Exodus 12:1
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt,

New Living Translation
While the Israelites were still in the land of Egypt, the LORD gave the following instructions to Moses and Aaron:

English Standard Version
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

New American Standard Bible
Now the LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

King James Bible
And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: "

International Standard Version
The LORD told Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

NET Bible
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

New Heart English Bible
The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt,

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying:

New American Standard 1977
Now the LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

King James 2000 Bible
And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

American King James Version
And the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying,

American Standard Version
And Jehovah spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt:

Darby Bible Translation
And Jehovah spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

English Revised Version
And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Webster's Bible Translation
And the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

World English Bible
Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Young's Literal Translation
And Jehovah speaketh unto Moses and unto Aaron, in the land of Egypt, saying,
Study Bible
The First Passover
1Now the LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2"This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year to you.…
Cross References
Mark 14:1
Now the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were two days away, and the chief priests and scribes were looking for a covert way to arrest Jesus and kill Him.

Luke 22:1
Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover, was approaching,

Acts 12:4
He arrested him and put him in prison, handing him over to be guarded by four squads of four soldiers each. Herod intended to bring him out to the people after the Passover.

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron performed all these wonders before Pharaoh; yet the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 12:2
"This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year to you.

Numbers 9:5
They observed the Passover in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, in the wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the LORD had commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did.

Numbers 28:16
'Then on the fourteenth day of the first month shall be the LORD'S Passover.

1 Samuel 2:27
Then a man of God came to Eli and said to him, "Thus says the LORD, 'Did I not indeed reveal Myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt in bondage to Pharaoh's house?

2 Chronicles 35:17
Thus the sons of Israel who were present celebrated the Passover at that time, and the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days.

Ezekiel 45:21
"In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you shall have the Passover, a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten.
Treasury of Scripture

And the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying,

XII.

INSTITUTION OF THE PASSOVER.

(1) In the land of Egypt.--This section (Exodus 12:1-28) has the appearance of having been written independently of the previous narrative--earlier, probably, and as a part of the Law rather than of the history. It throws together instructions on the subject of the Passover which must have been given at different times (comp. Exodus 12:3; Exodus 12:12; Exodus 12:17), some before the tenth of Abib. some on the day preceding the departure from Egypt, some on the day following. As far as Exodus 12:20 it is wholly legal, and would suit Leviticus as well as Exodus. From Exodus 12:20 it has a more historical character, since it relates the action taken by Moses.

Verse 1. - The Lord spake. - According to the Biblical record, neither Moses nor Aaron introduced any legislation of their own, either at this time or later. The whole system, religious, political, and ecclesiastical, was received by Divine Revelation, commanded by God, and merely established by the agency of the two brothers. In the land of Egypt. The introduction of these words seems to show that we have here a separate document on the subject of the Passover, written independently of what has preceded, some time after the exodus, and placed here without alteration, when Moses gathered together his various writings into a single work. And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,.... Before they and the children of Israel came out of it, before the slaying of the firstborn, yea, before Moses came from the presence of Pharaoh, and had given him notice of it; and it is very probable even before the three days darkness, seeing it seems necessary it should be four days before the passover, since on the tenth day the lamb was to be taken, and on the fourteenth slain, Exodus 12:3 and by what follows it looks as if it was at the beginning or first day of the month, and so the words may be rendered, "the Lord had spoke" (y); and the following account is deferred to this place, that there might be no interruption of the history of the plagues, and that the passover, with all its rites and ceremonies, both at the first institution and observance of it, and in later times, might be laid together.

(y) "alloquutus antem fuerat", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator; "dixerat autem"; so some in Drusius, and Ainsworth. CHAPTER 12

Ex 12:1-10. The Passover Instituted.

