Revelation 5:5
And one of the elders said to me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, has prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) And one of the elders . . .—Better, And one from among the elders saith unto me, Weep not; behold, the Lion, which is of the tribe of Judah, the Boot of David, conquered (so as) to open the roll, and the seven seals thereof. The position of the word conquered” is emphatic, and should receive greater prominence. The verse has been translated, “Behold, one conquered, (even) the Lion . . .” The right to open the roll is thus made to turn, as we noticed before, not merely on the divine Sonship of our Lord, but upon His victory: He conquered, and so opens the secret purposes of God to His Church. The thought is exactly parallel with other scriptures which give emphasis to the work of redemption. It is “for the suffering of death” that Christ is clothed “with glory and honour” (Hebrews 2:9). Similarly St. Paul traces the exaltation of Christ as the outcome of His humiliation, “wherefore (i.e., in consequence of His humiliation) God also hath highly exalted Him” (Philippians 2:9). Thus Christ, who in conquest is seen to be the power of God, in revealing the true philosophy of history is seen to be the wisdom of God.

The Lion of the tribe of Juda—The lion was the ancient symbol of the tribe of Judah. Jacob described his son as “a lion’s whelp” (Genesis 49:9); the standard of Judah in the Israelitish encampment is said to have been a lion. It was the symbol of strength, courage, and sovereignty.

The Root of David.—The Lion is also the representative of the royal house of David. Christ cometh of the seed of David” (comp. Mark 12:35 with John 8:42); the prophets have described Him as the Branch, which would spring from the ancient stock (Isaiah 11:1; Zechariah 6:12). But there seems also a reference to the deeper thought that He who is the Branch is also the Root (comp. Isaiah 11:10); He is the one who was David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41-45), and “the true source and ground of all power” to David and David’s tribe, and of all who looked to Him, and not to themselves, for strength.

5:1-7 The apostle saw in the hand of Him that sat upon the throne, a roll of parchments in the form usual in those times, and sealed with seven seals. This represented the secret purposes of God about to be revealed. The designs and methods of Divine Providence, toward the church and the world, are stated, fixed, and made a matter of record. The counsels of God are altogether hidden from the eye and understanding of the creature. The several parts are not unsealed and opened at once, but after each other, till the whole mystery of God's counsel and conduct is finished in the world. The creatures cannot open it, nor read it; the Lord only can do so. Those who see most of God, are most desirous to see more; and those who have seen his glory, desire to know his will. But even good men may be too eager and hasty to look into the mysteries of the Divine conduct. Such desires, if not soon answered, turn to grief and sorrow. If John wept much because he could not look into the book of God's decrees, what reason have many to shed floods of tears for their ignorance of the gospel of Christ! of that on which everlasting salvation depends! We need not weep that we cannot foresee future events respecting ourselves in this world; the eager expectation of future prospects, or the foresight of future calamities, would alike unfit us for present duties and conflicts, or render our prosperous days distressing. Yet we may desire to learn, from the promises and prophecies of Scripture, what will be the final event to believers and to the church; and the Incarnate Son has prevailed, that we should learn all that we need to know. Christ stands as Mediator between God and both ministers and people. He is called a Lion, but he appears as a Lamb slain. He appears with the marks of his sufferings, to show that he pleads for us in heaven, in virtue of his satisfaction. He appears as a Lamb, having seven horns and seven eyes; perfect power to execute all the will of God, and perfect wisdom to understand it, and to do it in the most effectual manner. The Father put the book of his eternal counsels into the hand of Christ, and Christ readily and gladly took it into his hand; for he delights to make known the will of his Father; and the Holy Spirit is given by him to reveal the truth and will of God.And one of the elders saith unto me - See the notes on Revelation 4:4. No particular reason is assigned why this message was delivered by one of the elders rather than by an angel. If the elders were, however (see the notes on Revelation 4:4), the representatives of the church, there was a propriety that they should address John in his trouble. Though they were in heaven, they were deeply interested in all that pertained to the welfare of the church, and they had been permitted to understand what as yet was unknown to him, that the power of opening the mysterious volume which contained the revelation of the future was entrusted particularly to the Messiah. Having this knowledge, they were prepared to comfort him with the hope that what was so mysterious would be made known.

