2 Peter 1:10
Why the rather, brothers, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if you do these things, you shall never fall:
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(10) Wherefore the rather.—Exhortation resumed, with still more earnestness, for the reasons just stated in 2Peter 1:8-9. The direct address, “brethren,” is a mark of this increased earnestness, and also assures those addressed that they are not included among the mere nominal Christians described in the preceding verse.

Give diligence.—Recalling “bringing all diligence” in 2Peter 1:5.

Calling and election.—By God into the kingdom of heaven. “Calling” and “election” are two aspects of the same fact, “calling” referring to God’s invitation, “election” to the distinction which this invitation makes between those who are called and those who are not. “Election” is one of St. Paul’s words. One of the best MSS. and several versions insert “by means of your works,” which gives the right sense, although the words are wanting in authority. It is by following the in junctions given (2Peter 1:5-7) that our election is made secure. God calls us to salvation (2Peter 1:3), selects us from the heathen; it is for each one of us to respond to the call, and thus ratify His choice.

If ye do these things.—Showing that the making sure of our election is not a single act, but multiform, viz., the furnishing the graces commended (2Peter 1:5-7).

Never fall.—The same word is translated “offend” (James 2:10; James 3:2); and “stumble” (Romans 11:11). It means to knock one’s foot and stumble. The man who has acquired these graces has his path freed from many stumbling-blocks, and his vision cleared to see and avoid the rest.

2 Peter 1:10-11. Wherefore — Considering the miserable state of these apostates; the rather — That you may not be destitute of these things, but be fruitful in all graces and virtues; brethren — St. Peter nowhere uses this appellation, in either of his epistles, but in this important exhortation; give diligence — Namely, by the exercise and increase of the fore-mentioned graces. The word σπουδασατε means also be in earnest, and make haste, the matter being of infinite moment, and delays extremely dangerous. To make your calling and election sure Βεβαιαν, firm. As if he had said, God hath called you by his word, his providence, and his Spirit, to repentance, faith, and new obedience. By obeying this call, and turning sincerely to God, you became God’s elect or chosen people; even elect, through the sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience. See on 1 Peter 1:2. Now as you made your calling firm or effectual by obeying it: so make your election firm by enduring to the end, remembering the Lord’s words: Many are called, but few finally chosen. For if ye do these things — If you thus give diligence, and are thus in earnest, without delay, to add the graces and virtues here inculcated to your faith, and to make your calling and election firm; ye shall never finally fall — Nay, ye shall not fall, ποτε, once, or at any time, into known sin, so as to come under guilt, condemnation, and wrath; nay, ου μη πταισητε ποτε, ye shall not so much as stumble at any time. Stumbling-blocks will, indeed, be in your way, probably not a few, but you shall not stumble at them, much less shall you fall over them; but you shall proceed forward on your way with steadiness, alacrity, and joy. For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly Πλουσιως, richly, freely, and in the most honourable manner; into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour — The kingdom of his eternal glory. You shall depart hence in peace and triumph, knowing that as soon as you are absent from the body you shall be present with the Lord; and you shall be received as with a cordial welcome, and shall sail, as it were, into that blessed harbour with a full gale of consolation and joy.1:1-11 Faith unites the weak believer to Christ, as really as it does the strong one, and purifies the heart of one as truly as of another; and every sincere believer is by his faith justified in the sight of God. Faith worketh godliness, and produces effects which no other grace in the soul can do. In Christ all fulness dwells, and pardon, peace, grace, and knowledge, and new principles, are thus given through the Holy Spirit. The promises to those who are partakers of a Divine nature, will cause us to inquire whether we are really renewed in the spirit of our minds; let us turn all these promises into prayers for the transforming and purifying grace of the Holy Spirit. The believer must add knowledge to his virtue, increasing acquaintance with the whole truth and will of God. We must add temperance to knowledge; moderation about worldly things; and add to temperance, patience, or cheerful submission to the will of God. Tribulation worketh patience, whereby we bear all calamities and crosses with silence and submission. To patience we must add godliness: this includes the holy affections and dispositions found in the true worshipper of God; with tender affection to all fellow Christians, who are children of the same Father, servants of the same Master, members of the same family, travellers to the same country, heirs of the same inheritance. Wherefore let Christians labour to attain assurance of their calling, and of their election, by believing and well-doing; and thus carefully to endeavour, is a firm argument of the grace and mercy of God, upholding them so that they shall not utterly fall. Those who are diligent in the work of religion, shall have a triumphant entrance into that everlasting kingdom where Christ reigns, and they shall reign with him for ever and ever; and it is in the practice of every good work that we are to expect entrance to heaven.Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence - 2 Peter 1:5. "In view of these things, give the greater diligence to secure your salvation." The considerations on which Peter based this appeal seem to have been the fact that such promises are made to us, and such hopes held out before us; the degree of uncertainty thrown over the whole matter of our personal salvation by low attainments in the divine life, and the dreadful condemnation which will ensue if in the end it shall be found that we are destitute of all real piety. The general thought is, that religion is of sufficient importance to claim our highest diligence, and to arouse us to the most earnest efforts to obtain the assurance of salvation.

