Hebrews 1:13
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
To which of the angels did God ever say, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"?

New Living Translation
And God never said to any of the angels, "Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet."

English Standard Version
And to which of the angels has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?

Berean Study Bible
And to which of the angels did God ever say: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet"?

Berean Literal Bible
Now to which of the angels did He ever say: "Sit at My right hand, until I may place Your enemies as a footstool for Your feet"?

New American Standard Bible
But to which of the angels has He ever said, "SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND, UNTIL I MAKE YOUR ENEMIES A FOOTSTOOL FOR YOUR FEET "?

King James Bible
But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Now to which of the angels has He ever said: Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies Your footstool?

International Standard Version
But to which of the angels did he ever say, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"?

NET Bible
But to which of the angels has he ever said, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"?

New Heart English Bible
But which of the angels has he told at any time, "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet?"

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
But to which of the Angels did he ever say, “Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies as a footstool under your feet?”

GOD'S WORD® Translation
But God never said to any of the angels, "Sit in the highest position in heaven until I make your enemies your footstool."

New American Standard 1977
But to which of the angels has He ever said,
            “SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND,
            UNTIL I MAKE THINE ENEMIES
            A FOOTSTOOL FOR THY FEET”?



Jubilee Bible 2000
But to which of the angels did he say at any time, Sit on my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool?

King James 2000 Bible
But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool?

American King James Version
But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool?

American Standard Version
But of which of the angels hath he said at any time, Sit thou on my right hand, Till I make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet?

Douay-Rheims Bible
But to which of the angels said he at any time: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool?

Darby Bible Translation
But as to which of the angels said he ever, Sit at my right hand until I put thine enemies [as] footstool of thy feet?

English Revised Version
But of which of the angels hath he said at any time, Sit thou on my right hand, Till I make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet?

Webster's Bible Translation
But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool?

Weymouth New Testament
To which of the angels has He ever said, "Sit at My right hand till I make Thy foes a footstool for Thy feet"?

World English Bible
But which of the angels has he told at any time, "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet?"

Young's Literal Translation
And unto which of the messengers said He ever, 'Sit at My right hand, till I may make thine enemies thy footstool?'

Study Bible
The Supremacy of the Son
12You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed; but You remain the same, and Your years will never end.” 13And to which of the angels did God ever say: “Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet”? 14Are not the angels ministering spirits, sent to serve those who will inherit salvation?…
Cross References
Joshua 10:24
When they brought these kings out to Joshua, Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the men of war who had gone with him, "Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings." So they came near and put their feet on their necks.

Psalm 110:1
A Psalm of David. The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."

Matthew 22:44
The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, until I put Your enemies under Your feet."'

Hebrews 1:3
The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact representation of His nature, upholding all things by His powerful word. After He had provided purification for sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.

Hebrews 10:13
Since that time, He waits for His enemies to be made a footstool for His feet,
Treasury of Scripture

But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool?

to.

Hebrews 1:5 For to which of the angels said he at any time, You are my Son, this …

Sit.

Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his …

Hebrews 10:12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, …

Psalm 110:1 The LORD said to my Lord, Sit you at my right hand, until I make …

Matthew 22:44 The LORD said to my Lord, Sit you on my right hand, till I make your …

Mark 12:36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, …

Luke 20:42 And David himself said in the book of Psalms, The LORD said to my …

Acts 2:34-36 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he said himself, …

Acts 7:55 But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into …

until.

Psalm 21:8,9 Your hand shall find out all your enemies: your right hand shall …

Psalm 132:18 His enemies will I clothe with shame: but on himself shall his crown flourish.

Isaiah 63:3-6 I have trodden the wine press alone; and of the people there was …

Luke 19:27 But those my enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, …

1 Corinthians 15:25,26 For he must reign, till he has put all enemies under his feet…

Revelation 19:11-21 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat …

Revelation 20:15 And whoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into …

(13) But to which of the angels.--The final appeal is made to that Psalm which more frequently than any other is quoted in reference to Christ, and which we have already seen to be the source of all the New Testament references to the Saviour's session at the right hand of God. It is not necessary to say much here respecting Psalms 110, to which so many allusions will be made in the course of this Epistle. That it was regularly understood by the Jews of our Lord's time to be a Messianic Psalm is clear both from Matthew 22:43-44, and from the independent notices which we possess. Most probably, it stands alone amongst the Psalms as being simply prophetic: the words of Hebrews 1:1 have never been addressed either to angels or to an earthly king. On the special words of the quotation see Hebrews 1:3.

