Yes, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Shepherds that cannot understand . . .—Better, and such are shepherds; they cannot understand. There is no confusion or change of metaphors. What is implied is that the prophets who are not fit to be watch-dogs of the flock, assume the office of its shepherds.
From his quarter—i.e., in modern phrase, from his own sphere of influence.Isaiah 56:11. Yea, they are greedy dogs — Insatiably covetous: shepherds that cannot understand — Hebrew, that know not to understand; that do not care, or love, or desire either to understand the word of God themselves, or to make the people understand it. They all look to their own way — They regard neither God’s glory nor the people’s good, but only the satisfaction of their own base desires. Every one for his gain from his quarter — In their several places and stations, as they have opportunity.
And they are shepherds that cannot understand - Who are ignorant of the needs of the people, and who cannot be made to comprehend what is needed by them (see Isaiah 56:10).
They all look to their own way - That is, they are all selfish. The ministers of religion are set apart not to promote their own interests bug the welfare and salavation of others.
Every one for his gain - For his own private ends and emoluments.
From his quarter - Lowth, 'From the highest to the lowest.' So Rosenmuller. Septuagint, Κατὰ τὸ ἑαυτοῦ Kata to heautou - 'Each one according to his own purpose.' The Hebrew is literally, 'From his end,' or extremity. Genesis 19:4 : 'From every quarter' (מקצה mı̂qqâtseh) that is, from one end to the other; one and all, the whole. This seems to be the idea here, that one and all were given to selfishness, to covetousness, and to indulgence in luxury and sensuality.
cannot understand—unable to comprehend the wants of the people, spiritually: so Isa 56:10, "cannot bark."
look to … own way—that is, their own selfish interests; not to the spiritual welfare of the people (Jer 6:13; Eze 22:27).
from his quarter—rather, "from the highest to the lowest" [Lowth]. "From his quarter"; that is, from one end to the other of them, one and all (Ge 19:4).Greedy dogs which can never have enough; insatiably covetous.
That cannot understand, Heb. that know not to understand; that do not care, or love, or desire (as knowing is frequently taken) either to understand the law or word of God themselves, or to make the people to understand it.
They all look to their own way; they regard neither God’s command and glory, nor the people’s good, but only the satisfaction of their own base lusts. See Poole "Isaiah 53:6".
Every one for his gain, from his quarter; in their several places and stations, as they have opportunity. Heb. from his or their end or extremity, i.e. universally, or all from one end of that body or society of men unto the other; as the same word signifies, Genesis 19:4; from one end of the city to the other; or, as we there render it,
from every quarter; and as the same word is by divers learned men rendered, 1 Kings 12:31, out of the meanest of the people, but out of all the people, or indifferently out of every tribe; of which See Poole "1 Kings 12:31". But if that phrase be rightly rendered there, out of the meanest of the people, as divers also expound the same phrase, Genesis 47:2, of the meanest of his brethren, why may it not as well be rendered here, even from the meanest or poorest of his flock? which is a great aggravation of their covetousness and cruelty, to extort gains from such as needed their charity.
which can never have enough; know not fulness (z), or what it is to be filled to satisfaction, always craving more. Though some think this denotes their insatiable avarice, their greedy desire of money, not being satisfied with what they have, in order to support their voluptuous way of living.
And they are shepherds that cannot understand; or, "and they are", or "are they shepherds?" these blind and ignorant watchmen; these dumb and greedy dogs; these pretend to be the shepherds of the flock, and to feed them?
yet they know not to understand (a), or "know not understanding"; have no knowledge and understanding of divine things, and therefore unfit and incapable of feeding the people therewith:
they all look to their own way: to do that which is most pleasing to them, agreeable to their carnal lusts; they seek that which is most for their worldly profit and advantage, having no regard to the glory of God, the interest of Christ, and the welfare of the flock:
everyone for his gain from his quarter; from the province, city, or town he is in; from his archbishopric, bishopric, or parish; making the most of his benefice, of his tithes and revenues; increasing his salary as much as he can; getting as much as possible from all sorts of persons, rich and poor, high and low, that are under his jurisdiction; and this is the case of everyone, from the greatest to the least. The Targum is,
"everyone to spoil the substance of Israel;''
as the Pharisees devoured widows' houses, Matthew 23:14.
(y) "fortes animo", Montanus; "fortes anima, sub. appetente", Vatablus; "sunt valido appetitu", Vitringa. (z) "nesciunt, vel non noverunt saturitatem", Paguinus, Montanus, &c, (a) "et iili pastores? non sciunt docere", Cocceius; "et illi cum pastores sunt, mulla pollent discernendi peritia", Vitringa.Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)11. The first line reads, And the dogs are greedy (lit. “strong of soul,” i.e. appetite), they know not how to be satisfied. The charge of cupidity and of selling oracles for gain is one frequently brought against the false prophets (Micah 3:5; Micah 3:11; Jeremiah 6:13; Ezekiel 13:19; Ezekiel 22:25); a contemporary instance may be the incident of Shemaiah (Nehemiah 6:10 ff.). That the priesthood was infected with the same vice of covetousness is shown by Malachi 1:12; on the upper classes generally see Nehemiah 5:7 ff.
and they are shepherds &c.] The meaning can hardly be that those who have been called dogs are really the shepherds of the flock; but it is not easy to obtain a satisfactory sense. Cheyne renders “and these, pastors as they are,” taking “pastors” in the figurative sense of rulers. Dillmann with a slight change of the text reads “and even these, the shepherds,” supposing that a class of persons different from the “watchmen” (prophets) are now spoken of, viz., the nobles and elders. On any view the sentence is awkward; it adds nothing to the thought, and may originally have been a marginal gloss.
they all look to their own way] R.V. they have all turned to their own way; all pursue their selfish interests (cf. Isaiah 53:6).
from his quarter] Render, without exception, as Ezekiel 25:9; Genesis 19:4.Verse 11. - Yea, they are greedy dogs. Another defect is noted. Not only do they fail in the way of neglect of duty, but they are actively culpable. Being worldly and not spiritually minded, they are "greedy" after gain. Anciently, the taking of a gift, or fee, from those who came to consult them was regarded as no dishonour to the prophetic office (Numbers 22:7; 1 Samuel 9:7; 1 Kings 14:3); but the nobler class of prophets declined to make a profit of their spiritual powers, and would receive no fee (2 Kings 5:16; Matthew 10:8; Acts 8:20). In Ezekiel and Micah the taking of gifts by prophets is regarded as discreditable (Ezekiel 13:19; Ezekiel 22:25; Micah 3:3). From his quarter; rather, to the uttermost (Kay), or every one, without exception (Cheyne). Deuteronomy 23:13); but in the passage before us, where ושׁם יד form a closely connected pair of words, to which וּמבּנות מבּנים is appended, it signifies the memorial, equivalent to מצּבת (2 Samuel 18; 2 Samuel 1:1-24:25; 1 Samuel 15:12), as an index lifted up on high (Ezekiel 21:24), which strikes the eye and arrests attention, pointing like a signpost to the person upon whom it is placed, like monumentum a monendo. They are assured that they will not be excluded from close fellowship with the church ("in my house and within my walls"), and also promised, as a superabundant compensation for the want of posterity, long life in the memory of future ages, by whom their long tried attachment to Jehovah and His people in circumstances of great temptation will not be forgotten.
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