Weep not - That is, there is no occasion for tears. The object which you so much desire can be obtained. There is one who can break those seals, and who can unroll that volume and read what is recorded there.

Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah - This undoubtedly refers to the Lord Jesus; and the points needful to be explained are, why he is called a Lion, and why be is spoken of as the Lion of the tribe of Judah:

(a) As to the first: This appellation is not elsewhere given to the Messiah, but it is not difficult to see its propriety as used in this place. The lion is the king of beasts, the monarch of the forest, and thus becomes an emblem of one of kingly authority and of power (see the notes on Revelation 4:7), and as such the appellation is used in this place. It is because Christ has power to open the seals - as if he ruled over the universe, and all events were under his control, as the lion rules in the forest - that the name is here given to him.

(b) As to the other point: He is called the "Lion of the tribe of Judah," doubtless, with reference to the prophecy in Genesis 49:9 - "Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion"; and from the fact that the Messiah was of the tribe of Judah. Compare Genesis 49:10. This use of the term would connect him in the apprehension of John with the prophecy, and would suggest to him the idea of his being a ruler, or having dominion. As such, therefore, it would be appropriate that the power of breaking these seals should be committed to him.

The Root of David - Not the Root of David in the sense that David sprung from him as a tree does from a root, but in the sense that he himself was a "root-shoot" or sprout from David, and had sprung from him as a shoot or sprout springs up from a decayed and fallen tree. See the notes on Isaiah 11:1. This expression would connect him directly with David, the great and glorious monarch of Israel, and as having a right to occupy his throne. As one thus ruling over the people of God, there was a propriety that to him should be entrusted the task of opening these seals.

Hath prevailed - That is, he has acquired this power as the result of a conflict or struggle. The word used here - ἐνίκησεν enikēsen - refers to such a conflict or struggle, properly meaning to come off victor, to overcome, to conquer, to subdue; and the idea here is, that his power to do this, or the reason why he does this, is the result of a conflict in which he was a victor. As the series of events to be disclosed, resulting in the final triumph of religion, was the effect of his conflicts with the powers of evil, there was a special propriety that the disclosure should be made by him. The truths taught in this verse are:

(1) that the power of making disclosures, in regard to the future, is entrusted to the Messiah; and,

(2) that this, so far as he is concerned, is the result of a conflict or struggle on his part.

5. one of—Greek, "one from among." The "elder" meant is, according to some (in Lyra), Matthew. With this accords the description here given of Christ, "the Lion, which is (so the Greek) of the tribe of Juda, the root of David"; the royal, David-descended, lion-aspect of Christ being that prominent in Matthew, whence the lion among the fourfold cherubim is commonly assigned to him. Gerhard in Bengel thought Jacob to be meant, being, doubtless, one of those who rose with Christ and ascended to heaven (Mt 27:52, 53). The elders in heaven round God's throne know better than John, still in the flesh, the far-reaching power of Christ.

Root of David—(Isa 11:1, 10). Not merely "a sucker come up from David's ancient root" (as Alford limits it), but also including the idea of His being Himself the root and origin of David: compare these two truths brought together, Mt 22:42-45. Hence He is called not merely Son of David, but also David. He is at once "the branch" of David, and "the root" of David, David's Son and David's Lord, the Lamb slain and therefore the Lion of Juda: about to reign over Israel, and thence over the whole earth.

prevailed—Greek, "conquered": absolutely, as elsewhere (Re 3:21): gained the victory: His past victory over all the powers of darkness entitles Him now to open the book.

to open—that is, so as to open. One oldest manuscript, B, reads, "He that openeth," that is, whose office it is to open, but the weight of oldest authorities is with English Version reading, namely, A, Vulgate, Coptic, and Origen.

We must remember that John is here describing a vision, and that part of it which is but introductive to the material parts of it. He had in his vision seen a book in the right hand of God the Father, sitting upon his throne of glory; he had heard an angel proclaiming: If any were worthy, he should open the book, and loose the seals. None appeared to answer that voice; he was troubled; he thought he heard one saying to him: Be not troubled, the book shall be opened. Christ shall open the book, and loose the seals of it, who is here expressed under a double character:

1. The Lion of the tribe of Judah; he is so called, undoubtedly, with allusion to Jacob’s prophecy, Genesis 49:9,10, wherein Judah was compared to a lion’s whelp, because he should be victorious. Christ was to be born of this tribe, and was to be a great Conqueror.

