1 Kings 4:2
New International Version
And these were his chief officials: Azariah son of Zadok--the priest;

New Living Translation
and these were his high officials: Azariah son of Zadok was the priest.

English Standard Version
and these were his high officials: Azariah the son of Zadok was the priest;

Berean Study Bible
and these were his chief officials: Azariah son of Zadok was the priest;

New American Standard Bible
These were his officials: Azariah the son of Zadok was the priest;

King James Bible
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,

Christian Standard Bible
and these were his officials: Azariah son of Zadok, priest;

Good News Translation
and these were his high officials: The priest: Azariah son of Zadok

Holman Christian Standard Bible
and these were his officials: Azariah son of Zadok, priest;

International Standard Version
Here's a list of his officials: Zadok's son Azariah was priest,

NET Bible
These were his officials: Azariah son of Zadok was the priest.

New Heart English Bible
These were the officials whom he had: Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest;

GOD'S WORD® Translation
these were his officials: [Azariah], son of Zadok, was the [chief] priest.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And these were the princes whom he had: Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest;

New American Standard 1977
And these were his officials: Azariah the son of Zadok was the priest;

Jubilee Bible 2000
And these were the princes which he had: Azariah, the son of Zadok, the priest,

King James 2000 Bible
And these were the princes whom he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,

American King James Version
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,

American Standard Version
And these were the princes whom he had: Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest;

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And these are the princes which he had; Azarias son of Sadoc.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And these were the princes which he had: Azarias the son of Sadoc the priest:

Darby Bible Translation
And these are the princes whom he had: Azariah the son of Zadok was priest;

English Revised Version
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest;

Webster's Bible Translation
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,

World English Bible
These were the princes whom he had: Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest;

Young's Literal Translation
and these are the heads whom he hath: Azariah son of Zadok is the priest;
Study Bible
Solomon's Princes
1So King Solomon ruled over Israel, 2and these were his chief officials: Azariah son of Zadok was the priest; 3Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha, were secretaries; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was the recorder;…
Cross References
1 Kings 4:1
So King Solomon ruled over Israel,

1 Chronicles 6:10
Johanan was the father of Azariah (who served as priest in the temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem),

Treasury of Scripture

And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,

Exodus 18:21
Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens:

2 Samuel 8:15-18
And David reigned over all Israel; and David executed judgment and justice unto all his people…

2 Samuel 20:23-26
Now Joab was over all the host of Israel: and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and over the Pelethites: …

Azariah

1 Chronicles 6:8-10
And Ahitub begat Zadok, and Zadok begat Ahimaaz, …

1 Chronicles 27:17
Of the Levites, Hashabiah the son of Kemuel: of the Aaronites, Zadok:

priest.







Lexicon
and these
וְאֵ֥לֶּה (wə·’êl·leh)
Conjunctive waw | Pronoun - common plural
Strong's Hebrew 428: These, those

were his chief officials:
הַשָּׂרִ֖ים (haś·śā·rîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8269: Chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince

Azariah
עֲזַרְיָ֥הוּ (‘ă·zar·yā·hū)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5838: Azariah -- 'Yah has helped', the name of a number of Israelites

son
בֶן־ (ḇen-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

of Zadok
צָד֖וֹק (ṣā·ḏō·wq)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6659: Zadok -- the name of several Israelites

[was] the priest;
הַכֹּהֵֽן׃ (hak·kō·hên)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3548: Priest
(2) And these were.--The officers described are of two classes--those attached to Solomon's Court, and those invested with local authority.

The princes are evidently Solomon's high counsellors and officers, "eating at the king's table." The word is derived from a root which means to "set in order." It is significant that whereas in the lists of David's officers in 2Samuel 8:16-18; 2Samuel 20:23-26, the captain of the host stands first, and is followed in one list by the captain of the body-guard, both are here preceded by the peaceful offices of the priests, scribes, and the recorder.

