Romans 3:24
Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(24) Being justified.—We should more naturally say, “but now are justified.” The construction in the Greek is peculiar, and may be accounted for in one of two ways. Either the phrase “being justified” may be taken as corresponding to “all them that believe” in Romans 3:22, the change of case being an irregularity suggested by the form of the sentence immediately preceding; or the construction may be considered to be regular, and the participle “being justified” would then be dependent upon the last finite verb: “they come short of the glory of God, and in that very state of destitution are justified.”

Freely.—Gratuitously, without exertion or merit on their part. (Comp. Matthew 10:8; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17.)

By his grace.By His own grace. The means by which justification is wrought out is the death and atonement of Christ; its ulterior cause is the grace of God, or free readmission into His favour, which He accords to man.

Redemption.—Literally, ransoming. The notion of ransom contains in itself the triple idea of a bondage, a deliverance, and the payment of an equivalent as the means of that deliverance. The bondage is the state of sin and of guilt, with the expectation of punishment; the deliverance is the removal of this state, and the opening out, in its stead, of a prospect of eternal happiness and glory; the equivalent paid by Christ is the shedding of His own blood. This last is the pivot upon which the whole idea of redemption turned. It is therefore clear that the redemption of the sinner is an act wrought objectively, and, in the first instance, independently of any change of condition in him, though such a change is involved in the appropriation of the efficacy of that act to himself. It cannot be explained as a purely subjective process wrought in the sinner through the influence of Christ’s death. The idea of dying and reviving with Christ, though a distinct aspect of the atonement, cannot be made to cover the whole of it. There is implied, not only a change in the recipient of the atonement, but also a change wrought without his co-operation in the relations between God and man. There is, if it may be so said, in the death of Christ something which determines the will of God, as well as something which acts upon the will of man. And the particular influence which is brought to bear upon the counsels of God is represented under the figure of a ransom or payment of an equivalent. This element is too essentially a part of the metaphor, and is too clearly established by other parallel metaphors, to be explained away; though what the terms “propitiation” and “equivalent” can mean, as applied to God, we do not know, and it perhaps does not become us too curiously to inquire.

The doctrine of the atonement thus stated is not peculiar to St. Paul, and did not originate with him. It is found also in the Synoptic Gospels, Matthew 20:28 ( = Mark 10:45), “The Son of Man came to give His life a ransom for many,” and in Hebrews 9:15, “And for this cause He is the Mediator of the New Testament, that by means of death, for the redemption (ransoming) of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.” (Comp. 1John 2:2; 1Peter 1:18-19; 1Peter 2:24, et al.)

3:21-26 Must guilty man remain under wrath? Is the wound for ever incurable? No; blessed be God, there is another way laid open for us. This is the righteousness of God; righteousness of his ordaining, and providing, and accepting. It is by that faith which has Jesus Christ for its object; an anointed Saviour, so Jesus Christ signifies. Justifying faith respects Christ as a Saviour, in all his three anointed offices, as Prophet, Priest, and King; trusting in him, accepting him, and cleaving to him: in all these, Jews and Gentiles are alike welcome to God through Christ. There is no difference, his righteousness is upon all that believe; not only offered to them, but put upon them as a crown, as a robe. It is free grace, mere mercy; there is nothing in us to deserve such favours. It comes freely unto us, but Christ bought it, and paid the price. And faith has special regard to the blood of Christ, as that which made the atonement. God, in all this, declares his righteousness. It is plain that he hates sin, when nothing less than the blood of Christ would satisfy for it. And it would not agree with his justice to demand the debt, when the Surety has paid it, and he has accepted that payment in full satisfaction.Being justified - Being treated as if righteous; that is, being regarded and treated as if they had kept the Law. The apostle has shown that they could not be so regarded and treated by any merit of their own, or by personal obedience to the Law. He now affirms that if they were so treated, it must be by mere favor, and as a matter not of right, but of gift. This is the essence of the gospel. And to show this, and the way in which it is done, is the main design of this Epistle. The expression here is to be understood as referring to all who are justified; Romans 3:22. The righteousness of God by faith in Jesus Christ, is "upon all who believe," who are all "justified freely by his grace."