Said he at any time.--Better, hath He ever said.

Until I make . . .--Literally, until I shall have made Thine enemies a footstool of Thy feet.

Verse 13. - But to which of the angels said he (properly, hath he said) at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? A final and crowning quotation is thus adduced, in the form in which the first quotation referring to the SON (ver. 5) had been introduced, to complete the view of his superiority to the angels. The quotation is from Psalm 110, the reference of which to the Messiah is settled beyond controversy to Christian believers, not only by its being quoted or alluded to more frequently than any other psalm with that reference in the New Testament (Acts 2:34; Acts 7:55, 56; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20-22; 1 Peter 3:22; Hebrews 1:3, 13, 14; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12, 13), and by the introduction of its language into the Church's earliest Creeds, but also by the authority of our Lord himself, as recorded by all the three synoptical evangelists (Matthew 22:41; Mark 12:35; Luke 20:41). Hence readers of this Commentary will not require a confutation of the arguments of any modern rationalistic critics who have disputed the Messianic meaning of the psalm. Their arguments rest really on their a priori denial of a "spirit of prophecy" in the psalms generally; in their refusal to recognize, what the later prophets recognized, an unfulfilled ideal in what the psalmists wrote of theocratic kings. Let us once recognize this, and we shall perceive in this psalm peculiar marks of the spirit of prophecy, reaching beyond any contemporary fulfillment, not only in the assignment to the King of a seat at the right hand of the heavenly throne, but also in his remarkable designation as a "Priest after the order of Melchizedek," of which more will be said under Hebrews 5. and Hebrews 7. of this Epistle. It is to be observed also how prophets, long after the psalm was written, regarded its ideal as still awaiting fulfillment; e.g. Daniel (Daniel 7:13, etc.), whose vision of the Son of man brought near before the Ancient of days, and having an everlasting dominion given him, is referred to by our Lord (Matthew 26:64) in connection with the psalm, as awaiting fulfillment in himself; and Zechariah (Zechariah 6:12, etc.:, who takes up the idea of the psalm in speaking of the Branch, who was to unite in himself royalty and priesthood. The psalm is entitled, "A psalm of David." Though this title is prefixed to some psalms the contents of which suggest a later date, and is not, therefore, considered proof of authorship, it proves at least the tradition and belief of the Jews when the Hebrew Psalter was arranged in its existing form. But we have in this case evidence in the three Gospels of its universal acceptance as a psalm of David by the Jews in the time of our Lord; and, what is of more weight, of his having himself referred to it as such. The whole point of his argument with the Pharisees depends on the acknowledgment of David being the speaker, as well as of the Messiah being the Person spoken cf. None of the Pharisees thought of disputing either of these premises; they were evidently received as indisputable; nor can it be conceived (as has been irreverently suggested) that our Lord did not thus give his own sanction to their truth. Nor, further, is there in the psalm itself any internal evidence against its Davidic authorship, though, but for the above testimony to the contrary, it might have been the composition of a prophet of David's day, or written by David for use by his people - the term, "my lord," having thus a primary reference to him. In either of these cases we might suppose the original conception of ver. 1 to have been that of David himself being enthroned on Zion at the side of the "King of glory" (Psalm 24.) who had "come in;" while ver. 4 might possibly have been suggested by David's organization of the services of the tabernacle, and by the personal part he took in the ritual when the ark was removed to Zion. Even so, the quotation would answer the purpose of the argument according to the view of the drift of Messianic psalms which has been explained above. But, even independently of the distinct import of our Lord's words, there are reasons (pointed out by Delitzsch) against the supposition of even a primary reference to David in the words, "my lord." Two may be mentioned:

(1) that the assignment of sacerdotal functions to an earthly king is contrary to the whole spirit of the Old Testament;