2. He is called the Root of David; he was a Branch of David, as he was man, but the Root of David, as he was God; therefore David, Psalm 110:1, called him Lord, though he was his Son.

Hath prevailed with his Father

to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof; for leave to open the book, and loose the seals thereof; i.e. to reveal those things that are the counsels and purposes of God relating to his church, and the affairs thereof, to the world’s end. I do not think we are at all concerned to inquire who is here meant by

one of the twenty-four elders. As in parables there are some things put in merely to complete the feigned history, so in the relation of visions some things of that nature are put in, which need not a particular explication. The sum is: That while John was troubled for fear he should not know what was in the book, he was told by one of those who attended the throne, that he need not be troubled, for Christ had obtained a liberty from his Father (in whose power only times and seasons for future things were) to reveal these counsels of God as to things to come. And one of the elders said unto me,.... The Ethiopic version reads, "one of these elders"; that is, one of the four and twenty elders that were round about the throne; not the first of the four and twenty books of the Old Testament; nor the patriarch Jacob, because of the prophecy concerning Shiloh, Judah's son, which stands in Genesis 49:10, nor Moses, who spoke of the Messiah as the great prophet of the church; nor John the Baptist, who pointed out the Lamb of God; these are all fancies and conjectures. It was one of the members of the Christian church, who was near the throne of God, had communion with him, and knowledge of his will, who in this visionary way is represented as comforting John under his sorrow and concern, and giving him information: and sometimes persons of superior abilities may receive instruction from meaner persons, as did Apollos from Aquila and Priscilla: the same said unto John,

weep not; cease sorrowing, do not be cast down, nor despair;

behold the lion of the tribe of Judah; by whom is meant Christ, who, according to the flesh, was to come of the tribe of Judah; and certain it is, that our Lord sprang from thence: and he is said to be the lion of that tribe, in allusion to the prophecy concerning Judah in Genesis 49:9, where he is said to be a lion, an old lion stooping down and couching, and on whose standard was the figure of a lion. Christ may be compared to one, because of his great strength, he being the mighty God, the able Saviour, and strong Redeemer, and protector of his church and people, and the avenger of their enemies; and because of his courage and intrepidity when he engaged with Satan, and his principalities and powers, when he bore the sins of his people, sustained his Father's wrath, and the terrors of death set themselves in array against him; and because of the fierceness of his wrath, and fury against the wicked, and for his generosity and lenity towards those that stoop unto him, and obey him. So the Jews say (f), that

"of Messiah, the son of David, who comes forth from Judah, is it said, Genesis 49:9, "Judah is a lion's whelp";''

and a little after, Messiah, the son of David, who is "a lion", shall be on his right hand, and Messiah, the son of Joseph, who is an ox, on his left hand; so the word of the Lord frequently, in the Chaldee paraphrase, is said to be a lion (g).

The root of David; in like manner is Christ called the root of Jesse in Isaiah 11:10; and the meaning either is, that he is a branch that springs out of the roots of Jesse and David, is David's son and offspring, according to his human nature; see Revelation 22:16; or that he is David's Lord, according to his divine nature: and the metaphor of a root well agrees with him as Mediator, he being hidden out of sight, and unknown to a natural man; and may denote his meanness in his state of humiliation, when he was as a root out of a dry ground; and because he is the root from whence all the elect of God spring, in whom they have their being, and by whom they are bore and supported, and from whom are derived to them all the blessings of grace, all their spiritual life, holiness, fruitfulness, and perseverance. Now this illustrious Person, so described,

hath prevailed; or overcome all difficulties, being one of worth and value, of great authority and ability:

to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof; and deliver out all the prophecies in it, and fulfil them; and this through the merits of his blood, and in consequence of his sufferings and death: hence, in the next verse, he is represented as a lamb as it had been slain; and the four living creatures, and the four and twenty elders, put his worthiness to take the book, and open it, upon his having been slain, and having redeemed them by his blood, Revelation 5:9. And as he, upon his resurrection from the dead, had all power in heaven and in earth given him, as Mediator, for the protection of his church, so he was deserving; and it was fit and necessary that he, as the great prophet of the church, should have and deliver out the prophecies concerning the state and condition of his redeemed ones in all ages.

