For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And rose, and revived.—For these words the best MSS. substitute simply “and lived.” The Received text is a gloss upon this. It was through the resurrection that Christ was finally enthroned at His Father’s right hand, and that universal dominion was given to Him.
And rose - This expression is rejected by most modern critics. It is wanting in many manuscripts, and has been probably introduced in the text from the margin.
And revived - There is also a variation in the Greek in this place, but not so great as to change the sense materially. It refers to his "resurrection," and means that he was "restored to life" in order that he might exercise dominion over the dead and the living.
That he might be Lord - Greek. That he might "rule over." The Greek word used here implies the idea of his being "proprietor" or "owner" as well as "ruler." It means that he might exercise entire dominion over all, as the sovereign Lawgiver and Lord.
Both of the dead - That is, of those who "are" deceased, or who have gone to another state of existence. This passage proves that those who die are not annihilated; that they do not cease to be conscious; and that they still are under the dominion of the Mediator. Though their bodies moulder in the grave, yet the spirit lives, and is under his control. And though the body dies and returns to its native dust, yet the Lord Jesus is still its Sovereign, and shall raise it up again:
"God our Redeemer lives,
And often from the skies.
Looks down and watches all our dust,
Till he shall bid it rise."
It gives an additional sacredness to the grave when we reflect that the tomb is under the watchful care of the Redeemer. Safe in his hands, the body may sink to its native dust with the assurance that in his own time he will again call it forth, with renovated and immortal powers, to be for ever subject to his will. With this view, we can leave our friends with confidence in his hands when they die, and yield our own bodies cheerfully to the dust when he shall call our spirits hence. But it is not only over the "body" that his dominion is established. This passage proves that the departed souls of the saints are still subject to him; compare Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:27. He not only has "dominion" over those spirits, but he is their protector and Lord. They are safe under his universal dominion. And it does much to alleviate the pains of separation from pious, beloved friends, to reflect that they depart still to love and serve the same Saviour in perfect purity, and unvexed by infirmity and sin. Why should we wish to recall them from his perfect love in the heavens to the poor and imperfect service which they would render if in the land of the living?
And living - To the redeemed, while they remain in this life. He died to "purchase" them to himself, that they might become his obedient subjects; and they are bound to yield obedience by all the sacredness and value of the price which he paid, even his own precious blood; compare 1 Corinthians 6:20, "For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's;" 1 Corinthians 7:23; Revelation 14:4 (Greek, "bought"); 1 Peter 2:9, (Greek, "purchased"). If it be asked how this "dominion over the dead and the living" is connected with the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus, we may reply,
(1) That it is secured over Christians from the fact that they are "purchased" or "ransomed" by his precious blood; and that they are bound by this sacred consideration to live to him. This obligation every Christian feels 1 Peter 1:18, and its force is continually resting on him. It was by the love of Christ that he was ever brought to love God at all; and his deepest and tenderest obligations to live to him arise from this source; 2 Corinthians 5:14-15.
(2) Jesus, by his death and resurrection, established a dominion over the grave. He destroyed him that had the power of death, Hebrews 2:14, and triumphed over him; Colossians 2:15. Satan is a humbled foe; and his sceptre over the grave is wrested from his hands. When Jesus rose, in spite of all the power of Satan and of people, he burst the bands of death, and made an invasion on the dominions of the dead, and showed that he had power to control all.
(3) this dominion of the Lord Jesus is felt by the spirits on high. They are subject to him because he redeemed them; Revelation 5:9.
that he might be Lord both of the dead and—"and of the"
living—The grand object of His death was to acquire this absolute Lordship over His redeemed, both in their living and in their dying, as His of right.To this end Christ both died, and rose: q.d. This is the fruit that accrues to Christ, by his death and resurrection, that he might, & c.
And revived: the Vulgar Latin leaves out this word. Chrysostom left out the former word, he arose. Ambrose inverts the order of the words, and reads them thus: To this end he lived, and died, and rose again. Some think the preter tense is here put for the present tense: he revived, i.e. he still lives, to intercede for us, and to exercise dominion over us. Others think that Christ’s reviving here doth denote that new state of life which he had after his resurrection.