Azariah the son of Zadok the priest.--In 1Chronicles 6:9-10, we find Azariah described as the son of Ahimaaz, and so grandson of Zadok; and the note in 1Kings 4:10 (which is apparently out of its right place) seems to show that he was high priest at the time when the Temple was built. The title the "priest" in this place must be given by anticipation, for it is expressly said below that "Zadok and Abiathar were now the priests." The use of the original word, Cohen (probably signifying "one who ministers"), appears sometimes to retain traces of the old times, when the priesthood and headship of the family were united, and to be applied accordingly to princes, to whom perhaps still attached something of the ancient privilege. Thus it is given to the sons of David in 2Samuel 8:18, where the parallel passage in 1Chronicles 18:17 has a paraphrase, "chief about the king," evidently intended to explain the sense in which it is used in the older record. We may remember that David himself on occasions wore the priestly ephod (see 2Samuel 6:14). Possibly in this sense it is applied in 1Kings 4:5 to Zabud, the "king's friend" (where the Authorised Version renders it by "principal officer"). But in this verse there is every reason for taking it in the usual sense. Azariah was already a "prince" before he succeeded to the high priesthood. The mingling, of priestly and princely functions is characteristic of the time.

Verse 2. - And these were the princes [i.e. ministers, officers. Cf. 2 Samuel 8:15-18, and 2 Sam 20:23-26] which he had, Azariah the son [i.e., descendant, probably grandson. See on 1 Chronicles 6:10] of Zadok the priest. [We are here confronted by two questions of considerable difficulty. First, to whom does the title "priest" here belong, to Azariah or to Zadok? Second, what are we to understand by the term, a spiritual, or a more or less secular person - ἱερεύς or βουλευτής? As to

1. the Vulgate (sacerdotis) and apparently the Authorized Version, with the Rabbins, Luther, and many later expounders, connect the title with Zadok (who is mentioned as priest in ver. 4), and understand that Azariah, the son of the high priest Zadok, was, together with the sons of Shisha, one of the scribes (ver. 3). It is true that this view obviates some difficulties, but against it are these considerations.

(1) The accents.

(2) The Chaldee and LXX. (ὁ ἱερεύς Cod. Alex.; Cod. Vat. omits the words) Versions.

(3) Hebrew usage, according to which the patronymic is regarded as almost parenthetical.

(4) The fact that in every other case in this list the title is predicate nominative (vers. 3-6).

(5) The position of Azariah's name, first in the list - a position which would hardly be assigned to a scribe.

(6) The absence of any copula (ו), which, it is submitted, would be required if Azariah and the sons of Shisha alike were scribes. The question is one of some nicety, but the balance of evidence is distinctly in favour of connecting the title with Azariah, i.e., "Azariah son of Zadok was the priest." This brings us to

2. What are we to understand by "the priest " - הַכֹּהֵן? It is urged by Keil, Bahr, al. that this cannot mean "priest" in the ordinary sense of the word, still less "high priest," for the following reasons:

(1) Because the high priests of Solomon are mentioned presently, viz., Abiathar and Zadok, and the Jews never had three high priests.

(2) Because the Azariah who was high priest under Solomon for the words of 1 Chronicles 6:10, "He it is that executed the priest's office," etc, must belong to the Azariah of ver. 9, and have got accidentally misplaced - was the son of Ahimaaz, not of Zadok.

(3) Because no grandson of Zadok could then be old enough to sustain the office of high priest.

(4) Because in one passage (2 Samuel 8:18, compared with 1 Chronicles 18:17) כֹּהֲנִים is used of privy councillors and of the sons of David, who cannot have been sacrificing priests. Keil consequently would understand that Azariah was "administrator of the kingdom, or prime minister." Similarly Bahr. But in favour of the ordinary meaning of the word are these powerful considerations:

(1) All the versions translate the word by "priest," i.e., they understand by the term a spiritual person.

(2) Whatever may be the case with כֹּהֵן, הַכֹּהֵן, "the priest" (par excellence) can only be understood of the high priest (ch. 1:8, 38; Exodus 29:30; Leviticus 21:21; 2 Kings 11:9, 15; 2 Kings 22:4, 8, 10, 12, 14. Comp. 2 Chronicles 26:17).

