 ἀλαζών, boastful in words; ὑπερήφανος, proud in thoughts; ὑβριοτής, insolent in acts.—See Trench Syn.—ED.
Rev., hateful to God. All classical usage is in favor of the passive sense, but all the other items of the list are active. Meyer defends the passive on the ground that the term is a summary of what precedes. The weight of authority is on this side. The simple verb στυγέω to hate, does not occur in the New Testament. Στυγητός hateful, is found Titus 3:3. The verb is stronger than, μισέω I hate, since it means to show as well as to feel hatred.
Rev., haughty. See on pride, Mark 7:22.
Boasters (ἀλαζόνας). Swaggerers
Not necessarily implying contempt or insult.
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