To make your calling and election sure - On the meaning of the word "calling," see the notes at Ephesians 4:1. On the meaning of the word "election," see the Romans 9:11 note; 1 Thessalonians 1:4 note. Compare Ephesians 1:5. The word rendered "election" here, (ἐκλογήν eklogēn,) occurs only in this place and in Acts 9:15; Romans 9:11; Romans 11:5, Romans 11:7,Romans 11:28; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; though corresponding words from the same root denoting "the elect, to elect, to choose," frequently occur. The word here used means "election," referring to the act of God, by which those who are saved are "chosen" to eternal life. As the word "calling" must refer to the act of God, so the word "election" must; for it is God who both "calls" and "chooses" those who shall be saved. The word in the Scriptures usually refers to the actual choosing of those who shall be saved; that is, referring to the time when they, in fact, become the children of God, rather than to the purpose of God that it shall be done; but still there must have been an eternal purpose, for God makes no choice which he did not always intend to make.

The word "sure," means firm, steadfast, secure, (βεβαίαν bebaian.) Here the reference must be to "themselves;" that is, they were so to act as to make it certain to themselves that they had been chosen, and were truly called into the kingdom of God. It cannot refer to God, for no act of theirs could make it more certain on his part, if they had been actually chosen to eternal life. Still, God everywhere treats men as moral agents; and what may be absolutely certain in his mind from the mere purpose that it "shall" be so, is to be made certain to us only by evidence, and in the free exercise of our own powers. The meaning here is, that they were to obtain such evidences of personal piety as to put the question whether they were "called" and "chosen," so far as their own minds were concerned, to rest; or so as to have undoubted evidence on this point. The Syriac, the Vulgate, and some Greek manuscripts, insert here the expression "by your good works;" that is, they were to make their calling sure "by" their good works, or by holy living.

This clause, as Calvin remarks, is not authorized by the best authority, but it does not materially affect the sense. It was undoubtedly by their "good works" in the sense of holy living, or of lives consecrated to the service of God, that they were to obtain the evidence that they were true Christians; that is, that they had been really called into the kingdom of God, for there is nothing else on which we can depend for such evidence. God has given no assurance to us by name that he intends to save us. We can rely on no voice, or vision, or new revelation, to prove that it is so. No internal feeling of itself, no raptures, no animal excitement, no confident persuasion in our own minds that we are elected, can be proof in the case; and the only certain evidence on which we can rely is that which is found in a life of sincere piety. In view of the important statement of Peter in this verse, then, we may remark:

(1) that he believed in the doctrine of election, for he uses language which obviously implies this, or such as they are accustomed to use who believe the doctrine.

(2) the fact that God has chosen those who shall be saved, does not make our own efforts unnecessary to make that salvation sure to us. It can be made sure to our own minds only by our own exertions; by obtaining evidence that we are in fact the children of God. There can be no evidence that salvation will be ours, unless there is a holy life; that is, unless there is true religion. Whatever may be the secret purpose of God in regard to us, the only evidence that we have that we shall be saved is to be found in the fact that we are sincere Christians, and are honestly endeavoring to do his will.