That he might be Lord both of the dead and living; or, that he may govern and lord it (ina kurieush) over all his, whether dead or alive; that he might obtain dominion, or rather the exercise of his dominion, over them. As God, he hath a universal dominion over all; but as Mediator, he hath a more special dominion over all the Father gave to him: this dominion he purchased at his death, and he had the full exercise of it when he rose again, Matthew 28:18 Philippians 2:9,10.
that he might be the Lord both of the dead and living; that is, of believers, whether dead or alive; for though he is Lord of all, as God and Creator, yet his appearing to be Lord by his dying, rising, and living again, can only have respect to them, for whom dying he has abolished death, and destroyed Satan; whom he has redeemed from sin, and delivered from this present evil world; and so having freed them from those other lords which had the dominion over them, shows himself to be their one and only Lord: and by rising again from the dead, ascending to heaven, and sitting at the right hand of God, all creatures and things being subject to him, he is made or declared both Lord and Christ; and living again, and continuing to live for ever, he appears to have the keys of hell and death; and will open the graves, and raise from thence, and judge both quick and dead, those that will be found alive at his coming, and such as he will cause to rise from the dead then; till which time, the apostle suggests, the decision of these differences about meats and days was to be left; and in the mean time the saints were to cultivate peace and love among themselves.For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Romans 14:9. Objective historical relation, on which this subjective attitude towards Christ, Romans 14:8 (ἐάν τε οὖν κ.τ.λ.), is founded.
ἔξησε] became alive, to be understood of the resurrection life. Comp. Revelation 2:8; Revelation 20:4-5; Romans 5:10; 2 Corinthians 4:10. The aorist denotes the setting in of the state; Kühner, ad Xen. Mem. i. 1. 18. Wrongly Olshausen (so also Schrader) thinks that the earthly life of Jesus is meant, so that there occurs a hysteron proteron; in which view he overlooks, first, that the mutual reference of the two elements in protasis and apodosis is only formal, and secondly, that it was not Jesus’ life and death, but rather His death and life (resurrection), which led to His attainment of the heavenly κυριότης. Comp. Romans 8:34, Romans 6:9-10; Php 2:8-9; Luke 24:26; Matthew 28:18.
ἵνα] destination in the divine counsel. This aimed, in the death and resurrection of Christ, at the establishment of His munus regium, and that over the dead (in Scheol, Php 2:10) and living; hence Christians are conscious of belonging to Him in living and dying (Romans 14:8). Unsuitably to ἔξησεν, since the raising up of the Lord is certainly, in the apostle’s view, the work of God (Romans 1:4, Romans 4:24, Romans 6:4, Romans 8:11, and many other passages), Hofmann sees in ἵνα Christ’s own purpose expressed.Romans 14:9. εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ … ἵνα: cf. 2 Corinthians 2:9. ἔζησεν refers to the resurrection, as is shown by the order of the words, the connection elsewhere in Paul of Lordship with the resurrection (cf. Php 2:9 ff.), and the aorist tense which describes an act, and not the continued existence of Christ on earth (Sanday and Headlam): cf. Revelation 2:8 (ὃς ἐγένετο νεκρὸς κ. ἔζησεν), Revelation 20:4 f. ἵνα denotes God’s purpose in subjecting His Son to this experience. We must not suppose that ἀπέθανεν is specially connected with νεκρῶν and ἔζησεν with ζώντων; there is the same mannerism as in Romans 4:25. Rather is it through Christ’s resurrection that His lordship over the realm of death is established, so that not even in that dark world do those who are His cease to stand in their old relation to Him. τοῦ κυρίου ἐσμὲν holds alike in the seen and the unseen.9. died, and rose, and revived] Better, probably, died and came to life. The words “and rose” appear to be interpolated. The balance of the clauses is thus made precise:—He died and lived; He is Master of the dead and living.