(f) Raya Mehimna in Zohar in Exod. fol. 49. 3, 4. (g) Targum in Hos. v. 14. & xi. 10. & xiii. 7.

{5} And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the {6} Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

(5) The second part of this chapter, in which is set down the revelation of the Son, as was said before. This part contains first a history of the way God prepared John to understand this revelation, in this verse. Secondly, the revelation of the Son himself, to Re 5:6,7. Thirdly, the events of this revelation in the rest of the chapter. The manner now, is here described in two parts: one from outside him, by speech, in this verse: another within, by opening the eyes of John (which before were shut) that he might see, in the verse following.

(6) That is, most mighty and most approved Prince: according to the use of the Hebrew speech.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Revelation 5:5. One of the elders[1877] stills the weeping of John, by showing him Christ as the one able to open the book.

The deictic ἸΔΟΎ intensifies the pictorial vividness of the description. Corresponding to the ἸΔΟΎ is the ΚΑῚ ΕῚΔΟΝ, Κ.Τ.Λ., Revelation 5:6; there John directs his look to the Lamb, to whom the elders had pointed him.

ἘΝῚΚΗΣΕΝ. The explanation is divided into two parts. Grot.,[1878] Vitr., C. a Lap., Beng., Eichh., Heinr., Ew., etc., regarded[1879] the ἐνίκησεν in immediate combination with the ἀνοῖξαι, κ.τ.λ., so that the latter appears as an object to the conception ἐνίκησεν.[1880] Others, as N. de Lyra, Calov., Boss., Ebrard, Klief.,[1881] have, on the other hand, referred the ἐνίκησεν to the triumphantly completed work of redemption,[1882] so that then the infinitive statement, ἀνοὶξαι, κ.τ.λ., appears not in an objective relation to ἐνίκησεν, but as exegetical,[1883] and the ἐνίκησεν as absolute. The latter conception is correct, because the former combination of the ἐνίκησεν with the inf. is not so much “a new and poetic mode,”[1884] as is contradicted by the mode of statement in the Apoc.,[1885] and because not only the correlation of the designations of the victor, ὁ λέων, ὁ ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Ἰοῦδα, ἡ ρίζα Δαυΐδ, but also the words, Revelation 5:9, which may be regarded as an authentic interpretation of the mode of expression in Revelation 5:5, are decisive for the second of the explanations previously mentioned. “The Lion of the tribe of Judah” is Christ,[1886] because in his bodily descent from Judah, as the true Messiah promised of old, he had victoriously fought. [See Note XLV., p. 216.] In the same sense, the designation ἡ ῥίζα Δαυἶδ[1887] represents him as a sprout growing from the root of David with fresh, triumphant power. Thus N. de Lyra, C. a Lap., Grot., Eichh., Ew., De Wette, Hengstenb., Ebrard, etc., correctly explain, recognizing the slight metonymy; and Calov. and others, incorrectly, because against the decisive fundamental passage: “Christ, according to his divine nature, is represented as the foundation and source of David himself.”[1888] The Christian fundamental view is presented, which not only in the same words, but also in the same tense (ἐνίκησα, aor.), is expressed already in Revelation 3:21, and is repeated immediately afterwards in Revelation 5:9,[1889] only in another statement or explanation; viz., that, just because Christ has struggled and conquered in earthly humility,[1890] he is worthy to open the sealed book. It especially harmonizes with this view, that one of the elders, therefore one of those who have in themselves experienced the fruit of Christ’s victory, and with complete clearness know the entire meaning of this victory, directs the weeping John to the Lion of the tribe of Judah; not as though this elder had observed that Christ meanwhile had besought the enthroned God for permission to open the book, and had obtained it,[1891] but because the elder has the blessed assurance that the exalted Christ, since he is Lord and King of his kingdom, is also the Mediator of all revelation.

[1877] The attempt has been made also to determine who this elder is. Matthew is suggested, because in his Gospel (Matthew 28:18) there is a declaration concerning the omnipotence of Christ. N. de Lyra prefers to understand Peter, who, however, had already met with a martyr’s death.