(3) it is possible to make our calling and election sure; that is, to have such evidence on the subject that the mind shall be calm, and that there will be no danger of deception. If we can determine the point that we are in fact true Christians, that settles the matter - for then the unfailing promise of God meets us that we shall be saved. In making our salvation sure to our own minds, if we are in fact true Christians, we have not to go into an argument to prove that we have sufficient strength to resist temptation, of that we shall be able in any way to keep ourselves. All that matter is settled by the promise of God, that if we are Christians we shall be kept by Him to salvation. The only question that is to be settled is, whether we are in fact true Christians, and all beyond that may be regarded as determined immutably. But assuredly it is possible for a man to determine the question whether he is or is not a true Christian.

(4) if it can be done, it should be. Nothing is more important for us to do than this; and to this great inquiry we should apply our minds with unfaltering diligence, until by the grace of God we can say that there are no lingering doubts n regard to our final salvation.

For if ye do these things - The things referred to in the previous verses. If you use all diligence to make as high attainments as possible in piety, and it you practice the virtues demanded by religion, 2 Peter 1:5-7.

Ye shall never fall - You shall never fall into perdition. That is, you shall certainly he saved.

10. Wherefore—seeking the blessed consequence of having, and the evil effects of not having, these graces (2Pe 1:8, 9).

the rather—the more earnestly.

brethren—marking that it is affection for them which constrains him so earnestly to urge them. Nowhere else does he so address them, which makes his calling them so here the more emphatical.

give diligence—The Greek aorist implies one lifelong effect [Alford].

to make—Greek middle voice; to make so far as it depends on you; to do your part towards making. "To make" absolutely and finally is God's part, and would be in the active.

your calling and election sure—by ministering additionally in your faith virtue, and in your virtue knowledge, &c. God must work all these graces in us, yet not so that we should be mere machines, but willing instruments in His hands in making His election of us "secure." The ensuring of our election is spoken of not in respect to God, whose counsel is steadfast and everlasting, but in respect to our part. There is no uncertainty on His part, but on ours the only security is our faith in His promise and the fruits of the Spirit (2Pe 1:5-7, 11). Peter subjoins election to calling, because the calling is the effect and proof of God's election, which goes before and is the main thing (Ro 8:28, 30, 33, where God's "elect" are those "predestinated," and election is "His purpose," according to which He "called" them). We know His calling before His election, thereby calling is put first.

fall—Greek, "stumble" and fall finally (Ro 11:11). Metaphor from one stumbling in a race (1Co 9:24).

Give diligence; viz. in the exercise of the forementioned graces.

To make your calling, your effectual calling to the faith of Christ,

and election, your eternal election to grace and glory,

sure, not in respect of God, whose counsel is in itself sure and stable, Romans 11:29 2 Timothy 2:19; but in respect of yourselves, who may best discern the cause by its effects, and so your election by your good works to which you were chosen, Ephesians 1:4, and which prove your calling, (as being the proper genuine fruits of it, Ephesians 4:1,2, &c.), as that doth election, from whence it proceeds, Acts 13:48 Romans 8:30.

For if ye do these things, the things prescribed, 2 Peter 1:5-7,

ye shall never fall; not wholly apostatize from God’s ways, nor so fall through temptation into any sin, as not to recover out of it. Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence,.... To exercise the afore mentioned graces, and to perform the above duties, since this is the way

