Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.Revelation 5:1. Βιβλίον, a book) There were not seven books, but there was one only, sealed with seven seals.—ἔσωθεν καὶ ἔξωθεν) So Ezekiel 2:10 : κεφαλὶς βιβλίου—καὶ ἦν ἐν αὐτῇ γεγραμμένα τὰ ἔμπροσθεν καὶ τὰ ὄπισθεν. And it is possible that the copyists may have introduced into this passage ὄπισθεν for ἔξωθεν, either from ch. Revelation 4:6, or from the passage just quoted from Ezekiel. Ἔμπροσθεν and ὄπισθεν are opposed to each other, as are ἔσωθεν and ἔξωθεν. But since in Ezekiel the expression is פנים ואחור, ἔσωθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν is defended from the Hebraism. The Philocalia of Orige
 has ὄπισθεν by itself.—σφραγῖσιν ἑπτὰ, with seven seals) This prophecy abounds with instances of the number seven, of which four are most copiously described: the seven angels of the churches; the seven seals of the sealed book; the seven angels with trumpets; the seven angels with vials. The churches are a model, to which the Universal Church of all climes and ages, together with its teachers and pastors, ought to be conformed. The seals represent all power in earth and in heaven, given to the Lamb. By the trumpets the kingdom of the world is violently shaken, so that it at last becomes the kingdom of the Lord and of His Christ. By the vials the beast is crushed, and whatever is connected with it. We ought always to keep before our eyes this Summary. Thus the whole of the Apocalypse runs on in its own natural order. The division of these sevens into IV. and III. will be explained below. The hypothesis of VII. periods of the Church, represented not only by VII. churches, but also by VII. seals, VII. trumpets, VII. vials—other groups of seven in the Old and New Testament being drawn out to the same hypothesis,—has greatly enervated the Theology of many, especially that which is exegetical.
 rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.
 And the sainted author exhibited that (reading) also in Vers. Germ. of the New Testament.—E. B.
A Syr. and some MSS. of Origen have ὄπισθεν; B, ἔξωθεν; Vulg. “foris.”—E.
And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?Revelation 5:2. Ἰσχυρὸν, strong) Psalm 103:20.
And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon.
And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon.Revelation 5:4. Ἔκλαιον, I wept) By an excellent example, John places himself as an eager and teachable learner of the Apocalypse. Comp. ch. Revelation 10:10, Revelation 17:1, Revelation 21:9, Revelation 22:8. They are far from perceiving the meaning of John, in this part at any rate, who seek anything rather than the argument of this book, as opened by the Lamb; and who think themselves indulgent, if they concede a pardon to others who do seek it. The very things which even angels had desired to look into during the time of the Divine silence, now, after they have been brought to light and shine forth in the word of prophecy, though they ought to be known and admired to the glory of God, are despised by wayfaring men as circumstantial and useless.—πολὺ) So πολὺ, Luke 7:47.—ἀνοῖξαι) See App. Crit., Ed. ii., on this passage. An inelegant arrangement of the words is produced, not to open, not to read, not to see. In Revelation 5:1, John saw the book; in Revelation 5:4, he says that the book could not be seen, an expression which itself means, be read: although the language, without the word read (ἀναγνῶναι), is more royal, and better adapted to the majesty of the Lamb.
 So Rec. Text, without good authority, reads. B Vulg. Orig. 2,525c, Cypr. Hil. omit ἀναγνῶναι.—E.
And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.Revelation 5:5. Εἷς, one) Without doubt one of those who rose with Christ, and ascended into heaven: Matthew 27:52. It appears to be the patriarch Jacob, because, according to his prophecy, the name of lion is given to Christ: Genesis 49:9. John Gerhard and others in Richter on this passage, and in Viet. But Cluver judges that this, as far as it respects Jacob, is uncertain.
And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.Revelation 5:6. Ἀρνίον) Ἀμνὸς is used absolutely, John 1:29; 1 Peter 1:19 : now, ἀρνίον is used, with reference to the flock about to follow Him. Κριὸς, ἀμνὸς, and ἀρνίον differ in age. Orig. t. 2, f. 140, on John 1:29. Ἀρνίον, a young lamb; as far, however, as it combines the idea of the male sex, it properly looks to the taking the lead of the flock.
 Ἀμνὸς is used in the Gospel of John, which describes the life and death of Jesus, as the paschal, sacrificial Lamb. In John 21:15 alone, ἀρνία is used: so in Rev. also, ἀρνίον. Ἀρνίον, being a diminutive, expresses endearment; viz. the endearing relation in which Jesus, now glorified, stands to us, as the consequence of His previous relation, as the sacrificed ἀμνός on earth: so also our relation to Him: He the “precious Lamb,” we one with Him and His dear lambs; Isaiah 40:11.—E.
And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.
And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.