[1878] “He has obtained that which you thought must be despaired of.”

[1879] The older interpreters mostly, with a false parallel to זָכָה (Psalm 51:6; LXX., νικᾶν).

[1880] “He has attained, prevailed in a struggle, to open,” etc.

[1881] Cf. also De Wette, Hengstenb.

[1882] N. de Lyra. “Was victor in the resurrection.” Calov.: “Conquered the infernal lion.” Boss., Ebrard: “Victory over sin, death, and the Devil.” So also Hengstenb., who, however, at the same time confusedly falls into the first mode of exposition: “Overcoming the difficulties which opposed the opening of the book.”

[1883] Cf. Winer, p. 298 sq.

[1884] Ew.

[1885] Revelation 2:7; Revelation 2:11; Revelation 2:17, etc.; especially Revelation 3:21.

[1886] According to Genesis 49:9.

[1887] From Isaiah 11:10. Cf. Revelation 5:1.

[1888] Cf. also Vitr., Herd.

[1889] Cf. already Revelation 5:6.

[1890] Because as the slain Lamb he has wrought redemption, Revelation 5:13. Cf. Php 2:8 sq.; Isaiah 53.

[1891] As Ew. i. takes it, falling into an error contrary to both the word and sense of the text.

NOTES BY THE AMERICAN EDITOR

XLV. Revelation 5:5. ὁ λέων ὁ ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Ἰούδα, κ.τ.λ.

The expression is based upon Genesis 49:9. On the basis of Jacob’s prophecy, a young lion was emblazoned on the standard of Judah, as it led the van of Israel’s march through the desert. See Palestinian Targum on Numbers 2:2 : “They who encamp eastward shall be of the standard of the camp of Judah, spreading over four miles. And his standard shall be of silk, of three colors, corresponding with the precious stones which are in the breastplate,—sardius topaz, and carbuncle; and upon it shall be expressed and set forth the names of the three tribes of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; and in the midst shall be written, ‘Arise, O Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered, and thine adversaries be driven away before thee;’ and upon it shall be set forth the figure of a young lion.” Augustine, Serm. xlvi., quoted by Calov.: “As a Lamb in his passion, so a Lion in his resurrection; since by this he manifested his fortitude in conquering death, and crushing the head of the infernal serpent (Genesis 3:15; Hosea 13:14; Romans 1:4).” Cf. Hebrews 2:14. Calov. finds the lion-like character of Christ displayed also in the call of the Gentiles. The ἡ ῥίζα Δαυείδ is analogous with ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυείδ in Romans 1:3, it being, as Hengstenberg remarks, “in David that the lion nature of the tribe came into manifestation.” In Christ, the race of the hero and victor David, whose deeds of courage are celebrated in Psalm 18:29 sqq., again comes forth. Calov.’s interpretation, referred to by Düst., which is that also of Ribera and Cocceius, rests upon the assumption that a double designation of the humanity of Christ, in both the Lion of Judah and the Root of David, is improbable; and that, in Revelation 22:16, there is a similar distinction between “root” and “offspring.” Lange is right when he says, “The whole designation of Christ is a profound Christological saying, which refers neither alone to the human descent of the Saviour (Düsterdieck), nor to his divine nature simply (Calov.).” The divinely human person is designated by terms derived, indeed, from his humanity; but, because of the personal union and the inseparable participation of both natures in every act, comprehending our Lord also in his divinity.”Revelation 5:5. ἀνοῖξαισφραγῖδας, cf. Dittenberger’s Sylloge Inscr. Graec. 79047 (first century) τὰς σφ. ἀνοιξάτω. Christ’s success is due to his legitimate messianic authority as a Davidic scion (ῥίζα = shoot or sprout on main stem, cf. Sibyll. iii. 396); the Davidic descent of Jesus was a tenet of certain circles in primitive Christianity (Dalman i. § 12). Possibly there is an allusion to the original bearing of the O.T. passage:—Jesus irresistible and courageous, yet in origin humble. In 4 Esdr. 12:31, 32 the messiah’s rebuke to the Roman empire is thus described: leonem quem uidisti de silva euigilantem mugientem et loquentem ad aquilam et arguentem eam iniquitatis … hic est unctus, quern reseruauit altissimus in finem [dierum, qui dicitur ex semine David]. ῥάβδος, in sense of “shoot” occurs with ῥίζα in Isaiah 11:1 (cf. 10; Ezekiel 19:11-12; Ezekiel 19:14); hence the combination with the idea of “sceptre” (ἐνίκησεν, cf. Revelation 2:27) in a messianic connotation (cf. on Revelation 22:16). The enigma of the world’s history lies with Christ, to be solved and to be controlled. Jewish eschatology (En. xlvi. 3, xlix. 1) had already proclaimed the revealing power of messiah, who is “mighty in all the secrets of righteousness … and who reveals all the treasures of that which is hidden”. John claims that Jesus is the legitimate messiah, whose power to unfold God’s redeeming purpose rests upon his victorious inauguration of that purpose. The victory of Christ in Revelation 5:5 f. follows dramatically upon the allusion in Revelation 3:21, but it is to press the sequence too far when this scene is taken to represent his arrival in heaven “just after the accomplishment of his victory” (Briggs).5. one of the elders] It is idle to speculate which; even if it be assumed certain that the twenty-four are the Patriarchs and Apostles, they represent their federal office, not their individual character. We can hardly suppose that St John saw himself seated among them.