that he might be Lord] that He might become the Master. The emphasis is on the word Lord, or Master. Here St Paul states one great intended effect of the mode of Salvation. It was Redemption, Deliverance by Purchase; and thus it made the saved the personal possession of the Saviour. It was also, specially, through Death and Revival; with a view (among other objects) to the realization by His servants that He who, to save them, had dwelt in both worlds, was their Master in both.Romans 14:9. Καὶ ἀπέθανε καὶ ἔζησεν, both died and revived) This agrees with what goes before and with what follows. Baumgarten reads καὶ ἀνέστη, and alleges the probability of omission on the part of the transcribers, but gives no reason for this probability. I think the addition probably is due to this, that the transcribers very easily laid hold of a very well-known expression concerning Christ, ἀπέθανε καὶ ἀνέστη, 1 Thessalonians 4:14; and when this was done, some omitted καὶ ἔζησεν, others, however, also retained it, and moreover placed it either first, as in Iren. l. iii. c. 20; or in the middle, as in the Syriac version; or third in order, as in Chrysostom, who, however, in his exposition, passes over the καὶ ἀνέστη. Whitby, who, according to Baumgarten, ought to be consulted, refutes himself; for he says, that ἀπέθανεν and νεκρῶν, ἔζησεν and ζώντων correspond to each other (as also Orige observes, c. Cels., p. 103, ed. Hoesch.) ἀνέστη finds nothing to which it corresponds. I have cleared away the objection from the testimonies of the fathers, adduced by him, in the Apparatus. The reading ἔζησεν is well supported; ἀνέζησεν rests on much weaker authority.—ΝΕΚΞῶΝ, of the dead) The dying and the dead rejoice in the Lord Jesus, who has died and abolished death and vanquished the devil, Hebrews 2:14.—ζώντων, of the living) The living and those, who are made alive again, triumph with their living Redeemer, their Kinsman (Heb. Goel.) The living God is the God of the living, Matthew 22:32. Christ, who lives again, is Lord of those who are brought to life again. Paul places here, Romans 14:7-8, this life before death, and, in Romans 14:9, by gradation, after death, that life, as ch. Romans 8:38, with which comp. 14:34. Christ, says he, died, that he might have dominion over the dying, Christ revived, that He might have dominion over the living. Christ has died, therefore death (the act or rather the passive suffering of dying and the state of death) will not separate us from Him. Christ has risen again, therefore the life (of the world to come) will not separate us from Him; hence the notion of the insensibility of the soul during the whole night, whilst the body is in the grave, is set aside by the dominion of Christ over the dead; and against this doctrine solid arguments are derived from the appearance of Moses and Elias, Matthew 17:3, as also from the resurrection of the saints, Matthew 27:52-53; and from the hope of Paul, etc., Php 1:23; 2 Corinthians 5:8; Hebrews 12:23. To these we may add “the fifth seal,” Revelation 6:9, note, and the ὄχλοι, multitudes of the blessed, Revelation 7, 14, etc. The apostles themselves declined, 1 Corinthians 5:12, to judge “those that are without.” The state of deserving [the state in which men are capable of deserts] (taking the word in a large sense on both sides [in a good and a bad sense]) is doubtless not extended beyond this present life. The condition of man for all eternity depends on [his state at] the moment of death, although without man’s co-operation, different degrees may exist. Comp. Luke 16:9; Luke 16:22; Luke 16:25; John 9:4 (comp. Ecclesiastes 9:10); Galatians 6:10; 2 Timothy 4:6; 2 Timothy 4:8; Titus 2:12; Hebrews 3:13; Hebrews 6:11; Hebrews 9:27; Revelation 2:10; Romans 8:23, etc.
 rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.
 ABC Memph. Syr. later, read ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἔζησεν. But Gg, Vulg. and Origen, ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἀνέστη; for which last Fulgentius and the Fuld. MS. of Vulg. corrected by Victor, have ἀνέζησεν. D(Λ)f Iren. have ἔζησεν καὶ ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἀνέστη. Rec. Text, ἀπεθ. κ. ἀνέστη, κ. ἀνέζησεν.—ED.
 ψυχοπαννυχίαν.Verse 9. - For to this end Christ both died and lived (so certainly, rather than, as in the Textus Receptus, died, and rose, and revived. His living means here his entering on the heavenly life after the human death), that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. "Nam mortem pro salute nostra obeundo dominium sibi acquisivit quod nec morte solveretur; resurgendo autem totam vitam nostram in peculium accepit; morte igitur et resurrectione sua promeritus est ut tam in morte quam in vita gloriae nominis ejus serviamus" (Calvin). For the idea of this whole passage (vers. 7-9), cf. 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; 2 Corinthians 5:15. The apostle now returns to his immediate subject, warning (as in ver. 3) the one party against judging and the other against despising, on the ground of all alike having to abide hereafter the Divine judgment (cf. Matthew 7:1, seq.; 1 Corinthians 4:3, 5). The distinction in ver. 10 between the two parties, marked in the original by the initial Σὺ δὲ and the following η} καὶ σὺ, is somewhat lost in our Authorized Version.
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