Freely - δωρεὰν dōrean. This word stands opposed to what is purchased, or which is obtained by labor, or which is a matter of claim. It is a free, undeserved gift, not merited by our obedience to the Law, and not that to which we have any claim. The apostle uses the word here in reference to those who are justified. To them it is a mere undeserved gift, It does not mean that it has been obtained, however, without any price or merit from anyone, for the Lord Jesus has purchased it with his own blood, and to him it becomes a matter of justice that those who were given to him should be justified, 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 Peter 2:9. (Greek). Acts 20:28; Isaiah 53:11. We have no offering to bring, and no claim. To us, therefore, it is entirely a matter of gift.

By his grace - By his favor; by his mere undeserved mercy; see the note at Romans 1:7.

Through the redemption - διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως dia tēs apolutrōseōs. The word used here occurs only 10 times in the New Testament, Luke 21:28; Romans 3:24; Romans 8:23; 1 Corinthians 1:30; Ephesians 1:7, Ephesians 1:14; Ephesians 4:30; Colossians 1:14; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 11:35. Its root (λύτρον lutron) properly denotes the price which is paid for a prisoner of war; the ransom, or stipulated purchase-money, which being paid, the captive is set free. The word used here is then employed to denote liberation from bondage, captivity, or evil of any kind, usually keeping up the idea of a price, or a ransom paid, in consequence of which the delivery is effected. It is sometimes used in a large sense, to denote simple deliverance by any means, without reference to a price paid, as in Luke 21:28; Romans 8:23; Ephesians 1:14. That this is not the sense here, however, is apparent. For the apostle in the next verse proceeds to specify the price which has been paid, or the means by which this redemption has been effected. The word here denotes that deliverance from sin, and from the evil consequences of sin, which has been effected by the offering of Jesus Christ as a propitiation; Romans 3:25.

That is in Christ Jesus - Or, that has been effected by Christ Jesus; that of which he is the author and procurer; compare John 3:16.

24. justified freely—without anything done on our part to deserve.

by his grace—His free love.

through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus—a most important clause; teaching us that though justification is quite gratuitous, it is not a mere fiat of the divine will, but based on a "Redemption," that is, "the payment of a Ransom," in Christ's death. That this is the sense of the word "redemption," when applied to Christ's death, will appear clear to any impartial student of the passages where it occurs.

Being justified freely by his grace; i.e. Being in this case, they can by no means be acquitted and freed from the accusation and condemnation of the law, but in the way and manner that follows. He mentions the great moving cause of justification first, (which doth comprehend also the principal efficient), that it is without any cause or merit in us; and by the free favour of God to undeserving, ill-deserving creatures, Ephesians 1:6,7 2:8 Titus 3:7.

Through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: the meritorious cause is expressed by a metaphor taken from military proceedings, where captives taken in war, and under the power of another, are redeemed upon a valuable price laid down: see Matthew 20:28 Mark 10:45 1 Timothy 2:6 Hebrews 9:12. Being justified freely by his grace,.... The matter of justification is before expressed, and the persons that share in this blessing are described; here the several causes of it are mentioned. The moving cause of it is the free grace of God; for by "the grace of God" here, is not meant the Gospel, or what some men call the terms of the Gospel, and the constitution of it; nor the grace of God infused into the heart; but the free love and favour of God, as it is in his heart; which is wonderfully displayed in the business of a sinner's justification before him: it appears in his resolving upon the justification of his chosen ones in Christ; in fixing on the method of doing it; in setting forth and pre-ordaining Christ to be the ransom; in calling Christ to engage herein; in Christ's engaging as a surety for his people, and in the Father's sending him to bring in everlasting righteousness; in Christ's coming to do it, and in the gracious manner in which he wrought it out; in the Father's gracious acceptation, imputation, and donation of it; in the free gift of the grace of faith, to apprehend and receive it; and in the persons that partake of it, who are of themselves sinners and ungodly. The meritorious cause of justification is,