(2) that God's own throne is elsewhere represented as, not in Zion, but above the heavens. Now, the conclusion thus arrived at, that David himself is speaking throughout the psalm of another than himself, gives a peculiar force to this final quotation, in that the Antitype is distinguished from and raised above the type more evidently than in other Messianic psalms. In others (as we have regarded them) the typical king himself is the primary object in view, though ideally glorified so as to foreshadow One greater than himself; here the typical king seems to have a distinct vision of the Messiah apart from himself, and speaks of him as his lord. It does not follow that David's own position and circumstances did not form a basis for his vision. We perceive traces of them in "the rod of thy strength out of Zion," and in the picture which follows of the submission of heathen kings after warfare and slaughter. But vers. 1 and 4 point still to another than himself whom he foresees in the spirit of prophecy. The psalm begins, literally translated, "The voice [or, 'oracle,' Hebrew נְאֻם] of Jehovah to my lord, Sit thou on my right hand," etc. This sounds like more than a mere echo of Nathan's message, the language being different and still more significant. And that such a vision of a future fulfillment of the promise was not foreign to the mind of David appears from his "last words" (2 Samuel 23:1, etc.), where also the significant word נְאֻס is used. And now, mark what the language of this "oracle" implies - not merely the enthronement of the Son on Zion as God's Vicegerent, but his session at the right hand of God himself, i.e. "at the right hand of the Majesty on high;" God's own throne being ever (as has been said above) regarded as above the heavens, or, if on earth, above the cherubim. Such, then, being the meaning of the "oracle" (and it is the meaning uniformly given it in the New Testament), well may it be adduced as the final and crowning proof of the position above the angels assigned to the SON in prophecy. But to which of the angels said he at any time,.... That is, he never said to any of them in his council, or covenant; he never designed to give them any such honour, as hereafter expressed; he never promised it to them, or bestowed it on them; he never called up any of them to so high a place, or to such a dignity:

sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool; yet this he said to his Son, Psalm 110:1 for to him, the Messiah, are they spoken, and have had their fulfilment in him: See Gill on Matthew 22:44; and therefore he must be greater than the angels. 13. Quotation from Ps 110:1. The image is taken from the custom of conquerors putting the feet on the necks of the conquered (Jos 10:24, 25).1:4-14 Many Jews had a superstitious or idolatrous respect for angels, because they had received the law and other tidings of the Divine will by their ministry. They looked upon them as mediators between God and men, and some went so far as to pay them a kind of religious homage or worship. Thus it was necessary that the apostle should insist, not only on Christ's being the Creator of all things, and therefore of angels themselves, but as being the risen and exalted Messiah in human nature, to whom angels, authorities, and powers are made subject. To prove this, several passages are brought from the Old Testament. On comparing what God there says of the angels, with what he says to Christ, the inferiority of the angels to Christ plainly appears. Here is the office of the angels; they are God's ministers or servants, to do his pleasure. But, how much greater things are said of Christ by the Father! And let us own and honour him as God; for if he had not been God, he had never done the Mediator's work, and had never worn the Mediator's crown. It is declared how Christ was qualified for the office of Mediator, and how he was confirmed in it: he has the name Messiah from his being anointed. Only as Man he has his fellows, and as anointed with the Holy Spirit; but he is above all prophets, priests, and kings, that ever were employed in the service of God on earth. Another passage of Scripture, Ps 102:25-27, is recited, in which the Almighty power of the Lord Jesus Christ is declared, both in creating the world and in changing it. Christ will fold up this world as a garment, not to be abused any longer, not to be used as it has been. As a sovereign, when his garments of state are folded and put away, is a sovereign still, so our Lord, when he has laid aside the earth and heavens like a vesture, shall be still the same. Let us not then set our hearts upon that which is not what we take it to be, and will not be what it now is. Sin has made a great change in the world for the worse, and Christ will make a great change in it for the better. Let the thoughts of this make us watchful, diligent, and desirous of that better world. The Saviour has done much to make all men his friends, yet he has enemies. But they shall be made his footstool, by humble submission, or by utter destruction. Christ shall go on conquering and to conquer. The most exalted angels are but ministering spirits, mere servants of Christ, to execute his commands. The saints, at present, are heirs, not yet come into possession. The angels minister to them in opposing the malice and power of evil spirits, in protecting and keeping their bodies, instructing and comforting their souls, under Christ and the Holy Ghost. Angels shall gather all the saints together at the last day, when all whose hearts and hopes are set upon perishing treasures and fading glories, will be driven from Christ's presence into everlasting misery.
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