1. the Lord spake unto Moses—rather, "had spoken unto Moses and Aaron"; for it is evident that the communication here described must have been made to them on or before the tenth of the month.12:1-20 The Lord makes all things new to those whom he delivers from the bondage of Satan, and takes to himself to be his people. The time when he does this is to them the beginning of a new life. God appointed that, on the night wherein they were to go out of Egypt, each family should kill a lamb, or that two or three families, if small, should kill one lamb. This lamb was to be eaten in the manner here directed, and the blood to be sprinkled on the door-posts, to mark the houses of the Israelites from those of the Egyptians. The angel of the Lord, when destroying the first-born of the Egyptians, would pass over the houses marked by the blood of the lamb: hence the name of this holy feast or ordinance. The passover was to be kept every year, both as a remembrance of Israel's preservation and deliverance out of Egypt, and as a remarkable type of Christ. Their safety and deliverance were not a reward of their own righteousness, but the gift of mercy. Of this they were reminded, and by this ordinance they were taught, that all blessings came to them through the shedding and sprinkling of blood. Observe, 1. The paschal lamb was typical. Christ is our passover, 1Co 5:7. Christ is the Lamb of God, Joh 1:29; often in the Revelation he is called the Lamb. It was to be in its prime; Christ offered up himself in the midst of his days, not when a babe at Bethlehem. It was to be without blemish; the Lord Jesus was a Lamb without spot: the judge who condemned Christ declared him innocent. It was to be set apart four days before, denoting the marking out of the Lord Jesus to be a Saviour, both in the purpose and in the promise. It was to be slain, and roasted with fire, denoting the painful sufferings of the Lord Jesus, even unto death, the death of the cross. The wrath of God is as fire, and Christ was made a curse for us. Not a bone of it must be broken, which was fulfilled in Christ, Joh 19:33, denoting the unbroken strength of the Lord Jesus. 2. The sprinkling of the blood was typical. The blood of the lamb must be sprinkled, denoting the applying of the merits of Christ's death to our souls; we must receive the atonement, Ro 5:11. Faith is the bunch of hyssop, by which we apply the promises, and the benefits of the blood of Christ laid up in them, to ourselves. It was to be sprinkled on the door-posts, denoting the open profession we are to make of faith in Christ. It was not to be sprinkled upon the threshold; which cautions us to take heed of trampling under foot the blood of the covenant. It is precious blood, and must be precious to us. The blood, thus sprinkled, was a means of preserving the Israelites from the destroying angel, who had nothing to do where the blood was. The blood of Christ is the believer's protection from the wrath of God, the curse of the law, and the damnation of hell, Ro 8:1. 3. The solemn eating of the lamb was typical of our gospel duty to Christ. The paschal lamb was not to be looked upon only, but to be fed upon. So we must by faith make Christ our own; and we must receive spiritual strength and nourishment from him, as from our food, see Joh 6:53,55. It was all to be eaten; those who by faith feed upon Christ, must feed upon a whole Christ; they must take Christ and his yoke, Christ and his cross, as well as Christ and his crown. It was to be eaten at once, not put by till morning. To-day Christ is offered, and is to be accepted while it is called to-day, before we sleep the sleep of death. It was to be eaten with bitter herbs, in remembrance of the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt; we must feed upon Christ with sorrow and brokenness of heart, in remembrance of sin. Christ will be sweet to us, if sin be bitter. It was to be eaten standing, with their staves in their hands, as being ready to depart. When we feed upon Christ by faith, we must forsake the rule and the dominion of sin; sit loose to the world, and every thing in it; forsake all for Christ, and reckon it no bad bargain, Heb 13:13,14. 4. The feast of unleavened bread was typical of the Christian life, 1Co 5:7,8. Having received Christ Jesus the Lord, we must continually delight ourselves in Christ Jesus. No manner of work must be done, that is, no care admitted and indulged, which does not agree with, or would lessen this holy joy. The Jews were very strict as to the passover, so that no leaven should be found in their houses. It must be a feast kept in charity, without the leaven of malice; and in sincerity, without the leaven of hypocrisy. It was by an ordinance for ever; so long as we live we must continue feeding upon Christ, rejoicing in him always, with thankful mention of the great things he has done for us.
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