the redemption that is in Jesus Christ: redemption supposes a former state of captivity to sin, Satan, and the law, in which God's elect were by nature, and is a deliverance from it; it is of a spiritual nature, chiefly respects the soul, and is plenteous, complete, and eternal: this is in and by Christ; he was called unto it, was sent to effect it, had a right unto it, as being the near kinsman; and was every way fit for it, being both God and man; and has by his sufferings and death obtained it: now, as all the blessings of grace come through redemption by Christ, so does this of justification, and after this manner; Christ, as a Redeemer, had the sins of his people laid on him, and they were bore by him, and took away; the sentence of the law's condemnation was executed on him, as standing in their legal place and stead; and satisfaction was made by him for all offences committed by them, which was necessary, that God might appear to be just, in justifying all them that believe: nor is this any objection or contradiction to the free grace of God, in a sinner's justification; since it was grace in God to provide, send, and part with his Son as a Redeemer, and to work out righteousness; it was grace in Christ, to come and give himself a sacrifice, and obtain salvation and righteousness, not for angels, but for men, and for some of them, and not all; and whatever this righteousness, salvation, and redemption cost Christ, they are all free to men.

{9} Being justified {u} freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ:

(9) Therefore this righteousness which we gain is altogether freely given, for its foundation is upon those things which we have not done ourselves, but rather those things which Christ has suffered for our sakes, to deliver us from sin.

(u) By his free gift, and liberality.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 3:24. Δικαιούμενοι] does not stand for the finite tense (as even Rückert and Reiche, following Erasmus, Calvin and Melancthon, think); nor is, with Ewald, Romans 3:23 to be treated as a parenthesis, so that the discourse from the accusative in Romans 3:22 should now resolve itself more freely into the nominative, which would be unnecessarily harsh. But the participle introduces the accompanying relation, which here comes into view with the ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τ. θεοῦ, namely, that of the mode of their δικαίωσις: so that, in that state of destitution, they receive justification in the way of gift. Bengel aptly remarks: “repente sic panditur scena amoenior.” The participle is not even to be resolved into καὶ δικαιοῦνται (Peschito, Luther, Fritzsche), but the relation of becoming justified is to be left in the dependence on the want of the δόξα Θεοῦ, in which it is conceived and expressed. Against the Osiandrian misinterpretations in their old and new forms see Melancthon, Enarr. on Romans 3:21; Kahnis, Dogm. I. p. 599 ff.; and also Philippi, Glaubenslehre, IV. 2, p. 247 ff.

δωρεάν] gratuitously (comp v. 17, and on the adverb in this sense Polyb. xviii. 17, 7; 1Ma 10:33; Matthew 10:8; 2 Thessalonians 3:8; 2 Corinthians 11:7) they are placed in the relation of righteousness, so that this is not anyhow the result of their own performance; comp Ephesians 2:8; Titus 3:5.

