Scofield Reference Notes
The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.
SCOFIELD REFERENCE NOTES (Old Scofield 1917 Edition)
The Prophetical Books and Introduction to Isaiah
Prophets were men raised up of God in times of declension and apostasy in Israel. They were primarily revivalists and patriots, speaking on behalf of God to the heart and conscience of the nation. The prophetic messages have a twofold character: first, that which was local and for the prophet's time; secondly, that which was predictive of the divine purpose in future. Often the prediction springs immediately from the local circumstances (e.g. Is 7.1-11 with Is 7:12-14).
It is necessary to keep this Israelitish character of the prophet in mind. Usually his predictive, equally with his local and immediate ministry, is not didactic and abstract, but has in view the covenant people, their sin and failure, and their glorious future. The Gentile is mentioned as used for the chastisement of Israel, as judged therefore, but also as sharing the grace that is yet to be shown toward Israel. The Church, corporately, is not in the vision of the O.T. prophet (Ep 3.1-6). The future blessing of Israel as a nation rests upon the Palestinian Covenant of restoration and conversion (Dt 30.1-9, refs.), and the Davidic Covenant of the Kingship of the Messiah, David's Son (2Sam 7.8-17, refs.), and this gives to predictive prophecy its Messianic character. The exaltation of Israel is secured in the kingdom, and the kingdom takes its power to bless from the Person of the King, David's Son, but also "Immanuel."
But as the King is also Son of Abraham (Mt 1.1), the promised Redeemer, and as redemption is only through the sacrifice of Christ, Song messianic prophecy of necessity presents Christ in a twofold character--a suffering Messiah (e.g. Isa. 53.), and a reigning Messiah (e.g. Isa. 11.). This duality, suffering and glory, weakness and power, involved a mystery which perplexed the prophets (1Pet 1.10-12; Lk 24.26.27).
The solution of that mystery lies, as the New Testament makes clear, in the two advents--the first advent to redemption through suffering; the second advent to the kingdom glory, when the national promises to Israel will be fulfilled (Mt 1:21-23; Lk 2:28-35; 24:46-48, with Lk 1:31-33, 68-75; Mt 2:2,6; 19:27,28 Acts 2:30-32; 15:14-16). The prophets indeed describe the advent in two forms which could not be contemporaneous (e.g. Zech 9.9; contra, 14.1-9), but to them it was not revealed that between the advent to suffering, and the advent to glory, would be accomplished certain "mysteries of the kingdom" (Mt 13.11-16), not that, consequent upon Messiah's rejection, the new Testament Church would be called out. These were, to them, "mysteries hid in God" (Ep 3.1-10).
Speaking broadly, then, predictive prophecy is occupied with the fulfilment of the Palestinian and Davidic Covenants; the Abrahamic Covenant having also its place.
Gentile powers are mentioned as connected with Israel, but prophecy, save in Daniel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum, is not occupied with Gentile world-history. Daniel, as will be see, has a distinctive character.
The predictions of the restoration from the Babylonian captivity at the end of seventy years, must be distinguished from those of the restoration from the present world-wide dispersion. The context is always clear. The Palestinian Covenant Deu 28.1-30.9 is the mould of predictive prophecy in its larger sense--national disobedience, world-wide dispersion, repentance, the return of the Lord, the regathering of Israel and establishment of the kingdom, the conversion and blessing of Israel, and the judgment of Israel's oppressors.
The true division of the prophets is into pre-exilic, viz., in Judah: Isaiah, Jeremiah (extending into the exile), Joel, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. In Israel: Hosea, Amos, and Jonah. Exilic, Ezekiel and Daniel, both of Judah, but prophesying to the whole nation. Post-exilic, all of Judah: Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The division into major and minor prophetic writings, based upon the mere bulk of the books, is unhistoric and non-chronological.
The keys which unlock the meaning of prophecy are: the two advents of Messiah, the advent to suffer (Gen 3:15; Acts 1:9), and the advent to reign (Dt 30:3; Acts 1.9-11); the doctrine of the Remnant (Isa 10:20, refs), the doctrine of the day of the Lord (Is 2:10-22; Rev 19:11-21), and the doctrine of the Kingdom (O.T., Gen 1:26-28; (See Scofield Note: "Zech 12.8"; N.T., Lk 1.31-33; (See Scofield Note: "1Cor 15.28"). note). The pivotal chapters, taking prophecy as a whole, are, Deut. 28., 29., 30.; Psa 2.; Dan. 2.,7.
The whole scope of prophecy must be taken into account in determining the meaning of any particular passage (2Pet 1:20). Hence the importance of first mastering the great themes above indicated, which, in this edition of the Scriptures, may readily be done by tracing through the body of the prophetic writings the subjects mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The detail of the "time of the end," upon which all prophecy converges, will be more clearly understood if to those subjects the student adds the Beast (Dan 7.8; Rev 19.20), and Armageddon (Rev 16.14; 19.17, See Scofield Note: "Rev 19:17").
Chronological Order of the Prophets (According to Ussher)
I. Prophets Before the Exile
(1) To Nineveh
Jonah, 862 B.C.
(2) To the 10 tribes "Israel"
Amos, 787 B.C.
Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: for the LORD hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against me.
 Hear, O heavens
The chapter, down to verse 23, states the case of Jehovah against Judah. Chastening, according to Deut. 28., 29., had been visited upon Israel in the land (vs. 5-8), and now the time of expulsion from the land is near. But just here Jehovah renews the promise of the Palestinian Covenant of future restoration and exaltation Isa 1:26,27 2:1-4.
The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib: but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.
Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward.
Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more: the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.
From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment.
Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire: your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate, as overthrown by strangers.
And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city.
Except the LORD of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah.
Remnant. See, Isa 10:20 Rom 11:5
See Scofield Note: "Rom 11:5"
Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.
To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.
When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts?
Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.
Margin Bring no more
See Scofield Note: "2Cor 8:1" Is 1:11-17.
Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.
And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.
Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil;
Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.
Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.
If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land:
But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.
How is the faithful city become an harlot! it was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.
Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water:
Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD of hosts, the mighty One of Israel, Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies:
And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin:
And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellers as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city.
 thy judges
Under the kingdom the ancient method of administering the theocratic government over Israel is to be restored. Cf. Jud 2:18 Mt 19:28.
Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.
And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed.
For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.
For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth, and as a garden that hath no water.
And the strong shall be as tow, and the maker of it as a spark, and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.