And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;Revelation 5:9. Ὠδὴν καινὴν) So Psalm 144:9, ὠδὴν καινὴν; but in the other Psalms it is ᾆσμα καινὸν.—ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καἱ ἔθνους) So, ἐκ παντὸς ἔθνους καὶ φυλῶν καὶ λαῶν καὶ γλωσαῶν, ch. Revelation 7:9 ἐκ τῶν λαῶν καὶ φυλῶν καὶ γλωσσῶν καὶ ἐθνῶν, ch. Revelation 11:9; ἐπὶ πᾶσαν φυλὴν καὶ λαὸν καὶ γλῶσσαν καὶ ἔθνος, ch. Revelation 13:7; πᾶν ἔθνος καὶ φυλὴν καὶ γλῶσσαν καὶ λαὸν, ch. Revelation 14:6. So, commonly, ἐπὶ λαοῖς καὶ ἔθνεσι καὶ γλώσσαις καὶ βασιλεῦσι πολλοῖς, ch. Revelation 10:11; λαοὶ καὶ ὄχλοι καὶ ἔθνη καὶ γλῶσσαι, ch. Revelation 17:15. In these passages γλῶσσαι, ἔθνη and λαοὶ, are always mentioned; but instead of φυλῶν, ὄχλοι is used once, and βασιλεῖς once. The number of four, therefore, is always preserved, having regard to the four quarters of the world. The number of three is used, Daniel 3:4; Daniel 3:7; Daniel 3:29, the tribes (in Hebrew) being excepted; that is, the Israelites.
And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.Revelation 5:10. Αὐτοὺς—καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν) See App. Crit., Ed. ii., on this passage. Comp. Matthew 23:37, and Judges 1:24. So also ἐν αὐτῇ, for ἐν σοὶ, ch. Revelation 18:24; ἡ λέγουσα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς, for σοῦ, Isaiah 47:8; Isaiah 47:10. In this passage the Hebrew construction of the third person for the first has a graphic relation to the redeemed, and at the same time has a more modest sound, than us, priests, etc.—βασιλείαν) Thus the Alex. Lat. Cypria read, as ch. Revelation 1:6. The more recent copies here also have βασιλεῖς. But they who cast their crowns before the throne do not call themselves kings, in the sight of the great King, although their priestly access has such dignity, that the power of reigning on earth cannot certainly exceed it. In like manner, in ch. Revelation 20:6, they who have part in the first resurrection are called priests, and are said to be about to reign; and yet the name of kings is not given to them.—ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, upon the earth) Ἐπὶ here denotes locality, as ch. Revelation 3:10 and everywhere: or rather power, as ch. Revelation 2:26; as it is said, βασιλεύει ἐπὶ τῆς Ἰουδαίας, Matthew 2:22. And thus the Septuagint, Jdg 9:8; 1 Samuel 8:7; 1 Samuel 12:12; 1 Samuel 12:14; 2 Kings 8:20; 2 Kings 11:3. I should not therefore venture to assert, from this phrase, that these remain on the earth, though they rule over the earth. The elders were meek (comp. Matthew 5:5): but the flock of the meek independently is much larger.
 AB Amiat. MS. of Vulg. Memph. Syr. read αὐτούς. Rec. Text, with h Cypr. 291, reads ἡμᾶς.—E.
 yprian (in the beginning and middle of the third century: a Latin father). Ed. Steph. Baluzii, Paris. 1726.
 Which reading, though it was preferred in Ed. maj., was yet thought inferior to the other, both in the Gnom. and in Ed. ii. and Vers. Germ.—E. B.
A Vulg. h, Memph. Cypr. read βασιλείαν. B supports Rec. Text, βασιλεῖς.—E.
And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;Revelation 5:11. Μυριάδες μυριάδων καὶ χιλιάδες χιλιάδων) μυριὰς is ten thousand; μυριάδες (if only you understand δύο, as ch. Revelation 12:14, καιροὺς, that is, δύο) are twenty thousand. Thence myriads of myriads are 200,000,000; and so moreover thousands of thousands, 2,000,000. The lesser number added to the greater forbids both of them from being taken too indefinitely.
Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.Revelation 5:12. Ἄξιος) Ἀρνίον is neuter; whence many have written ἄξιον: but ἄξιος regards the meaning itself.—ΤῊΝ ΔΎΝΑΜΙΝ ΚΑῚ ΠΛΟῦΤΟΝ, Κ.Τ.Λ.) The sevenfold subject of their acclamations answers to the seven seals, in the first four of which are contained visible things, in the remaining three, invisible things, subject to the Lamb.
 Hence the margin of Ed. ii. reckoned among the better supported readings that of ἄξιος, though in the Ed. maj. it was numbered among the less supported.—E. B.
A reads ἄξιος; Rec. Text, ἄξιον.—E.
And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.Revelation 5:13. Πᾶν κτίσμα—ἐν αὐτοῖς, every creature—in them) All the works of the Lord in all places of His dominion: Psalm 103:22.—καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς, πάντας ἤκουσα λέγοντας) This reading is supported by the greater number of copies. A few have changed πάντας, or even λέγοντας, into the neuter. Τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς is put absolutely, as ch. Revelation 10:6. And this, πάντας ἤκουσα λέγοντας, admirably comprises the harmonious song of all the inhabitants whom the four quarters in the universe contain.
 So Vulg. and B. But A, πάντα—λέγοντα: so Rec. Text.—E.
And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.Revelation 5:14. Καὶ προσεκύνησαν) With this word the paragraph ends in all the copies. See App. Crit., Ed. ii., on this passage. It is the part of piety to cut out such additions, fear being laid aside. The shorter reading, ΚΑῚ ΠΡΟΣΕΚΎΝΗΣΑΝ, and they worshipped, denotes the worship paid both to Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb. Comp. Revelation 5:13. Προσκυνεῖν is often put absolutely: ch. Revelation 11:1; John 4:20; John 12:20.
 ABC “Vulg. refute the addition in Rec. Text and h, ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἱώνων.—E.