Τῇ ΑὐΤΟῦ ΧΆΡ. ΔΙᾺ Τῆς ἈΠΟΛ. Τῆς ἘΝ Χ. .] in virtue of His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. This redemption is that which forms the medium of the justification of man taking place gratuitously through the grace of God. By the position of the words τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι, the divine grace, is, in harmony with the notion of ΔΏΡΕΑΝ, emphasised precisely as the divine, opposed to all human co-operation; comp Ephesians 2:8. In ἈΠΟΛΎΤΡΩΣΙς (comp Plut. Pomp. 24, Dem. 159, 15) the special idea of ransoming (comp on Ephesians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 6:20; Galatians 3:13) is not to be changed into the general one of the Messianic liberation (Romans 8:23; Luke 21:28; Ephesians 1:14; Ephesians 4:30; and see Ritschl in the Jahrb. f. d. Theol. 1863, p. 512); for the λύτρον or ἈΝΤΊΛΥΤΡΟΝ (Matthew 20:28; 1 Timothy 2:6) which Christ rendered, to procure for all believers remission of guilt and the ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗ ΘΕΟῦ, was His blood, which was the atoning sacrificial blood, and so as equivalent accomplished the forgiveness of sins, i.e. the essence of the ἀπολύτρωσις. See Romans 3:25; Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14; Hebrews 9:15; comp on Matthew 20:28; 1 Corinthians 6:20; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:21. Liberation from the sin-principle (from its dominion) is not the essence of the ἀπολύτρωσις itself (Lipsius, Rechtfertigungsl. p. 147 f.), but its consequence through the Spirit, if it is appropriated in faith (Romans 8:2). Every mode of conception, which refers redemption and the forgiveness of sins not to a real atonement through the death of Christ, but subjectively to the dying and reviving with Him guaranteed and produced by that death (Schleiermacher, Nitzsch, Hofmann, and others, with various modifications), is opposed to the N. T.—a mixing up of justification and sanctification. Comp on Romans 3:26; also Ernesti, Ethik d. Ap. P. p. 27 f.

ἐν Χ. Ἰησοῦ] i.e. contained and resting in Him, in His person that has appeared as the Messiah (hence the Χριστῷ is placed first). To what extent, is shown in Romans 3:25.

Observe further that justification, the causa efficiens of which is the divine grace (Τῇ ΑὐΤΟῦ ΧΑΡΊΤΙ), is here represented as obtained by means of the ἈΠΟΛΎΤΡΩΣΙς, but in Romans 3:22 as obtained by means of faith, namely, in the one case objectively and in the other subjectively (comp Romans 3:25). But even in Romans 3:22 the objective element was indicated in ΠΊΣΤ. ἸΗΣΟῦ ΧΡΙΣΤΟῦ, and in Romans 3:24 f. both elements are more particularly explained.Romans 3:24. δικαιούμενοι: grammatically, the word is intractable. If we force a connection with what immediately precedes, we may say with Lipsius that just as Paul has proved the universality of grace through the universality of sin, so here, conversely, he proves the universal absence of merit in men by showing that they are justified freely by God’s grace. Westcott and Hort’s punctuation (comma after τοῦ θεοῦ) favours this connection, but it is forced and fanciful. In sense δικαιούμενοι refers to πάντας τοὺς πιστεύοντας, and the use of the nominative to resume the main idea after an interruption like that of Romans 3:23 is rather characteristic than otherwise of the Apostle. δωρεὰν is used in a similar connection in Galatians 2:21. It signifies “for nothing”. Justification, we are told here, costs the sinner nothing; in Galatians we are told that if it comes through law, then Christ died “for nothing”. Christ is all in it (1 Corinthians 1:30): hence its absolute freeness. τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι repeats the same thing: as δωρεὰν signifies that we contribute nothing, τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι signifies that the whole charge is freely supplied by God. αὐτοῦ in this position has a certain emphasis. διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν Χ. . The justification of the sinful, or the coming to them of that righteousness of God which is manifested in the Gospel, takes effect through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. Perhaps “liberation” would be a fairer word than “redemption” to translate ἀπολύτρωσις. In Ephesians 1:7, Colossians 1:14, Hebrews 9:15, it is equal to forgiveness. Ἀπολύτρωσις itself is rare; in the LXX there is but one instance, Daniel 4:29, in which ὁ χρόνος μου τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως signifies the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s recovery from his madness. There is here no suggestion of price or cost. Neither is there in the common use of the verb λυτροῦσθαι, which in LXX represents גָּאַל and פָּדָה, the words employed to describe God’s liberation of Israel from Egypt (Isaiah 43:3 does not count). On the other hand, the classical examples favour the idea that a reference to the cost of liberation is involved in the word. Thus Jos., Ant., xii. 2, 3: πλειόνων δὲ ἢ τετρακοσίων ταλάντων τὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως γενήσεσθαι φαμένων κ.τ.λ.; and Philo, Quod omnis probus liber, § 17 (of a Spartan boy taken prisoner in war) ἀπογνοὺς ἀπολύτρωσιν ἄσμενος ἑαυτὸν διεχρήσατο, where it is at least most natural to translate “having given up hope of being held to ransom”. In the N.T., too, the cost of man’s liberation is often emphasised: 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23, 1 Peter 1:18 f., and that especially where the cognate words λύτρον and ἀντίλυτρον are employed: Mark 10:45, 1 Timothy 2:6. The idea of liberation as the end in view may often have prevailed over that of the particular means employed, but that some means—and especially some cost, toil or sacrifice—were involved, was always understood. It is implied in the use of the word here that justification is a liberation; the man who receives the righteousness of God is set free by it from some condition of bondage or peril. From what? The answer is to be sought in the connection of Romans 1:17 and Romans 1:18 : he is set free from a condition in which he was exposed to the wrath of God revealed from heaven against sin. In Ephesians 1:7, Colossians 1:14, ἀπολύτρωσις is plainly defined as remission of sins: in Ephesians 1:14, Romans 8:23, 1 Corinthians 1:30, it is eschatological.24. being justified] A present tense; indicating a constant procedure, in the case of successive individuals.

