Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper chambers thereof, and of the inner parlors thereof, and of the place of the mercy seat,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Then (and) David gave.—The description proceeds from the outer to the inner.
The pattern.—Heb., tahnîth, the word used in Exodus 25:9 of the model, plan, or design of the Tabernacle.
The porch.—See 1Kings 6:3. The Syriac has prûstidê: i.e., παραστάδες, colonnade, portico.
The houses thereof.—Its—i.e., the Temple’s—chambers. Throughout this verse the word thereof refers to the house mentioned in 1Chronicles 28:10. The two principal rooms of the Temple, the “holy place” and the “Holy of holies,” or, as we might say, the nave and the chancel, are called its “houses” (bāttîm).
The treasuries (ganzakkim), occurring here only. It appears to be a loan word from the Persian (ghanj, treasure, treasury; comp. the Latin and Greek gaza, treasure. In old Persian ka was a noun-ending; comp. bandaka, servant). With the singular, ganzak, comp. Persian Ghanjak (the classical Gazaca), the capital of Atropatene, which was a treasure-city. (Comp. also the word ginzê; Esther 3:9; Esther 4:7; Ezra 7:20, and ginzayyā, Ezra 5:17; Ezra 6:1, meaning treasures.) Gesenius (Thesaur., p. 296) assumes that the root G N Z has passed from Semitic into Persian, and not vice versâ. This may be true, as the root exists in the principal Semitic tongues, and yet it may be that ganzak in Hebrew is a modern loan word. The “treasuries” or store-rooms of the Temple were probably in the side-building of three storeys (1Kings 6:5).
The upper chambers (‘alîyôth).—Only here and in 2Chronicles 3:9. They were probably over the Holy of holies, the ceiling of which was twenty cubits from the floor, whereas the roof of the whole building was thirty cubits from the ground. A space of ten cubits high by twenty wide and twenty long was thus available for the upper chambers.
The inner parlours.—The fore-court, or vestibule, and the holy place, or nave, in contrast with “the place of the mercy-seat,” or chamber of the Kappôreth: i.e., the Holy of holies, the inmost shrine of the whole bolding.1 Chronicles 28:11. David gave Solomon the pattern of the porch — To wit, of the temple, which is necessarily to be understood. And of the houses thereof — The houses of the temple, namely, of the holy place, and the holy of holies. And of the inner parlours thereof — Those rooms which were made against the walls of the house round about, 1 Kings 6:5. And of the place of the mercy-seat — In what particular part of the holy of holies it was to be placed.1 Chronicles 28:19. As God had revealed to Moses the pattern of the tabernacle Exodus 26; 27, so He had made known by revelation to David the pattern of the temple and its furniture. This pattern, which consisted of a set of directions in writing, David now handed over to Solomon.
The houses - The "holy place" and the "holy of holies " - called respectively "the house" and the "inner house" 1 Kings 6:17, 1 Kings 6:27, and 2 Chronicles 3:5, 2 Chronicles 3:8 "the greater house" and "the most holy house."
The upper chambers - Compare 2 Chronicles 3:9 note.
The inner parlours - The small rooms of the "lean-to" (1 Kings 6:5 note), entered one from another.The pattern of the porch, to wit, of the temple; which is necessarily to be understood.
The houses thereof; either,
1. The houses of the porch, so called because they went through the porch into them. Or rather,
2. The houses of the temple, manifestly understood in the next foregoing clause of this verse, to wit, the holy place, and the holy of holies; which may well pass for two houses, because they were separated by a partition; and because they were of differing dimensions, as appears by 1 Kings 6:2,20, especially seeing the holy place is called the greater house, 2 Chronicles 3:5, comparatively to the holy of holies, which was the lesser house, and so you have two houses.
The inner parlours thereof; by these he seems to understand all those rooms which were made against the wall of the house round about, as it is said, 1 Kings 6:5, which are here called by divers names, according to the difference of their situation or use.
The place of the mercy-seat, i.e. in what particular part of the holy of holies it was to be placed.
and, of the houses thereof; the holy place, and the most holy, which latter is called the greater house, 2 Chronicles 3:5,
and of the treasures; where things belonging to the temple were laid up, the priests' vestments, and other things:
and of the upper chambers; where the priests lay or met for conversation, Jeremiah 35:2.
and of the inner parlours thereof; where the priests ate of the holy things; all these seem to he buildings against the wall of the temple round about, 1 Kings 6:5.Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper chambers thereof, and of the inner parlors thereof, and of the place of the mercy seat,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)11. the pattern] Cp. 1 Chronicles 28:12; Exodus 25:9. The Temple like the tabernacle is to be constructed according to a pattern or model communicated by inspiration. Cp. Exodus 28:3; Exodus 31:3.
of the porch] R.V. of the porch of the temple. The triple-recurring thereof refers to the Temple.
the porch] Cp. 2 Chronicles 3:4; 1 Kings 6:3.
the houses thereof] Cp. 2 Chronicles 34:11. We should expect here a mention of the House itself.
the treasuries] A different Hebrew word from that used in 1 Chronicles 28:12. The inner treasuries mentioned here were for treasure; the outer treasuries (1 Chronicles 28:12) were perhaps rather store-chambers.
upper chambers] R.V. upper rooms. Cp. 1 Kings 6:6 (the Hebrew word however is different).
inner parlours] R.V. inner chambers, probably inner recesses of the Temple itself.
