Zechariah 14:8
And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Zechariah 14:8-9. And it shall be in that day — Spoken of Zechariah 14:6, when the light shall not be clear, nor dark, that is, during the whole of the forementioned period; living waters shall go out from Jerusalem — The enlightening, quickening, and saving truths of Christianity, accompanied by the power of the Holy Spirit, shall proceed from the church of Christ, the true spiritual Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea — The eastern sea; and half of them toward the hinder sea — The western sea. They shall spread themselves eastward and westward, and on all sides; and even the sea, whether on the east or west, shall not be able to obstruct their progress; but, having watered and refreshed, enlightened, renewed, and cheered the continent, they shall make their way into the islands, and diffuse their renovating and gladdening influence even over them. In summer and in winter shall it be — Perpetually, without intermission; these waters shall never dry up, be obstructed in their course, or lose their healing, fructifying, and refreshing virtue. In other words, “the gospel, attended by the influences of the Holy Spirit, having begun its progress from Jerusalem, shall continue its course on every side, amidst all those changes of which summer and winter are an emblem: so that nothing shall totally impede its progress, till the Lord shall become King over all the earth, not only in right but in fact; till neither idols, false religion, nor antichristian power, shall remain as his rivals; till all princes shall submit to and serve him; and all the earth shall agree in one object and way of worship, and unite in submission and obedience to one Lord.” — Scott.14:8-15 Some consider that the progress of the gospel, beginning from Jerusalem, is referred to by the living waters flowing from that city. Neither shall the gospel and means of grace, nor the graces of the Spirit wrought in the hearts of believers by those means, ever fail, by reason either of the heat of persecution, or storms of temptation, or the blasts of any other affliction. Tremendous judgments appear to be foretold, to be sent upon those who should oppose the settlement of the Jews in their own land. How far they are to be understood literally, events alone can determine. The furious rage and malice which stir up men against each other, are faint shadows of the enmity which reigns among those who have perished in their sins. Even the inferior creatures often suffer for the sin of man, and in his plagues. Thus God will show his displeasure against sin.And it shall be, that living waters - Kimchi: "This is what is said in the prophecy of Joel, 'A fountain shall come forth from the house of the Lord' Joel 3:18; and in that of Ezekiel, 'And behold there ran out waters.' Ezekiel 47:2." Zechariah leaves to the mind to supply what the former prophets had said of the fertilizing life-giving character of those waters. He adds that they should pervade the whole land, west as well as east; "to the former," rather "the Eastern Sea" , into which they would by nature flow, and toward "the hinder," that is, the Western Sea, the Mediterranean, which natural waters could not "reach." This their flow, he adds, should be perpetual , "These streams shall not dry up and their waters shall not fail"; therefore drought shall not lessen them, nor winter-cold bind them. "From Jerusalem as from a fountain shall stream forth living waters of wisdom and grace to all nations" .

Cyril: "Again he tells us, under a figure, that exceeding great and large shall be that outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the saints, especially when they shall be removed to that holy eternal life in the world to come. For now through faith in Christ we are enriched, as with an earnest, with the firstfruits of the Holy Spirit. But after the Resurrection, sin being wholly taken away, the Holy Spirit will be in us, not as an earnest or in a measure; but richly bounteously and perfectly shall we enjoy the grace through Christ. He calleth, then, 'living water,' the Spirit which, he says, will come forth from the Jerusalem which is from above. But that the Holy Scripture is accustomed to liken the Divine Spirit to 'water,' the Giver thereof, the Son, accredits, saying, 'he that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath said, Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water' John 7:38. This the Evangelist explains, 'This spake He of the Spirit, which they who believe in Him should receive' John 7:39. Since then the Spirit is life-giving, rightly does he liken it to that, which is life-giving to the frame."

8. living waters—(Eze 47:1; Joe 3:18).

former sea—that is, the front, or east, which Orientalists face in taking the points of the compass; the Dead Sea.

hinder sea—the west or Mediterranean.

summer … winter—neither dried up by heat, nor frozen by cold; ever flowing.

In that day; when the gospel shall be preached, and the days of dark ceremonies among the Jews, and darker ignorance and idolatry among the heathen, shall end.

Living waters; not only such as springs and fountains afford, living waters in opposition to standing, muddy, and dead waters; but such as give life, Ezekiel 47:1,6,7; the quickening, saving truths of the gospel, with all its ordinances in purity.

Shall go out, spread themselves or flow down as currents from good springs,

from Jerusalem; the church of Christ, the true Jerusalem.

Toward the former sea, or eastern sea, so far eastward as the sea will give leave; and who knows that sea?

Toward the hinder sea, or western sea. Synecdochically it is both east, west, north, and south: so from Jerusalem, i.e. the church. the doctrine of the gospel is preached abroad, and runs down as doth living water.

In summer and in winter shall it be; perpetually, without intermission or interruption, these waters should never dry away, nor ever lose their healing virtue. And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem,.... When it shall be light; and this is one of the things which will make it so; for by "living waters" are meant the Gospel, and the doctrines of it; compared to running "waters" for the sound of them, which will then go into all the earth; for the swiftness in which they shall proceed; for their rapidity and force in bearing all before them; for the great spread of them; and for their virtue and efficacy in cooling those who are inflamed with the fiery law; refreshing thirsty souls; purifying the hearts and lives of sinners, and making those that are barren fruitful: and to "living" waters, because they are the means of quickening dead sinners, and of reviving drooping saints; and because they serve to support and maintain a spiritual life, and nourish up unto eternal life, and direct the way to it, as well as give the best account of it: and these will come out of Jerusalem; which may design Jerusalem literally, which will be rebuilt at the time of the Jews' conversion; or mystically the church, the spiritual and heavenly Jerusalem; see Hebrews 12:22 reference seems to be had to the first ministration of the Gospel, which, according to prophecy, came out of Jerusalem, Isaiah 2:3.