(3) It is extremely doubtful whether כֹּהֵן is ever used except in the sense of ἱερεύς, Rawlinson, who says it sometimes indicates "a civil officer, with perhaps a semi-priestly character," refers to Gesenius sub hac voce, who, however, distinctly affirms that the word only means priest, and accounts for the application of the term to the sons of David (2 Samuel 8:18) on the supposition that the Jews had priests who were not of the tribe of Levi. The question is discussed with great learning by Professor Plumptre (Dict. Bib., art. "Priest"), who suggests that "David and his sons may have been admitted, not to distinctively priestly functions, such as burning incense (Numbers 16:40; 2 Chronicles 26:18), but to an honorary, titular priesthood. To wear the ephod in processions (2 Samuel 6:14) at the time when this was the special badge of the order (1 Samuel 22:18), to join the priests and Levites in their songs and dances, might have been conceded, with no deviation from the Law, to the members of the royal house." There is one difficulty however in the way of accepting this ingenious and otherwise sufficient explanation, namely, that it seems hardly likely that the title of priest would be freely accorded by Hebrew writers to men who were expressly excluded from all "distinctively priestly functions," especially after the use of the same word in the preceding verse (17) to designate the high priest. And I venture to suggest that the discharge by David's sons of the semi-priestly functions just referred to occasioned so much remark as to head to the application of the term "priest" to them in a special conventional sense; in fact, that it became a sort of soubriquet, which rather implied that they were not priests than that they were. (Notice the order of 2 Samuel 8:18, Hebrews) And observe

(4) if we are to understand by "the priest" in ver. 2, "prime minister;" by "priests" in ver. 4, "high priests," and by "priest" in ver 5, "principal officer," language has no certain meaning.

(5) The mention of Azariah as "the priest" in the same list with Zadok and Abiathar is easily accounted for. We know that Abiathar was deposed at the beginning of Solomon's reign (1 Kings 2:27), and Zadok must then have been an old man. Their names consequently are recorded (ver. 4) because they were high priests for a brief period of the reign, but Azariah is mentioned first as "the priest" because he was high priest during most of the time.

(6) "Azariah the son of Zadok" is quite compatible with the fact that Azariah was really the son of Ahimaaz. בֵּן is constantly used in the sense of "descendant," and especially "grandson." (Genesis 29:5: 31:28, 55: and see on ch. 2:8,"the son of Gera.") Zadok is no doubt mentioned as better known than Ahimaaz, and probably because Azariah succeeded him directly in the office.

(7) The age of Azariah must be uncertain, and Solomon's reign was a long one.

(8) The position of his name - first - accords well with the idea that he was high priest, which I conclude that he was. It is worthy of remark that in the lists of David the military officers of the kingdom occupy the first place; in those of Solomon, the civil and religious dignitaries. "The princes of Solomon are, with one exception (ver. 4) ministers of peace." - Wordsworth. 4:1-19 In the choice of the great officers of Solomon's court, no doubt, his wisdom appeared. Several are the same that were in his father's time. A plan was settled by which no part of the country was exhausted to supply his court, though each sent its portion.
Jump to Previous
Azariah Azari'ah Chief Heads High Officials Priest Princes Zadok
Jump to Next
Azariah Azari'ah Chief Heads High Officials Priest Princes Zadok
Links
1 Kings 4:2 NIV
1 Kings 4:2 NLT
1 Kings 4:2 ESV
1 Kings 4:2 NASB
1 Kings 4:2 KJV

1 Kings 4:2 Bible Apps
1 Kings 4:2 Biblia Paralela
1 Kings 4:2 Chinese Bible
1 Kings 4:2 French Bible
1 Kings 4:2 German Bible

Alphabetical: And Azariah chief his of officials priest son the these was were Zadok

OT History: 1 Kings 4:2 These were the princes whom he had: (1Ki iKi i Ki 1 Kg 1kg) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
1 Kings 4:1
Top of Page
Top of Page