the place of the mercy seat] The Holy of Holies.Verses 11-19. - These hints respecting the parts of the building that was to be, and respecting the furniture of it, will come in for fuller consideration in the fuller treatment of them, found in the narration of the actual construction of the building in 2 Chronicles compared with 2 Kings 6, etc. It is evident that David desired to make a solemn and set business of handing over even the patterns and plans. Nor is this under any circumstances wonderful, but least of all considering their Divine origin. The Divine original of the tabernacle and all its belongings (Exodus 25-30; Hebrews 8:5) was not to be a neglected precedent as regards the greater temple. It is said that "David gave" these "patterns to Solomon his son" (ver. 11), and the form in which he gave them is explained in ver. 19. There we read, "The whole in writing from the hand of Jehovah upon me, he made me to understand - all the works of this pattern." Whatever we generally accept respecting the writing of the tables of the Law by the finger of God (Exodus 24:12; Exodus 31:18; Exodus 32:15, 16; Deuteronomy 4:13; Deuteronomy 5:5, 22; Deuteronomy 9:10), is at all events open for acceptance here. At the same time, the phraseology of our nineteenth verse is certainly not so uncompromising-as that of the references just instanced from the Books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. The words of ver. 19 may be satisfied by the meaning that David was in such manner and degree "in the Spirit" (Revelation 1:10), that in the writing and the drawing of patterns his hand was entirely under the guidance of that Spirit. In either alternative, to hand over such documents and such "patterns" must have been felt by David and all present an act of which much should be made. Verse 11. - The patterns of six parts of the future building are here delivered over to Solomon.
1. The porch; הָאוּלָם (1 Kings 6:3; 1 Kings 7:6; Ezekiel 40:7; Ezekiel 8:16; Joel 2:17; 2 Chronicles 3:4, where we read that the length was twenty cubits, and the height one hundred and twenty cubits; 2 Chronicles 8:12; 15:8; 29:7, 17); Septuagint, τὸ αἰλὰμ τοῦ rang generally, but in this verse τοῦ ναοῦ is all that appears. This porch was built on the east of the temple.
2. The houses thereof; i.e. not of the porch, but of the whole building; בָּתָּיו; Septuagint, τῶν οἴκων αὐτοῦ. The word "houses" in this place designates the" greater house," or" temple," or holy place of 2 Chronicles 3:5; 1 Kings 6:5, 17; and the "inner house," or "oracle," or "most holy house," or "holy of holies,'" of 2 Chronicles 3:8; 1 Kings 6:19-27.
3. The treasuries thereof; נַנְזַכָּיו, a word found only here in this form, with a Chaldee termination in אַּך; Septuagint, τῶν ζακχῶν αὐτοῦ. The treasuries were chambers for receiving gifts, and storing the treasures new or old of the temple. Which of the rooms that were built against the sides of the temple were set apart as these treasure- chambers is not known. Perhaps they were the three-storied wings of the temple (1 Kings 6:5).
4. The upper chambers thereof; עֲלִיּתֹיָו; Septuagint, τῶν ὑπερώωνι (for fuller treatment of these, see 2 Chronicles 3:9). We may only with confidence say of these chambers that they were upper chambers, but whether over the "oracle" as Keil and Bertheau think, or over the "porch," or the higher of those, that leaned against the sides of the main building, it is impossible to determine from such data as we at present have.
5. The inner parlours thereof; חֲדָרָיו הַפְגִימִים, Septuagint τῶν ἀποθηκῶν τῶν ἐσωτέρων. There can be little doubt that these designate the lower rooms of the side buildings of the holy place, and perhaps also of the porch.
6. The plane of the mercy-seat; בֵּית הַכַּפֹרֶת; Septuagint, τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ ἐξιλασμοῦ. 1 Samuel 30:23; 2 Samuel 19:13. What David here says (1 Chronicles 28:3-7) of the temple building, he had in substance already (1 Chronicles 22:7-13) said to his son Solomon: I, it was with my heart, i.e., I purposed (cf. 1 Chronicles 22:7) to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of Jahve, and the footstool of the feet of our God, i.e., for the ark and for the capporeth upon it, which is called "footstool of the feet of our God," because God was enthroned above the cherubim upon the capporeth. "And I have prepared to build," i.e., prepared labour and materials, 1 Chronicles 22:2-4 and 1 Chronicles 22:14.; on 1 Chronicles 28:3, cf. 1 Chronicles 22:8. - In 1 Chronicles 28:4 David states how his election to be king was of God, who had chosen Judah to be ruler (cf. 1 Chronicles 5:2); and just so (1 Chronicles 28:5, 1 Chronicles 28:6) had God chosen Solomon from among all his many sons to be heir to the throne, and committed to him the building of the temple; cf. 1 Chronicles 22:10. The expression, "throne of the kingdom of Jahve," and more briefly, "throne of Jahve" (1 Chronicles 29:23, or מלכוּתי, 1 Chronicles 17:14), denotes that Jahve is the true King of Israel, and had chosen Solomon as He had chosen David to be holder and administrator of His kingdom dominion. - On 1 Chronicles 22:6 and 1 Chronicles 22:7, cf. 1 Chronicles 22:10 and 1 Chronicles 17:11.; and with the condition וגו יחזק אם, cf. 1 Kings 3:14; 1 Kings 9:4, where God imposes an exactly similar condition on Solomon. הזּה כּיּום, as is done at this time; cf. 1 Kings 8:61, and the commentary on Deuteronomy 2:30. On this speech J. H. Mich. well remarks: "tota haec narratio aptata est ad prospositum Davidis: vult enim Salomoni auctoritatem apud principes et fratres conciliare, ostendendo, non humana, sed divina voluntate electum esse," To this David adds an exhortation to the whole assembly (1 Chronicles 28:8), and to his son Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:9), to hold fast their faithfulness to God.
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