freely] Lit. gratis, gift-wise. Same word as John 15:25 (“without a cause,” E. V.); 2 Corinthians 11:7; Galatians 2:21 (“in vain,” E. V.; i.e., “without equivalent result”); 2 Thessalonians 3:8 (“for nought”); Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17.

The word here expresses with all the force possible the entire absence of human merit in the matter of justification.

grace] The loving favour of God, uncaused by anything external to Himself. For explanatory phrases specially to the point here, see Romans 5:15; Romans 5:17, Romans 6:14-15; Ephesians 2:8-9.

through the redemption] The Divine Grace, because Divine and therefore holy, acts only in the channel of the Work of Christ.—“Redemption:”—this word, and the corresponding Gr., specially denote “deliverance as the result of ransom.” There are cases where its reference is less special, e.g. Hebrews 11:35. But the context here makes its strict meaning exactly appropriate; the sacrifice, the blood, of the Saviour is the ransom of the soul. See for a similar context the following passages, where the same Gr. word, or one closely cognate, occurs: Matthew 20:28; Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 1:18. See below on Romans 8:23 for another reference of the word.

in Christ Jesus] It resides in Him, as the immediate procuring cause; for He “became unto us Redemption,” 1 Corinthians 1:30. To Him man must look for it; in Him he must find it.Romans 3:24. Δικαιούμενοι, Those who are justified) Suddenly, a more pleasant scene is thus spread before us.—τῇ αὐτο͂υ χάριτι) by His own grace, not inherent in us, but has it were inclining of its own accord towards us; which is evident from the conjugate verbs χαρίζομαι and χαριτόω. Melancthon, instead of grace, often uses the expression favour and mercy. His own is emphatic. Comp. the following verse.—ἀπολυτρώσεως)—ἀπολύτρωσις, redemption from sin and misery. Atonement [expiation] or propitiation (ἱλασμὸς) and ἀπολύτρωσις, redemption, are fundamentally one single benefit and no more, namely, the restoration of the lost sinner. This is an exceedingly commensurate and pure idea, and adequately corresponds to the name JESUS. Redemption has regard to enemies (and on this point the positive theology of Koenig distinctly treats in the passage where he discusses Redemption), and reconciliation refers to God; and here, again, there is a difference between the words ἱλασμὸς and καταλλαγὴ. Ἱλασμὸς, propitiation takes away the offence against God: καταλλαγὴ may be viewed from two sides; it removes (α) God’s indignation against us, 2 Corinthians 5:19; (β) and our alienation from God, 2 Corinthians 5:20.—ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησο͂ν, in Christ Jesus) It is not without good reason that the name Christ is sometimes put before Jesus. According to the Old Testament [From Old Testament point of view], progress is made from the knowledge of Christ to the knowledge of Jesus; in the experience of present faith [From the New Testament point of view, the progress is] from the knowledge of Jesus to the knowledge of Christ. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:15, notes.Verses 24-26. - Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood. Δικαιούμενοι agrees with πάντες in ver. 23. "Repente sic panditur scena amaenior" (Bengel). Δωρεὰν and τῆ αὐτοῦ χάριτι are opposed to the impossible theory of justification by law. And, as all sinned, so all are so justified potentially, the redemption being for all; cf. especially Romans 5:18. But potential justification only is implied; for the condition for appropriation is further intimated by διὰ τῆς πίστεως following. The means whereby it becomes objectively possible is "the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." Here, as throughout St. Paul's Epistles, and in the New Testament generally, the doctrine of atonement being required for man's justification is undoubtedly taught, Christ being viewed as not only manifesting God's righteousness in his life, and