to make your calling and election sure; by calling is not meant a call to any office in the church, nor an external call, either by the voice of nature, or by the ministry of the word; but an internal and effectual call by special grace, to grace here, and glory hereafter; instead of "calling", the Alexandrian copy reads, "comfort": and by "election" is meant, not a national, nor church election, but a particular and personal one, since scattered saints, and particular believers, are here written to, and each called upon to be diligent to make their own, and not another's, calling and election sure; nor is a choice of persons to an office designed, seeing the apostle writes not to officers of churches in particular, but to believers in common; nor a separation of persons from the world by the effectual calling, since these two are both mentioned here, and as distinct from each other, and to be made sure; but an election of particular persons to eternal life and salvation is here intended, which is an eternal act of God, arises from his free grace and favour, and is according to his sovereign will and pleasure; and is absolute, and independent of any condition, foreseen, or required in men, as faith, holiness, and good works; all which are fruits and effects, and not causes and conditions of electing grace. These may be made "sure", not in themselves, or with respect to God, for in this sense they cannot be made surer than they are: effectual calling is according to the purpose of God, which cannot be frustrated, and is, without repentance, irreversible, and irrevocable, and is inseparably connected with eternal glory; and election stands not upon the foot of works, but upon the free grace of God, which cannot be made void, and upon the will of God, which cannot be resisted; and is also closely connected with glorification; see Romans 8:30 nor are those to be made sure by saints, with respect to themselves; for though they may sometimes be at a loss about them, and may have some scruples and doubts in their minds concerning their interest in them, and an assurance of their being both called and chosen, may be after all attained unto by them; yet this is not their work, but it is the work of the Spirit of God, to certify and make sure unto them, or assure them of their calling and election of God: but the sense is, that diligence is to be used by the saints, to make their calling and election sure to others; not their election by their calling only, which is to themselves; for both are to be made sure, and that to others, and by some third thing; either to their fellow Christians, which they may do by giving them an account of the work of God upon their souls, joined with a testimony of their good lives and conversations; or rather to the world "by good works", as the Vulgate Latin version and two copies of Beza's read; or "by your good works", as the Alexandrian copy and the Syriac and Ethiopic versions read; or by the exercise of the graces, and the discharge of the duties before mentioned, whereby the men of the world may be certified and assured, by the best evidence the saints are capable of giving to them, or they of receiving, that they are the called and chosen of God, they profess themselves to be; and which is a reason why those things should be done: and another follows,

for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall; or "sin", as the Vulgate Latin and Arabic versions render it; not that they should never fall at all, or in any sense, for in many things we all offend or fall; or should ever commit any act of sin, or fall into sin, for there is no man that lives, and sins not; or that they should not fall from a degree of the lively exercise of grace, or from a degree of steadfastness in the doctrine of faith, but that they should never sin the sin against the Holy Ghost, or fall totally and finally; for though they fall, they should rise again by faith and repentance, through the grace and power of Christ, who is able to keep them from falling: and besides, while they were exercising those graces, and doing those duties, they should not fall; for these are the means of final perseverance, and therefore the rather to be regarded. Another argument, strengthening the exhortation, follows:

{8} Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall:

(8) The conclusion: Therefore seeing our calling and election is approved by those fruits, and is confirmed in us, and moreover seeing this is the only way to the everlasting kingdom of Christ, it remains that we set our minds wholly on that way.

2 Peter 1:10. Resumption of the exhortation.

διὸ μᾶλλον] διό is usually taken as referring to the truth expressed in 2 Peter 1:8-9, and μᾶλλον interpreted as equal to “all the more.” The meaning is then: that this truth should still more incite to zeal (thus Brückner, Wiesinger, Schott, etc.). Dietlein, on the other hand, takes μᾶλλον as “ushering in an antithesis,” equal to “rather;” thus also Hofmann. The former supplies the thought: “instead of following a virtueless endeavour after a so-called ἐπίγνωσις,” for which, however, in the context there is no warrant. The latter more correctly applies it to what immediately precedes, in this sense, “the readers should do the opposite of that which Peter calls a forgetting that they have received the pardon of sin.”[39] That the particle μᾶλλον frequently expresses an antithesis cannot be denied; cf. 1 Corinthians 5:2 : but as little can it be questioned that it may serve to express intensification; cf. Meyer on 2 Corinthians 7:7. In this way both interpretations are possible. Still that which is usually given appears to be preferable, inasmuch as it seems more natural to apply the very significant thought of this verse to 2 Peter 1:8-9, than only to the subordinate idea immediately preceding.

ἀδελφοί] makes the exhortation more urgent.