the Lion of the tribe of Juda] Genesis 49:9.

the root of David] Revelation 22:16; Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 11:10, where however we have the Root of Jesse. Some distinguish the two phrases, that Christ is said to grow from the obscure Jesse in reference to the time of His humiliation, from the kingly David in reference to His exaltation.

hath prevailed to open] Lit. hath conquered: Christ’s victory (see Revelation 3:21 and ref.) has this consequence, that He can open. There is a well-supported reading, “the Lion hath conquered, Who openeth” … but this is grammatically easier, and less effective—both presumptions in favour of the text.

to loose] Should be omitted as a gloss: we hear of “opening the seals” all through the next chapter.Revelation 5:5. Εἷς, one) Without doubt one of those who rose with Christ, and ascended into heaven: Matthew 27:52. It appears to be the patriarch Jacob, because, according to his prophecy, the name of lion is given to Christ: Genesis 49:9. John Gerhard and others in Richter on this passage, and in Viet. But Cluver judges that this, as far as it respects Jacob, is uncertain.Verse 5. - And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not. One of the elders, as representing the Church (see on Revelation 4:4), bids St. John to take heed to him who was about to disclose to some extent the future of that Church. There is, of course, no indication that any particular individual is signified, though some have striven to identify the elder. Thus De Lyra mentions St. Peter, who was already martyred; others, referred to by De Lyra, say St. Matthew, who, in his Gospel, declares Christ's power (Matthew 28:18). Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda. The title is accorded to Christ, in illustration of the following act. The Representative of the royal and victorious tribe of Judah was he who had prevailed to open the book, where others had failed (cf. Genesis 40:9, "Judah is a lion's whelp;" Hebrews 7:14, "For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Judah"). The Root of David. The Root of David is a synonym for Stem or Branch (cf. Isaiah 11:1, "There shall come forth a Rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots;" and Romans 15:12, "Esaias saith, There shall be a Root of Jesse"). Further, Christ may be said to have been the Root of David, by virtue of his pre-existence and his creative power. It is one of the paradoxes of the Incarnation, that he who is the Root of David should also be a Branch. Hath prevailed to open the book; hath conquered (ἐνίκησεν). Not, as the Authorized Version appears to read, that the act of victory consisted in the opening of the book, but the ability to open was a consequence of a former act of victory, viz. the redemption. So in ver. 9 the ascription of praise runs, "Thou art worthy because thou wast slain" (on the infinitive epexegetic, see Winer). Some see a reference here to Revelation 3:7, "He that openeth, and no man shutteth." And to loose the seven seals thereof; and the seven seals thereof (Revised Version). Omit "to loose?" Of the elders (ἐκ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων)

Strictly, from among the elders.

The Lion

See Genesis 49:9.

The Root of David

See on Nazarene, Matthew 2:23.

Hath prevailed (ἐνίκησεν)

Or overcame.

To loose

Omit.

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