reconciling believers through his influence on themselves, but as effecting such reconciliation by an atoning sacrifice. The word itself (ἀπολύτρωσις) here used may indeed sometimes denote deliverance only (cf. Romans 8:23; Luke 21:28; Ephesians 1:14; Ephesians 4:30; Hebrews 11:35); but certainly, when used of the redemption of man by Christ, it implies atonement by the payment of a ransom (λύτρον or ἀντίλυτρον); cf. Ephesians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 6:20; Galatians 3:13; 1 Timothy 2:6; Revelation 5:9; Matthew 20:28; the ransom paid being said to be himself, or (as in Matthew 20:28) his life; Τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν. It does not follow that all conceptions of schools of theology as to how the atonement was efficacious for its purpose are correct or adequate. It must, from the very nature of the subject, remain to us a mystery. It may be enough for us to believe that whatever need the human conscience has ever felt of atonement for sin, whatever human want was expressed by world-wide rites of sacrifice, whatever especially was signified by the blood required for atonement in the Mosaic ritual, - all this is met and fulfilled for us in Christ's offering of himself, and that in him and through him we may now "come boldly to the throne of grace," having need of no other Προέθετο ιν ´ερ. 25 ("set forth," Authorized Version), may bear here its most usual classical sense of exhibiting to view ("ante omniam oculos possuit," Bengel); i.e. in the historical manifestation of the Redeemer. It may, however, mean "decreed," or "purposed" (cf. ch. 1:13; Ephesians 1:9). The word ἱλαστήριον seems best taken as a neuter adjective used substantively, there being no instance of its application in the masculine to a person. Its ordinary use in the LXX (as also Hebrews 9:5) is to designate the lid of the ark (i.e. the mercy-seat), the noun ἐπίθεμα (which is added Exodus 25:17; Exodus 37:6) being supposed to be always understood, though the usual designation is simply τὸ ἱλαστήριον. Hence most commentators, including the Greek Fathers generally, understood ἱλαστήριον in this sense here, Christ being regarded as the antitype of the mercy-seat, as being the medium of atonement and approach to God. The main objection to this view is that it involves an awkward confusion of metaphors, it being difficult to regard him who was at once the Victim whose blood was offered, and the High Priest who offered his own blood, at the mercy-seat, as being also the Mercy-seat itself. (Thus, however, Theodoret explains: "The mercy-seat of old was itself bloodless, being without life, but it received the sprinkling of the blood of the sacrifice. But the Lord Christ and God is at once Mercy-seat, High Priest, and Lamb.") The difficulty is avoided if we take the word here in the sense of propitiatory offering, which in itself it will bear, a noun, such as θῦμα, being supposed to be (cf. 4 Maccabees 17:22; Josephus, 'Ant.,' 16. c. 7; Dio Chrys., 'Orat.,' 11:1). Whatever its exact meaning, it evidently denotes a true fulfilment in Christ of the atonement for sin undoubtedly signified by the type; as does further ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι, which follows. For a distinct enunciation of the significance of bleed under the ancient ritual, as reserved for and expressing atonement, see especially Leviticus 17:11. The meaning of the whole sacrificial ritual is there expressed as being that the life of man being forfeit to Divine justice, blood, representing life, must be offered instead of his life for atonement. Hence, in pursuance of this idea, the frequent references in the New Testament to Hebrews physical blood-shedding of Christ (cf. Hebrews 9:22, "Without shedding of blood there is no remission"). It is not, however, implied that the material blood of Christ, shed on the cross, in itself cleanses the soul from sin, but only that it signifies to us the fulfilment in him of the type of an atoning sacrifice. As