σπουδάσατεποιεῖσθαι] The exhortation here points back to 2 Peter 1:5 : σπουδὴν π. παρεισενέγκ. The relations of κλῆσις and ἐκλογή are thus stated by Gerhard: vocatio, qua in tempore ad regnum gratiae vocati estis; electio, qua ab aeterno ad regnum gloriae electi estis; in like manner Wiesinger, Fronmüller, etc.; cf. Lünemann also on 1 Thessalonians 1:4. But ἐκλογή can also denote the election effected by the κλῆσις, i.e. the separation of those who are called from the world, and the translation of them into the kingdom of God. And this latter view is supported not only by the position in which the two ideas stand to each other, but by the connection of thought (Grotius, Brückner, Schott, Hofmann[40]); for the summons βεβαίαν ποιεῖσθαι can apply only to something which has been realiter accomplished in man, not to the decree of God in itself unchangeable and eternal. For this reason Calvin feels himself compelled unwarrantably to paraphrase σπουδ. βεβ.… ποιεῖσθαι by: studete ut re ipsa testatum fiat, vos non frustra vocatos esse, imo electos.[41]

For βεβαίαν, cf. Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 3:14. The making sure takes place then, when the Christians, by a conduct such as is directed in 2 Peter 1:5; 2 Peter 1:8, do their part to remain the called and elected people; the opposite of this is expressed in 2 Peter 1:9.

The reading: ἵνα διὰ τῶν καλῶν ὑμῶν ἔργων βεβ. κ.τ.λ. reproduces the thought in substance correctly.

ταῦτα γὰρ ποιοῦντες] ταῦτα refers not to the foregoing virtues, as Hofmann thinks, but to that which immediately precedes; “the plural shows that the apostle considered this making sure a very many-sided act” (Dietlein).

οὐ μὴ πταίσητέ ποτε] πταίειν means in Jam 2:10; Jam 3:2 : “to offend” (Vulg.: non peccabitis); here as in Romans 11:11 : “to forfeit salvation;” thus also Hofmann. It is unjustifiable to combine the two ideas (de Wette: “to fall and so to fail of salvation”). The double negation οὐ μή, and the ποτέ placed at the end, strengthen the statement.

[39] Hofmann interprets διό in harmony with his conception of ver. 2 Peter 2 : “for this reason, because he only, who is possessed of the aforenamed graces, is capable of putting his knowledge into practice.”

[40] Grotius: date operam, ut et vocatio quae vobis contigit per evangelium et electio eam secuta, qua facti estis Dei populus, ratae sint.

[41] Besser too is wrong: “the apostle exhorts in these words, that what is stable with God, be also stable with us.”2 Peter 1:10. σπουδάσατε. An Imperative. “A sharp and urgent form” (Moulton, Proleg. i. 173). βεβαίαν. Cf. Deissmann, B. S. pp. 105 ff. The word has a legal sense. βεβαίωσις is the legal guarantee, obtained by a buyer from a seller, to be gone back upon should any third party claim the thing. Here the readers are exhorted to produce a guarantee of their calling and election. This may be done by the cultivation of the Christian graces, Cf. Ephesians 4:1. “To walk worthily of the calling wherewith ye are called.” κλῆσιν καὶ ἐκλογὴν. What is the difference between these two? καλέω used in Gospels = “bid to a feast”. κλητοί would, therefore, imply those bidden; ἐκλεκτοί = those who have become true partakers of God’s salvation. Cf. Matthew 22:14. Not all who hear the Divine Voice (κλῆσιν) progress in Christian conduct, which is the token of ἐκλογήν. οὐ μὴ πταίσητε, as a blind or shortsighted person might do.10. give diligence to make your calling and election sure] We hardly need to prove that the “calling and election” of which St Peter speaks were thought of by him as Divine acts according to the Divine foreknowledge (1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 2:21). He was not hindered, however, by any speculative difficulties from admitting that it was in man’s power to frustrate both (comp. 2 Corinthians 6:1; Galatians 2:21), and that effort was required to give them permanent validity. They were, from his point of view, as the conditions of a covenant offered by God’s mercy, but it remained with man to ratify or rescind the compact.