Half of them towards the former sea; or the eastern sea, as the Targum, the Persian sea; and may signify that the Gospel shall be carried into the eastern parts of the world, into Persia, Tartary, and China, and other nations; and those great kingdoms shall become the kingdoms of Christ:

and half of them toward the hinder sea; or the western sea, as the Targum, the Mediterranean Sea; and may denote the progress and success of the Gospel in the European parts of the world: and the meaning of the whole is, that the Gospel shall be carried from east to west, and preached all the world over, to the conversion of Jews and Gentiles, who, some think, are designed by the two seas; when the abundance of the sea shall be converted by it, and the forces and fulness of the Gentiles brought in, and all Israel saved:

in summer and in winter shall it be; there will be no summer of persecution, nor winter of coldness and indifference to hinder the ministry of the word: the phrase denotes the constant ministry of the word, and the duration of it; it shall be constantly preached all the year long, and as long as summer and winter last.

And it shall be in that day, that living {i} waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.

(i) That is, the spiritual graces of God, which would always continue in most abundance.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
8. former sea, … hinder sea] Rather, eastern sea, western sea, R. V.: i.e. the Dead Sea on the E., and the Mediterranean Sea on the W. Comp. Ezekiel 47:1; Joel 3:18. This would be the natural watershed, the whole country being level and Jerusalem alone elevated above it, Zechariah 14:10.

in summer and in winter] “ut aquæ istæ nec gelu constringantur hiemis, nec æstatis nimio fervore siccentur.” Hieron. Comp. by way of contrast, Job 6:15-20.

8–11. The Prosperity of the Land

Perennial streams flowing from Jerusalem both to the E. and to the W. shall irrigate and fertilise the land, Zechariah 14:8. One God shall be worshipped without a rival, Zechariah 14:9. The whole face of the country shall become a level plain, Jerusalem alone standing aloft on its ancient hills, Zechariah 14:10, the populous abode of blessing and security, Zechariah 14:11.Verses 8-11. - § 7. Then shall occur a season of joy. The land shall be transformed and renewed, and the Lord shall be owned as the sole King of all the earth. Verse 8. - Living waters; i.e. water fresh, pure, and perennial (Genesis 26:19; Jeremiah 2:13), a figure of the spiritual blessings and graces bestowed by God upon his Church. From Jerusalem, as the centre and representative of the kingdom of God, as in Zechariah 12:2. The city itself was, as we know, abundantly supplied with water by many conduits and subterranean channels; but standing, as it does, surrounded by hills higher than itself, it is physically impossible that the waters could literally flow as stated. The description is symbolical, though the natural features of the country are supposed to be changed in order to preserve verisimilitude (comp. Ezekiel 47:1, etc.; Joel 3:18). The former (eastern) sea... the hinder (western) sea. The Dead Sea is the eastern sea to one looking to sunrise from Jerusalem: the Mediterranean is the western sea, behind the observer's back. Into every quarter the salutary stream shall flow. In summer and in winter. Neither drought nor frost shall stop their perennial flow. "Alike in times of peace and of persecution those waters shall continue their course" (St. Jerome); Septuagint, "In summer and in spring" - a rendering which seems to indicate the home of the Alexandrian Version. At this moment the prophet feels compelled to utter the prayer that they may also put a clean mitre upon Joshua's head, which prayer is immediately granted. The prayer appears at first to be superfluous, inasmuch as the mitre would certainly not be forgotten when the dirty clothes were taken away and the festal dress was put on. Nevertheless, the fact that it is granted shows that it was not superfluous. The meaning of the prayer was hardly that the high priest might be newly attired from head to foot, as Hengstenberg supposes, but is rather connected with the significance of the mitre. Tsânı̄ph is not a turban, such as might be worn by anybody (Koehler), but the headdress of princely persons and kings (Job 29:14; Isaiah 62:3), and is synonymous with mitsnepheth, the technical word for the tiara prescribed for the high priest in the law (Ex. and Lev.), as we may see from Ezekiel 21:31, where the regal diadem, which is called tsânı̄ph in Isaiah 62:3, is spoken of under the name of mitsnepheth. The turban of the high priest was that portion of his dress in which he carried his office, so to speak, upon his forehead; and the clean turban was the substratum for the golden plate that was fastened upon it, and by which he was described as holy to the Lord, and called to bear the guilt of the children of Israel (Exodus 28:38). The prayer for a clean mitre to be put upon his head, may therefore be accounted for from the wish that Joshua should not only be splendidly decorated, but should be shown to be holy, and qualified to accomplish the expiation of the people. Purity, as the earthly type of holiness, forms the foundation for glory. In the actual performance of the matter, therefore, the putting on of the clean mitre is mentioned first, and then the clothing with festal robes. This took place in the presence of the angel of the Lord. That is the meaning of the circumstantial clause, "and the angel of the Lord stood" (ritum tanquam herus imperans, probans et praesentia sua ornans, C. B. Mich.), and not merely that the angel of the Lord, who had hitherto been sitting in the judge's seat, rose up from his seat for the purpose of speaking while the robing was going on (Hofmann, Koehler). עמד does not mean to stand up, but simply to remain standing.
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