to the construction of ver. 25, it is a question whether ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι is to be taken in connection with διὰ τῆς πίστεως, meaning "through faith in his blood" (an unusual expression, though grammatically correct, cf. Ephesians 1:15), or with ἱλαστήριον. The emphatic position of αὐτοῦ, such as apparently to signify "in his own blood," favours the latter connection (cf. Hebrews 9:12-25, where the offering of Christ is distinguished from those of the Law in being διὰ τοῦ ἀδίου αἵματος, not ἐν αἵματι ἀλλοτρίῳ). Thus the meaning will be that he was set forth (or purposed) as an ἱλαστήριον, available for us through faith, and consisting in the offering of himself - in, the shedding of his own blood. For showing of his righteousness because of the passing over of the sins done aforetime in the forbearance of God, in order to the showing of his righteousness in the time that now is, so that he may be righteous, and justifying (the word is δικαιοῦντα, corresponding with δικαιωσύνην and δίκαιων preceding) him that is of faith in Jesus. This translation differs materially from that of the Authorized Version, which is evidently erroneous, especially in the rendering of διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν by "for the remission." Our translators, in a way very unusual with them, seem to have missed the drift of the passage, and so been led to give the above untenable rendering in order to suit their view of it. It is to be observed that two purposes of the setting forth (or purposing) of Christ Jesus as ἱλαστήριον αρε here declared, both denoted by the word ἔνδειξιν, which is repeated, being governed in the first clause of the sentence by εἰς, and in the second by πρὸς. Some say that the preposition is changed with no intended difference of meaning. But it is not St. Paul's way to use his prepositions carelessly. Αἰς in the first clause may be taken to denote the immediate purpose of the propitiation, and πρὸς in the second to have its proper significance of aim or direction, denoting a further intention and result, consequent on the first. The first purpose, denoted by εἰς, was the vindication of God's righteousness with regard to the ages past, in that he had so long passed over, or left unvisited, the sins of mankind. The propitiation of Christ. at length set forth (or, as may be expressed by προέθετο, all along purposed), showed that he had not been indifferent to these sins, though in his forbearance he had passed them over. Cf. Acts 17:30, Τοὺς μὲν οῦν χρόνους τῆς ἀγνοίας ὑπεριδὼν ὁ Θεὸς; also Hebrews 9:15, where the death of Christ, as the Mediator of the new covenant, is said to have been "for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant," the meaning and efficacy of the "death" being thus regarded, in the first place, as retrospective (cf. also Hebrews 9:26). But then there was a further grand purpose, expressed by the πρὸς τὴν ἔνδειξιν of the second clause that of providing a way of present justification for believers now, without derogation of the Divine righteousness. Such appears to be the meaning of this passage. Being justified

The fact that they are justified in this extraordinary way shows that they must have sinned.

Freely (δωρεὰν)

Gratuitously. Compare Matthew 10:8; John 15:25; 2 Corinthians 11:7; Revelation 21:6.

Grace (χάριτι)

See on Luke 1:30.

Redemption (ἀπολυτρώσεως)

From ἀπολυτρόω to redeem by paying the λύτρον price. Mostly in Paul. See Luke 21:28; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 11:35. The distinction must be carefully maintained between this word and λύτρον ransom. The Vulgate, by translating both redemptio, confounds the work of Christ with its result. Christ's death is nowhere styled λύτρωσις redemption. His death is the λύτρον ransom, figuratively, not literally, in the sense of a compensation; the medium of the redemption, answering to the fact that Christ gave Himself for us.

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