ye shall never fall] More literally, and more significantly, ye shall never stumble, “stumbling” being, as in Romans 11:11, a step short of falling. The use of the word may be noted as presenting a coincidence with the language of St James (James 2:10; James 3:2).2 Peter 1:10. Μᾶλλον, the more) They who have diligence ought to have more.—ἀδελφοὶ, brethren) Peter never employs this address in the former Epistle, he uses it once only in the latter: from which the weightiness of this passage is plainly seen.—βεβαίαν, firm) This confirmation takes place by means of virtue, moderation, abstinence, etc.; and therefore there follows immediately, for if ye do these things. Comp. Hebrews 6:10.—βεβαίαν ὑμῶν τὴν κλῆσιν καὶ ἐκλογην, your calling and election firm) that is, yourselves firm in your calling and election. For the confirmation belongs to those to whom the falling would otherwise belong. The calling is put before the election, as far as relates to us.Verse 10. - Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence. The two first words, διὸ μᾶλλον, "wherefore the rather," are by some understood as referring only to the last clause; as if St. Peter were saying, "Rather than follow those who lack the graces enumerated above, and forget that they were cleansed from their former sins, give diligence." Μᾶλλον is not unfrequently used in this antithetical sense, as in 1 Corinthians 5:2; Hebrews 11:25. But it seems better to refer διό to the whole passage (verses 3-9), and to understand μᾶλλον in its more usual intensive sense, "all the more," as in 1 Thessalonians 4:10, etc. Because God has bestowed such gifts on men, because the use of those gifts leads on to the full knowledge of Christ, therefore all the more give diligence. The word σπουδάσατε, "give diligence," recalls the σπουδὴν πᾶσαν, "all diligence," of verse 5. The aorist seems, as it were, to sum up the continued diligence of daily life into one vivid description. This is the only place in which St. Peter uses the vocative "brethren;" he has "beloved" in the First Epistle (1 Peter 2:11) and in 2 Peter 3:1, 8. Both words imply affectionate exhortation. Two ancient manuscripts, the Alexandrine and the Sinaitic, insert here, "Through your good works (διὰ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων, or τῶν καλῶν ὑμῶν ἔργων)." To make your calling and election sure. Alford calls attention to the middle voice of the verb, "Not ποιεῖν, which lay beyond their power, but ποιεῖσθαι, on their side, for their part. But the verb must not be explained away into a pure subjectivity, 'to make sure to yourselves;' it carries the reflexive force, but only in so far as the act is and must be done for and quoad a man's own self, the absolute and final determination resting with Another." The calling and election are the act of God (comp. 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 2:21). All the baptized, all who bear the name of Christ, are called into the Church, but few comparatively are chosen, elect (ὀλίγοι δὲ ἐκλεκτοί, Matthew 20:16). We look, as it were, from far below up to the mysteries of God's sovereign government; we cannot read the list of blessed names written in the Lamb's book of life; we cannot lift ourselves to a point high enough to comprehend the secrets of God's dealing with mankind, and to reconcile the Divine foreknowledge and omnipotence with the free agency of man. But we feel the energy of that free agency within us; we know that Holy Scripture bids us to work out our salvation, and tells us of some who receive the grace of God in vain (2 Corinthians 6:1), or frustrate the grace of God (Galatians 2:21); and we feel that when the apostle tells us to make our calling and election sure, he means that we must try to realize that calling and election, to bring its solemn responsibilities and its blessed hopes to bear upon our daily life, to live as men who have been called into God's Church, who are elect unto eternal life, and so (if we may dare to say it) to ratify God's election by our poor acceptance. He calls us into covenant with himself; we answer, as the children of Israel said at Mount Sinai, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient" (Exodus 24:7). Our obedience makes the covenant sure to us; holiness of life is the proof of God's election, for it implies the indwelling presence of "that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance." For if ye do these things, ye shall never fall. "If ye do these things;" i.e., "If ye make your calling and election sure." "The plural shows that the apostle considered this making sure a very many-sided act" (Dietlein, in Huther). Others refer the ταῦτα, "these things," to the graces just enumerated. Ye shall never fall; literally, ye shall never stumble (οὐ μὴ πταίσητε). Πταίειν is "to strike one's foot against some obstacle," and so to stumble. St. James says, "In many things we offend (πταίομεν) all" (James 3:2). St. Peter here means to stumble so as to fall (Romans 11:11); while Christians "do these things," while they make their calling and election sure by holiness of life, they cannot stumble; it is in unguarded moments that they fall into temptation. The rather (μᾶλλον)

The adverb belongs rather with the verb give diligence. Render, as Rev., give the more diligence.

Brethren (ἀδελφοί)

The only instance of this form of address in Peter, who commonly uses beloved.

Fall (πταίσητε)

Lit., stumble, and so Rev. Compare James 3:2.

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